Child Development from birth to sixteen

Table of Content

In this booklet you are going to record your knowledge of the development of a child from 0-16. You will be thinking of how the child develops in different areas of learning and their physical growth. This will include links to theory and the Early Years Foundation Stage. This will give you the knowledge and evidence needed to complete CYP3.1. You will also find this can link to other criteria in your qualification and can be cross referenced.

Please complete the booklet as we learn and then hand in for final assessment on the hand in day. During the time spent on this unit, I will ask to see how far you are progressing by sending me copies of certain criteria. If these need to be amended, do so by attaching to the back of the booklet. To pass CYP3.1 the whole of this book must be completed. You will find links to support materials on Moodle.

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CYP3.1 /1.1
1.1. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.

On the following pages you will find a grid to complete looking at all aspects of development. Pease fill in using brief but concise details. You may find reference books to support but remember to reference them. Age

CYP 3.1/1.2
Physical development
Behavioural /Social/Emotional development including moral developmentCYP3.2/5.1 CPOP 5 Explain how to support Behavioural development CYP3.2/5.1 CPOP5 Communication development CYP3.1/
Explain how to support Communicational development CYP3.1/4.3 CYP 3.5/2.2

Intellectual /cognitive development
0-3 months
Gross motor skills: The baby lies supine. When placed on front the baby lies with head turned to one side and by one month can lift the head. If pulled to sitting position, the head will lag, the back curves over and the head falls forward. 4 to 8 weeks baby can turn from side to back. Fine motor skills: baby turns head towards light and stares at bright or shiny objects. Gazes attentively at carers face when fed or held. Babies’ hands are usually tightly closed. Baby reacts to loud sounds but by one month may be soothed by certain music. (Meggitt at al 2011, p.51/52)

The baby will smile in response to an adult. The baby enjoys sucking. The baby turns to preferred persons voice. The baby recognises face and hands of preferred adult. At 8 to 12 weeks the baby shows enjoyment at caring routines. Baby responds with obvious pleasure to loving attention. Baby fixes eyes unblinkingly on carers face when feeding. The baby stays awake for longer periods of time. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p. 52/53) You can support babies’ behaviour development by staying calm when baby is frustrated. If baby sees and hears you getting frustrated it will only make them feel unsafe and get more frustrated as well. Use happy tones around baby and make sure baby sees you smiley and happy to make them mirror this as well. Don’t have arguments in front of baby and surround them with a loving and caring environment. Babies respond to sounds. Babies quieten when picked up. Baby makes eye contact. Baby cries to indicate needs. Baby may move eyes towards the direction of sound. 4 to 8 weeks baby will recognise carer & familiar objects. Baby makes noises like cooing and gurgling. Baby cries more expressive. 8 to 12 weeks baby often sucks or licks lips when hear sounds of food peroration. Baby shows excitement at sound of approaching footsteps or noises. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p.51/52) Babies need to share language experiences and cooperate with others from birth onwards. From the start babies need other people. (p51) we can support there communication and language development by taking to them and analysing/narrating what we are doing with them so they can recognise and learn i.e. “its bath time now” in an exciting happy tone. Also things like saying “mumma” such short words
just so the baby can start familiarising names to things. Babies explore through their senses. Touch – babies preserve the movements that they make and the way other people move them about. Sound – the baby will turn to a sound. Taste – baby like sweet tastes e.g. breast milk. Smell – baby turns to smell of breast. Sight – baby can focus on objects 20 cm away. (p51) by 3 months the baby can even imitate low or high pitched sounds. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p53) 3-6 months

Gross motor skills: the baby is starting to use palmar grasp and can transfer objects from hand to hand. The baby is very interested in all activity. Everything is taken to the mouth. The baby moves head around to follow people and objects. Fine motor skills: the baby now has good head control and is beginning to sit with support. The baby rolls over from back to side and is beginning to reach for objects. When supine the baby plays with their own feet. The baby holds their head up when pulled to sitting position. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p53)

The baby shows trust and security. The baby has recognisable sleep patterns. Same as 0 to 3 months the way in which you can support the behaviour development is by staying calm and showing happy expressions. It’s harder to support the behaviour development of a baby as you can’t communicate by talking to them so it can get quite frustrating. Some parents discipline their babies by not always going to them when their crying so they don’t get too attached and learn to stop crying by themselves. I feel you need to be inattentive every time your baby cries because that’s their way of telling you they have a need whether it is comfort or for hunger. The baby becomes more aware of others so they communicate more and more. As the baby listens they imitate sounds they can hear and reacts to the tone of someone`s voice. The baby begins to use vowels, consonants and syllable sounds. The baby begins to laugh and squeal with pleasure. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p54) You can support the three to six months baby`s communicational development by the same way as naught to three. Other phases can be “dah dah” and point to daddy and “mah mah” and point to mummy. Also you can encourage the baby to laugh by putting your hands over your face and saying “where’s mummy” then take your hands down and say “boo” in a high pitched excited voice. By 3
months the baby can imitate low or high pitched sounds. (p53) by 4 months baby can reach for objects. They prefer complicated things to look at from 5 to 6 months and enjoys bright colours. The baby realise that they have one mother. Baby can coordinate more tracking, reaching, grasping, and sucking. Baby can develop favourite taste in food and can recognise differences by 5 months. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p54) 6-9 months

Gross motor skills: the baby can roll from front to back. The baby may attempt to crawl but will often end up sliding backwards. The baby may grasp feet and place them in his or her mouth. The baby can sit without support for longer periods of time. The baby may cruise around furniture and may even stand or walk alone. Fine motor skills: the baby is very alert to people and objects. The baby is beginning to use a pincer grasp with thumb and index finger. The baby transfers toys from one hand to the other and looks for fallen objects. Everything is explored by putting in their mouth. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p.54)

Baby can manage to feed themselves using own fingers. Baby is more aware of strangers and can show stranger fear. Baby might offer toys to others. Baby might show distress when carer leaves. Baby can begin to crawl and can go to people, objects and places. Baby is more aware of others feelings and might cry if sibling cries. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p55)

You can support their behavioural development by saying “nooo” if their crawling somewhere their not meant to go. They probably won’t understand but if you pick them up and bring them back and keep repeating this process in a calm manner then hopefully they should start to understand. Also you can encourage sharing at this age by praising and clapping when they pass their toy to a sibling for example. Babies become tuneful, like the lilt of the language the baby can hear. Babies begin to understand words like `up` and `down` raising them arms to be lifted up using appropriate gestures. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p54) You can support the communication development for six to nine months by speaking to the baby and you can even start to read baby books to the baby. Also by saying ‘up` and picking baby up then `down` and putting baby down. The baby understands signs for example the bib means
food is coming. From 8 to 9 months the baby shows that they know objects exist when they have gone out of sight, even under test conditions (Piaget). The baby is also fascinated by the way objects move. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p55) 9-12 months

Gross motor skills: baby may be crawling, bear-walking, bottom shuffling or even walking. The baby can sit up by themselves and lean forward to pick things up. The baby may crawl upstairs and onto low items of furniture. Baby may bounce in rhythm to music. Fine motor skills: baby can pick things up and pull them towards them. Baby can poke with one finger and will point to what they want. Baby can clasp hands and imitate adult’s actions. Baby can throw toys on purpose. Baby can manage spoons and finger foods well. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p.55)

The baby enjoys songs and action rhymes. The baby still likes to be near to a familiar adult. The baby can drink from a cup with help. The baby will play alone for long periods. The baby shows definite likes and dislikes at mealtimes and bedtimes. The baby enjoys peak-a-boo games. Baby likes to look at self in mirror. The baby imitates others i.e. clapping hands and waving bye-bye. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p56) You can support the baby’s behaviour development by saying “nooo” with a crossed face if baby throws food on the floor on purpose and say “that’s naughty”. Also it is important to praise baby if they show good behaviour and this will encourage to develop more. Baby can follow simple instructions i.e. kiss teddy. Word approximations appear i.e. `hew haw` to indicate a donkey or more typically `mamma `, `dada` and `bye-bye` in English speaking context. The tuneful babble develops into `jargon` and the baby makes there voice go up and down and is very expressive. The baby knows that words stand for people, objects what they do and what happens. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p55) You can support the nine to twelve months old baby`s communication by naming objects and people to them. Reading appropriate age group books to them and by showing them what to do. For example “kiss teddy” first you can kiss the teddy then hand over the teddy to them and ask them to do it. Making sure you praise them every time they have learnt something. Also telling baby to say hello and bye-bye and helping hand gestures with the baby. The baby is beginning
to develop images. Memory develops and the baby can remember the past. The baby can anticipate the future. This gives the baby some understanding of daily routine. The baby imitates actions, sounds, gestures and moods after an event has finished. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p55) 1-2 years

Gross motor skills: at 15months the baby probably walks alone but still trying to gain balance. Baby can probably manage steps /stairs but we need supervision. The baby can stand without support. At 18months the child walks confidently and is able to stop without falling. Child can kneel, squat, climb and carry things with them. Child can climb onto adult chair then turn and sit. The child can come downstairs. Fine motor skills: at 15 months baby can build with a few bricks and arrange toys on floor. Baby holds crayon in palmar grasp and turns several pages of a book at once. Baby can point to what they want. Baby shows preference to one hand but uses both. At 18 months child can thread large beads. Child uses pincer grasp to pick up small objects. Child can build a tower of several cubes. The child can scribble to and fro on paper. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p56) Child develops longer memory. Child develops a sense of identity. Child expresses needs in words and gestures. Child enjoys being able to walk and is eager to try to get dressed- `me do it! `. The child is aware when others are fearful or anxious for them as they climb on and off chairs and so on. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p57)

Children in this age group tend to start behaviour problems such as having tantrums. This age can be very difficult and is known as the `terrible twos`. This is because it is hard to explain right and wrong because their communication and language still may have some barriers and be quite limited. Its best to ignore tantrums and not give in to them otherwise the child will learn they can get what they won’t all they have to do is scream and cry. The child begins to talk with words or sign language. By 18 months the child enjoys trying to sing as well as to listen to songs and rhymes. Books with pictures are of great interest. The child points at and often names parts of their body, objects, people and pictures in books ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p56). The child echoes the last part of what others say (echolalia). The child begins waving their arms up and down which might mean
`start again` or like `more`. Gestures develop alongside words. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p57) You can support the communication development by reading to the child and bed time stories. Also by allowing the child to interact with other children in the same age group by sending them to nursery or play groups. This will help build their social development and communication skills. The child understands the names of objects and can follow simple instructions. The child learns about things through trial and error. The child uses toys or objects to represent things in real life i.e. doll as a baby. The child begins to scribble on paper. The child often talks to themselves whilst playing. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p57) 3-5 years

Gross motor skills: by 5 yrs. The child can use play equipment (slides, swings, climbing frames). Child can play ball games. The child can hop & run lightly on toes and can move rhythmically to music. The sense of balance is well developed. The child can skip. Fine motor skills: by 5 yrs. The child may be able to thread a large eyed needle & sew large stitches. The child can draw a person with a head, trunk legs, nose, mouth & eyes. The child has good control over pencils & paintbrushes. Can copy shapes such as a square. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p60) At 3 years the child will show interest in other children and can play with them a little. At 4 yrs. The child will play more with others and may have the odd squabble and argument. They will respond to praises and recognition from adults. At 5 they will have their own friendships. By 5 the child will be keen to follow rules and will no wrong from right.

Behaviour development can be supported at this age by taking them to a nursery or preschool and by using the method of the `naughty step`. This method has a high success rate and many parents and schools use this method. At 3 years you will be able to understand the child’s speech. At 4 years children will ask loads of questions and will enjoy conversations. At 5 years the child will talk more fluently and will be able to understand more words. You can support the communication by sending the child to a nursery or preschool. By reading them books and by communicating with them helping them understand things. At 3 years the child will know common colours. The child will pretend play. At 4 years child can count to 20. Child can write
own name. at 5 years the child will be able to count and do simple maths. 5-7 years

Gross motor skills: The child has increased agility, muscle coordination and balance. Child develops competence in riding a two wheeled bicycle. Child hops easily, with good balance. Child can jump of apparatus. Fine motor skills: child can build a tall, straight tower with blocks and other constructions too. Child can draw a person in detail e.g. clothes and eyebrows. Child can write letters of alphabet with similar writing grip to an adult. Child can catch a ball thrown from one metre with one hand. (Meggitt at al, 2011, p. 60) They will develop stable friendships. They will be able to control and hide their feelings. Child will think of others feelings. Child will be more responsibly and will help others. Child will point out if the rules have been broken.

Naughty step can still be used in this age bracket. When child is at school behaviour stickers can be a good method i.e. gold star when well behaved and gold start taken of the chart when child has been naughty. Other methods in school could be to stand in the corner as a `time out` much like the naughty step or if child is naughty again be sent to another classroom. Child should also receive praises well good behaviour is shown as this will encourage it further. Child will use adverbs and understand the meaning of more words. Child will talk more confidants. Child will able to define objects by their function. Child begins to understand book language and that stories have characters and a plot. The child begins to realise that different situations require different ways of talking. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p.61) You can support the communication of a 5 to 7 year old by group discussions; group activities etc. learning literacy at school will help them with their communicational development as well. As they gain more confidence their communicational development will continue to grow. Child will include more detail in drawings i.e. house will have a roof, windows curtains and a chimney. Child can write own name and will recognise it. Thinking becomes increasingly coordinated as the child is able to hold in mind more than one point of view at a time. The child enjoys chanting and counting. Child can use their voice in different ways to play different characters in pretend
play. The child is beginning to establish differences between what is real and fantasy. ( Meggitt at al, 2011, p. 61) 7-10 years

Gross motor skills: the child can ride a bicycle easily. The child has increased strength and coordination. The child plays energetic games and sports. Fine motor skills: the child can control their small muscles well and has improved writing and drawing skills. The child can draw people with details of clothing and facial features. The child is starting to join letters together in hand writing. (Meggitt at al 2011 page 62) The child may become discouraged easily. The child takes pride in their competence. The child can be argumentative and bossy, but can equally be generous and responsive. The child is beginning to see things from another child`s point of view, but still has trouble understanding the feelings and needs of other people. (Meggitt at al 2011 pages 62/63)

I would support the behaviour development of 7 to 10 years by praising and encouraging good behaviour. If the child was showing negative behaviour I would hand a verbal warning, then the next step would be to send them outside the classroom then the next step would be send them to head masters office. The child uses and understands complex sentences. The child is increasingly verbal and enjoys making up stories and telling jokes. The child uses reference books with increasing skills. (Meggitt at al 2011 page 62) I would support the child’s communication development by having group activities, storytelling and by setting task for the child to write their own stories. Child has an increased ability to remember and pay attention, and to speak and express their ideas. Child is learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do. The child has an increased ability to think and to reason. The child can deal with abstract ideas. The child enjoys different types of activities – such as joining clubs, playing games with rules, and collecting things. The child enjoysprojects that are task oriented. (Meggitt at all 2011 p62) 11-13 years

Gross motor skills: children differ in physical maturity. Girl experience puberty earlier than boys do and are often as much as two years ahead of them. The child’s body proportions are becoming more similar to adults.
Fine motor skills: the child can tackle more detailed tasks such as woodwork or needlework. The child is usually writing with an established style using joint up letters. (Meggitt at al 2011 page 62) The child may be experiencing sudden, dramatic emotional changes associated with puberty. The child tends to be particularly sensitive to criticism. The child prefers to spend leisure time with friends and continues to participate in small groups of same sex but is accurately aware of opposite sex. The child succumbs to peer pressure more readily and wants to talk, dress and act just like friends. (Meggitt at al 2011 page 63)

You can support the behaviour development by encourage and praises the child when good behaviour is shown. To support negative behaviour you can issue warnings, then detentions and then head masters office. To support as a parent, punishments can be made such as not letting them play on their game console or not letting them go to any sleep overs or parties for example. The child can write fairly lengthy essays. The child writes stories that show imagination, and are increasingly legible and grammatically correct. (Meggitt at al 2011 page 62) You can support the communicational development by classroom discussion and by educating the child’s vocational skills further to a higher ability. The child begins to understand the motives behind the actions of another. The child can concentrate on task for increasing periods. The child begins to devise memory strategies. The child may be curious about drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The chip may develop special talents, showing particular skills in writing maths, art, music or woodwork. (Meggitt at all 2011 page 62) 14-16 years

Young person will be going through puberty : growth spurt, secondary sex characteristics such as pubic hair, facial hair for boys, deepened voice for boys and breast and wide rend hips for girls. The young person will gain sexual maturity (periods for girls and boys will produce sperm. A different type of sweat will be produced which called lead to BO. Oil secreting glands in the skin can become over active which can lead to acne. (Meggitt at al 2011 pages 63/64) The young person may become self-conscious or worried about physical changes. Develop a sexual identity. The young person often feels misunderstood. Young person may have mood swings. Will won’t to be
accepted and liked. Young person tends to identify more with friends and begin to separate from parents and are less dependent on parents for affection and emotional support.(Meggitt at al 2011 p. 65)

You can support the behaviour development by encourage and praises the young person when good behaviour is shown. To support negative behaviour you can issue warnings, then detentions and then head masters office. If bad behaviour still persist than exclusions from school can take place and the young person can also be sent to units. To support as a parent, punishments can be made such as `grounding` the young person or taking away their mobile phones for example. Fast, legible style of writing. Can communicate in an adult manner. Can understand abstract language. Can process texts and abstract meaning, relate word meanings and contexts, understand punctuation, and form complex syntactic structures. (Meggitt 2011, page 64) You can support the communication development by open discussions in a classroom and by teaching the young person to use different words for the same meanings. This will help them to communicate in a more profession language. Within 14 to 19 years they develop a more adult way of thinking. They will think about possibilities, they will think ahead, they will think through hypotheses, they will think about their own thought process, and they will think beyond conventional limits. (Meggit at al, 2011 page 65) 3.1 /1.2: Child development

Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important.

Discuss the following terms and complete a definition for each of them. You could use your textbook to help you. Sequence of development
All children go through sequences of development but at different rates and ways depending on their cultures. There are `normative` stages in which a child should be developing for their age and are different `milestones` most children will be at. Factors which could influence this are social, genetic and cultural. Mary Sheridan believed that children sit then crawl then stand and then walks but this sequence is not true for every child. Some children never crawl and blind children usually don’t either.

Rate of development
There are `normative` rates in which a child should develop as well but these can only indicate a `general trend`. Depending on the culture of the child and in which the child lives, the normative rate can vary a wide range. If children do something from the milestones considerably early then the general trend, it doesn’t necessarily mean that that child is `gifted` and really you should handle these types of situations more carefully because children with special needs usually move through sequences uneven and unusual ways in a sense that they might learn to walk really early but then cannot talk until later than the `normative` age. Parents shouldn’t worry or stress too much because everyone is different and we all develop at different rates but these are just guides we can use to refer to.

Why is the difference between the sequence of development and rate of development important? The difference between the sequence of development and rate of development is important to understand so we can see the way in which children should be developing and then be able to understand the time and rate in which this is `supposed` to happen. It is important so we can assess and plan areas of developments needing support.

CYP3.1 L.O.2 [FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN] Understand the factors that influence children and young people’s development and how these affect practice

What is the difference between external and personal factors? The difference between external and personal factors is that external factors are things that can affect the child is born such as poverty and deprivation, lifestyle, family environment and background, being in care and quality of education. External factors may be able to change and improve. Personal factors can take place before, during and after birth. These may be genetic factors that affect the child development or other factors such as diet, drugs and alcohol intake during pregnancy.

Explanation of three personal factors
Health status
Health status is a personal factor and can be determined what’s been inheritance through our genes. Some cases a child will be born with a condition or disorder asthma, eczema, diabetes, arthritis or a blood disorder for example. Some children might have a predisposition of a disorder but won’t get it unless it’s triggered off. Other factors can affect the development health wise is diet, health care that they receive, stress and the environment. Disability

A disability could be physical, cognitive, mental or sensory. Having a disability can affect a child’s ability to interact with other children thus creating an effect on social and emotional development. A child will realizes that there are differences between them and the other children which can cause them to have self-esteem issues which could affect their emotional and social development. If the child has a physical disability then their physical development could be affected for example they may not be able to walk.

Learning difficulties
There are loads of different types of learning difficulties such as dyslexia, autism and ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) which is a disorder which can cause learning difficulties. A child with learning difficulties will have to work longer and harder than the children without learning difficulties which could lead to frustration, anger and tears which will cause an effect on the emotional development. Also a child with learning difficulties often get teased which could cause it to be harder to make friendships and give the child self-esteem issues – thus having an effect on their social and emotional development. Explanation of three external factors

Poverty and deprivation
Poverty affects development as it means the diet will be poor and unhealthy which will cause unhealthy weight, can affect growth and can cause behaviour
problems. Poor housing issues can affect health for example dirty damped rooms can cause health issues such as asthma. Intellectual development could be getting affected if there is a lack of education and lack of opportunities s which will cause the life outcomes to be affected. Cognitive and social development could be affected if there is lack of play and leisure. Poverty can cause low expectations of life and can effect motivation. Can cause emotional development as it can lead to depression.

Looked after/care status
There are different reasons why children might be in the care of the local authority, such as if the child mental disabilities (bipolar, schizophrenia i.e.), or certain other types of disabilities, if a child has been neglected or abused by parents or any other inadequate parenting, if a child is a youth offender. These factors could lead them into foster care, residential care or may have care status. Looked after and care status can affect the child’s social, emotional and academic development.

The quality of the child’s education has a big impact of the child’s development. While most education is received from school it is important the child learns from their parents/carers. If a child receives bad education then there cognitive development will be affected and they may not learn how to read, write and problem solve (within reason). Lack of education or poor education can affect the child’s social development and could cause low self-esteem. They may not be able to gain good moral codes and learn how to become organised. Their language and communication development will be affected as well.

CYP3.1/2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice links to development and influences current practice. Using research from books and the internet, find out about the theories in the following area and reference to the Early Years Foundation Stage. Cognitive development – Lev Vygotsky

Vygotsky believed that social interaction is important in the development of
cognition. He believed children learn through active learning. A summary of what Vygotsky emphasised in his theories: 1) “Emphasised the role of a teacher in cognitive development, and the need to have support from a More Knowledgeable Other, or MKO. 2) The zone of proximal development, or ZPD, differentiates between a learner’s current development and their potential development when being taught from a MKO. 3) Scaffolding provides an effective way to reach potential levels of development, but only when different levels of assistance are given when required. 4) Social and cultural tools are an important means of gaining intelligence. 5) There is a close link between the acquisition of language and the development of thinking. 6) Internalising monologues, and therefore becoming a verbal thinker, is a stepping stone to higher levels of thinking.” ( Vygotsky`s theories link to the Early Years Foundation Stage as “Each area of learning and development must be implemented through planned, purposeful play and through a mix of adult – led and child – initiated activity. Play is essential for children’s development, building their confidence as they learn to explore, to think about problems, and relate to others.” (Early Years Foundation Stage 2012, 1.9) and “Making relationships: Children play co-operatively, taking turns with others. They take account of one another’s ideas about how to organise their activity. They show sensitivity to others’ needs and feelings, and form positive relationships with adults and other children.” (Early Years Foundation Stage 2012, 1.13)

Social learning- Albert Bandura
Bandura believed and emphasised that children develop their social behaviour by watching other people’s behaviour and imitating it. He believes adult’s behaviour is especially influential on a child as they are seen to have more powerful personalities and hold more status. He believed if an adult was to smack a child then more likely a child could hit another child. Also if an adult shouts at a child then the child is more likely to shout at other children. If children receive comfort when they fall then they are more likely to comfort others. Albert Bandura theories link to the EYFS as it states “involves helping children to develop a positive sense of themselves,
and others; to form positive relationships and develop respect for others; to develop social skills and learn how to manage their feelings; to understand appropriate behaviour in groups; and to have confidence in their own abilities.” (2012, 1.6)

“Children talk about how they and others show feelings, talk about their own and others’ behaviour, and its consequences, and know that some behaviour is unacceptable. They work as part of a group or class, and understand and follow the rules.” (2012, 1.13)

Hierarchy of needs– Abraham Maslow
Maslow believed children had a range of needs and we should priorities the security & protection such as food, water, shelter then the sophisticated needs such as stimulation and curiosity. His theory where as follows:

Maslow believed the lower needs must be met first and then work your way up to for fills all children’s needs. This links to development and influences current practice as The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) states “Providers must take all necessary steps to keep children safe and well. The requirements in this section explain what early years providers must do to: safeguard children; ensure the suitability of adults who have contact with children; promote good health; manage behaviour; and maintain records, policies and procedures.” (2012, 3.2) and also “Personal, social and emotional development involves helping children to develop a positive sense of themselves, and others; to form positive relationships and develop respect for others; to develop social skills and learn how to manage their feelings; to understand appropriate behaviour in groups; and to have confidence in their own abilities.” (2012, 1.6)

Behaviour development – Burrhus Frederic Skinner
Skinner believed in positive reinforcement for good behaviour and negative reinforcements for bad behaviour. “Skinner believed that the best way to understand behaviour is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning.” ( Skinners
approach links to the Development Matters to the Early Years Foundation Stage as it states “Be specific when you praise, especially noting effort such as how the child concentrates, tries different approaches, persists, solves problems, and has new ideas.” (2012 page 6) so as a positive reinforcement to good behaviour and good work we should praise the child. Skinners approach also links to the Early Years Foundation Stage 2012 by stating “Providers must have and implement a behaviour management policy, and procedures. A named practitioner should be responsible for behaviour management in every setting. They must have the necessary skills to advise other staff on behaviour issues and to access expert advice if necessary. In a child-minding setting, the child-minder is responsible for behaviour management.” (3.50)

CYP3.1/LO3 Monitoring Development
Understand how to monitor children and young people’s development and interventions that should take place if this is not following the expected pattern.

Explanation of three methods for monitoring children’s development CYP3.1/3.1 Apgar score is a method used by doctors and health visitors from the time of birth and years following they are continually assessed and monitored to make sure they are progressing to the development norms. This method is essential to determine if the baby needs any immediate treatment during the first moments of their life. Since 1953 this has been a method used as a routine part of giving birth. Summative methods of assessment are used to evaluate the child’s intellectual/academic progress. High stakes tests, standardized state exams, district or interim tests, midterms and final exams are examples of summative methods of assessments. Formative methods of assessments such as `target child`, `tick box checklist` and `time sampling methods`. The teacher/teacher assistant/key worker to observe the child with their strengths and challenges, plan what learning objectives they need to do and then evaluate their progress. They should write reports and inform the parents/careers so they are aware of their child’s progress and so they can potential help the teacher with feedback such as informing the teacher how their child plays at home in comparison to how they play in
a setting, and to learn about the child’s family and culture in order to take this into consideration for instance if the child’s home language is not English then this could have an impact on their learning development. The EYFS states “Assessment plays an important part in helping parents, carers and practitioners to recognise children’s progress, understand their needs, and to plan activities and support. On-going assessment (also known as formative assessment) is an integral part of the learning and development process. It involves practitioners observing children to understand their level of achievement, interests and learning styles, and to then shape learning experiences for each child reflecting those observations. In their interactions with children, practitioners should respond to their own day-to-day observations about children’s progress and observations that parents and carers share.” (2012, 2.1)

Explanation of different types of interventions CYP3.1/3.4
Education psychologist – an education psychologist is a professional who helps to support children with learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and for children who find it difficult communicating with others. Once they have identified the child’s needs they will they provide support programmes to their teacher or practitioner. Health visitor – a health visitor is a nurse or mid wife who visits family’s at home after having a baby to help support them and give them advice to care for their young children and to promote their health. Teacher assistant – a teacher assistant is someone who works alongside the teacher. They will have responsibilities in planning activities for children. They also have the responsibility to have key children which they have to observe the child’s needs and write reports. The teacher assistant as well as the teacher has the responsibility to safeguard the children and to develop the children’s areas of learning. Paediatric dietician – a paediatric dietician is someone who gives advice to promote a healthy diet for instance if a child had an eating disorder or was underweight their GP could refer them to see a paediatric dietician. Physiotherapist – a physiotherapist is a health professional who can help support the physical development such as helping the child to walk by assessing the child and devising a plan. The physiotherapist will plan different exercises for the child to do to promote
their physical needs. Social worker – social services can provide concealing services, practical help and advice for parents. Support services, help with transport, help at home etc. social services will take child’s welfare first and if family/carer seem unfit to raise baby or child, social services will take the child away to a foster home, children’s home etc. Special education needs coordinator (SENCO) – a special education needs coordinator is someone who has the responsibility to help overcome any barriers to a child’s learning and to ensure that they receive effective teaching. Speech and language therapist – a speech and language therapist is someone who helps and assists children with delays of their speech or difficulties with their speech. They help promote their speech by doing certain mouth exercises and by blowing bubbles. Youth justice board – the youth justice board are there to help prevent offending children and young people under the age of 18 and to help prevent reoffending.

CYP3.1: Intervention
4.1; Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication. There are many professional bodies that provide intervention to help promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern. Complete the linking exercise below to match the professional body to the type of intervention that they provide. Professional body

Type of intervention

Uses play to help children explore their feelings and experiences. Play therapist

General practitioner who treats all the family members.

Encourages independence and life skills. May assess fine motor skills and can suggest specialist equipment. Health visitor

Specialist teacher visiting children and providing support and direct teaching. Occupational therapist

Concerned with emotional, social and intellectual development. Speech therapist

Advises about education and provides advice about learning and behaviour. Clinical psychologist

Focuses on motor skills, movement and balance. May suggest exercise Family doctor

Specialises in the diagnosis and medical care of children
Educational psychologist

Will be involved with children whose attendance is irregular. Concerned with the welfare of children and young people. Special needs support teacher

Qualified nurse with extra training. Undertakes routine developmental checks. Special needs support assistant

Treats speech defects and disorders and encourages the ability to communicate. Education welfare officer

Provides medical and learning support for individuals and groups of children.

CYP3.1/4.2 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition Answer the following question, in depth using the information from at least three practitioners from the previous list and analyse their interventions. You must include at least two references. How does intervention help to promote positive outcomes for children?

It is important of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders as any late recognition will cause delays on all
children’s areas of learning development and even affect their life outcomes. Language and communication delays can have a huge impact on the child’s behaviour, child’s ability to learn and develop, child’s personal, emotion and social development may be affected as the child may feel isolated, frustrated and may find it hard to play with other children. “Young children`s brains are still developing as they grow. This means that early identification can change the potential impact of any difficulty if early support is provided.” (Tassoni at al, 2010, page 77) The first few years of a child’s life are when speech, language and cognitive skills should be developed. Stimulation, positive role modelling and human contact are needed to help develop speech and language skills. Through play and simple daily interactions and experiences we can help the children gain new language and skills. Intervention helps to promote positive outcomes for children as the professionals will be able to help the child gain their speech, language and communication skills thus enabling to encourage all areas of learning. A child may need to be referred to a speech therapist if they have difficulty producing and using speech, difficulty understanding language, difficulty using language, difficulty with feeding, chewing or swallowing, a stammer or if they have a voice problem. Speech and language therapists (SLTs) are health professionals. They work closely with parents, carers and other professionals, such as teachers, nurses, occupational therapists and doctors. Children who will need to see a speech therapist are: mild, moderate or severe learning difficulties

physical disabilities
language delay
specific language impairment
specific difficulties in producing sounds
hearing impairment
cleft palate
autism/social interaction difficulties
voice disorders
selective mutism
If a child gets referred to a speech therapist they will have to do a test with the therapist so the therapist can establish what type of speech problem the child has. And to decide what treatment is needed. “If a kid has trouble with articulation or fluency, the therapist will spend time showing him or her how to make the proper sounds. The therapist will demonstrate the sounds and ask the kid to try to copy them. That means copying the way the therapist moves the lips, mouth, and tongue to make the right sound. Mirrors can be helpful here. The therapist might ask the kid to make these sounds while looking in the mirror. Some therapists use games to make this practice more fun. If your therapist is helping you with a language disorder, your sessions may seem a little like school. He or she will help you with grammar — how to put words together properly to form clear statements and thoughts. If you have difficulties with understanding what you hear, you may play games that work on these skills, such as Simon Says.” ( 22/10/13) Educational psychologist

If a child has challenges such as social, emotional or learning difficulties then they will be referred to an educational psychologist who will help the child or young person to enhance their learning. Having social, emotional or learning difficulties can have a big impact on the child’s communication and language development. Learning difficulties may include dyslexia which affects the ability to read and dysgraphia which affects the ability to write. Educational psychologist will Work in partnership advising the teacher, parents, social workers and other professionals. They will have to carry out an assessment of the child using observation, interviews and test materials. “Educational psychologists offer a wide range of appropriate interventions, such as learning programmes and collaborative work with teachers or parents. They also provide in-service training for teachers and other professionals on issues such as behaviour and stress management.” ( 22/10/13) Educational psychologist will have to make formal recommendations for actions to be taken to support, develop and apply effective interventions to promote psychological wellbeing, social, emotional and behavioural development, and to raise educational standards. Special needs

Special needs teaching assistants work alongside the teacher in schools to provide classroom support to pupils with a wide range of severe learning, physical or behavioural difficulties, disabilities or medical conditions. Children with disabilities may have different milestones from the `norm` child but as the EYFS states “Providers must have and implement a policy,and procedures, to promote equality of opportunity for children in their care, including support for children with special educational needs or disabilities” (2012, 3.66) if the child has an hearing-impairment then the special needs assistant will be there to provide sign language to support the child’s learning development, thus supporting their communication and language development. “Other duties depend on the assistant’s particular job, the type and severity of the pupils’ disabilities and the age of the children they work with, but may include: working to improve students’ independent living skills, supporting pupils in social activities and outings, assisting pupils during music therapy or other types of therapy sessions, attending to pupils’ physical needs.” ( 22/10/13) Providers must also provide opportunities for children who first language is not English. In order for practitioners to support the children whose main language is not English they can educate themselves with key main words to help communicate with them such as toilet in Turkish or hello in polish for example depending on the language of the child. In order to support the parents, practitioners can provide interpretations and interpret the news letters just to include everybody with the same equality. In the early years practitioners must help support every child with the English language up to a good standard. This is so they can progress with their areas of development and make them ready for school. If a child’s first language is not English then practitioners must assess their home language just to make sure they don’t have language delays. As the EYFS states “for children whose home language is not English, providers must take reasonable steps to provide opportunities for children to develop and use their home language in play and learning, supporting their language development at home.” (2012, 1.8)

Early identification of communication delays
CYP3.1/ 4.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition Task 1A
The paragraph below discusses the importance of the early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders. Fill in the gaps with the word choices given in the box beneath. It is important to act if babies and children are showing any signs of delayed communication, because early identification will make a significant difference to children’s development. It will allow outside agencies to work with the affected child and the skills they are lacking in, and thus increase their communication skills. A child can quickly fall behind in other areas of development if speech and language learning is delayed. Parents and careers can be given ideas and activities to implement at home, or if a hearing impairment is identified then children can be taught sign language to enable them to communicate. Early intervention also helps children’s self-esteem and confidence.

interventiondevelopmentencouragedevelopmenthearingsign language

Task 1B
Now you have read the above paragraph, put into your own words Early identification of speech or communication delays is very important as delays will have a negative impact on the child’s learning and development and can cause them to fall behind in all areas of development. If there is a delay with a child’s communication then outside agencies will be able to work with them and overcome their challenges such as a speech therapist. In order for the best outcome for the child, parents and careers can be given advice on activities to do at home. Children who have challenges with communication might have a hearing impairment so identification will enable the child to learn and communicate with sign language. Early intervention will also help with child’s behaviour and will help them gain good self-esteem and a lot more confidence within themselves.

: Supporting communication development
CYP3.1 /4.3Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication Speech, language and communication development is very important and it directly affects all other areas of development. Task 1

Using the internet and textbooks, carry out some research into ideas for play and activities that can support speech, language and communication development. Record these below. You may find the following websites useful:
Explain three play activities to support speech and language Painting
Sand tray
Building blocks

Now answer the following:
1. How can these ideas for play and activities support speech, language and communication development? Painting will support speech, language and communication development as children will be asking to pass the colours they would like to use. You can support there speech, language and communication development by asking them what there painting and asking them what colours they have used. Also themes will be good to support their language so for instance tell the children to paint animals and have a display of all the animals in the middle of the table and go over what each are called. Children will most likely wont to express to other children what they are painting and explain what colours they have used. Painting is great for supporting there communication development as children can all sit together round a table which will promote them to talk to each other. Sand tray will support speech, language and communication development as children can play in a group around the sand tray thus encouraging the children to communicate with one another. They will be able to express what they are making to each other such as “look what I’ve made, a sandcastle”. By putting toys in the sand tray such as dinosaurs, animals you will be able to support
their language skills by asking them what animal or dinosaur they have etc. Building blocks will support speech, language and communication development as children can express what colours they have used and what they are making. Building blocks can also be a group activity such as children can work together to build a tall tower thus encouraging their communication development. To encourage their language development you can set themes and ask the children to make cars or a house etc.

2. Other people involved in supporting speech, language and communication may include local early year’s advisory teams, special educational needs coordinators, speech therapists, health visitors, and educational psychologists. Using what you know about multi-agency working, explain how these teams work together. Multi agencies will work together to support the key child`s speech, language and communication by having meetings to discuss advice, guidance, resources and support which is needed for the child, their family and their setting. All agencies will each observe the child, analyse and carry out written assessments and share their up to date information with one another to gain more knowledge to support the child. To gain maximum progress agencies must work alongside one another. Agencies can share ideas about what does and what does not work for the individual child. All agencies will try to remove any barriers to the child`s speech, language and communication development by agreeing on strategies, providing necessary training for setting and also providing resources.

CYP 3.1/ 5.1&5.2 Understand the potential effects of transitions on children and young people’s development

5.1; Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development.Use the list of different types of transition from your handbook. Transitions from home to nursery – this transition are for most children but not all, as not all children will go to nursery. Children are affected with this transition as it will be a big change for them. Children are not going to be used to carpet time, quite time, playing with other children, having to listen and follow instructions from other adults
who aren’t there parents or carers etc. Most of all children may find it difficult leaving their parents. They may not have their usual comforts such as their own toys, blankets etc. Also not used to the change of environment. Depending on the setting, a key worker will be assigned to the child but they may take more to another teacher/teacher assistant then they should change to that child’s key worker as to form positive relationships which will help the transition. It will have an impact on their emotional development has children may experience a sense of loss, being away from parent/careers. This could cause a lot of stress on the child which they could show by crying, lack of appetite and problems going to sleep. The child may experience stress and trauma which could cause regression where they may be wetting themselves again but they were already toilet trained. The child could also suffer from anxiety from the transition as children are clingy to their parent/career in order to feel reassured. The transition can also affect the child`s behaviour from feeling angry of the transition they may display shouting and even violence. The child`s cognitive develop may also be affected as children may lose their lack of concentration from their stress and overall trauma affect.

Transition from primary school to Secondary School – this transition is for most children but not all as some children are home schooled. This transition may be very scary for most children. From being the oldest of the school with all there positive relationships and friendships they will then go to being the youngest in the school and may not have any positive relationships and friendships. The school will be a lot bigger and a lot more children and teachers. The child will have been used to their one teacher per year at primary school and then to loads of teachers at their secondary school. This may be harder to build on positive relationships with their new teachers. The child may worry about their social status i.e. following latest trends/popularity. The child at this stage may be experiencing physical transitions or lack of physical development (puberty) as everyone develops at different rates, which could add to their worries, stresses at this stage. Children`s social and emotional development may be affected as they may feel lonely and scared to make new friends so they may withdraw themselves and sit alone at lunch times etc. They may experience a
sense of loss as their previous positive relationships from primary school may not be there anymore (i.e. friends are at different schools now). The child may experience depression and anxiety from this transition. Childs cognitive development may be affected as they may experience regression and start talking in a babyish way and also may lose their concentration from the stress they may be experiencing. Child`s behavioural development may be affected by this transition, child may develop behavioural issues in order to show off and may wont to be the `class joker` in order to gain `popularity` and `set their status`.

Transition from separation of parents – only some children will experience this transition. During this transition children`s emotional development may be impacted severely especially if this was an unexpected transition to them. The child may experience anxiety and confusion, may wonder how it happened and may even blame themselves. The child may experience depression; feeling like they live in a broken home and may miss the other parent not living with them this can cause insecurity issues. The child may even feel depressed as their home environment may feel hostile and sad from other siblings and from the parents (arguments overheard/witnessed). The child may experience a lack of attention from parent due to the stress and or pain of the parent which could cause the child to attention-seek thus affecting their behaviour development. They may lash out, get moody, shout, argue and even turn aggressive or violent. The child`s social development may be affected as they may feel like they have no one to talk to who they can relate to about this transition. They may withdraw themselves from their family or friends as they may feel too depressed and upset to socialise with anyone. They may even experience paranoia and may feel paranoid to get close to anyone (friends, teachers etc.) as a separation can happen again. Separations can also have an effect of the child`s cognitive development as the stress and depression may cause a lack of concentration and the child may even experience regression from the trauma.

5.2; Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition. The effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transitions
are vital in order not to affect the child`s development. Children need consistency by showing the children they belong and are cared for, safe and secure. Practitioners can help the transition to a nursery by having home visits which will allow the child to meet their new teacher in a place where there most comfortable. Also when a child starts nursery practitioners can have parental play sessions to get the child use to the new environment but have their parent with them so they don’t feel scared and will enable them to feel more comfortable as well. Positive relationships will enable the practitioner to be aware of the child’s individual needs by effective communication with the child and parent – Listening to the child`s thoughts and feelings, making sure their emotions are being catered to. Communication with the parent may allow parents to give practitioners advice of their child to help with the transition. Practitioners may be able to advice parents to leave something of theirs at the nursery such as an umbrella or the parents scarf just to give the child reassurance that their parent is coming back. Some children find it harder than others to settle in and in cases like this consistency and good practice are vital as to not have an impact on the child’s overall development. If the child is not able to settle in then they may not be able to interact and play with other children thus having an impact on their social development. Having positive relations with the child and the key worker will promote the settling of the child`s transition. The Early Years Foundation Stage states “Each child must be assigned a key person. Their role is to help ensure that every child’s care is tailored to meet their individual needs (in accordance with paragraph 1.11), to help the child become familiar with the setting, offer a settled relationship for the child and build a relationship with their parents.” (3.26, 2012). Other multi agencies may help with transitions of the child such as an education psychologist by provided advice and guidance and also helping with the planning of the transitions. If the child is experiencing an unexpected transition then the school can arrange the child to see a learning mentor who the child can form positive relationships with by having someone to talk to which could encourage their emotional, social, and behaviour development not to be affected. Other professionals can help such as social services or psychologist for instance if there’s a grievance transition or separation transition who can deal with all emotion issues

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Child Development from birth to sixteen. (2016, Oct 31). Retrieved from

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