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Compare and contrast the Pacific Coast Indians with the Pueblos of the Southwest.

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    The most important of all to the Northwest coast Indian peoples was the Raven. The Pueblo peoples lived in compact, permanent villages and resided in multifamily buildings. The women of a household cared for young children; cultivated spring-irrigated gardens.

    2
    What traits did the Plains tribes share, and what was the economic basis of the way of life for most Plains tribes?

    One of the most important traits shared by all Plains tribes was the fact that they all hunted bison or buffalo. This was also the economic basis of their way of life since hunting provided them with food and skins, which they could trade for goods.

    3
    What was the effect of disease on the western Indians?

    It killed off many of the Indians leaving them outnumbered when it came to whites and their moving of them off the their lands

    4
    What were the key challenges and disadvantages that the Plains Indians had in their conflicts with white settlers?

    Ideally they planned the raising of barriers around this Indian country beyond which the whites might never go, and doubtless were sincere in their expectation that the tribes might thus be isolated and protected from the sinister influences of civilization until Indians had advanced to a degree of independence and culture where they would readily enter the Union .

    5
    Describe the process by which the United States asserted control over New Mexico. What role did Mexican immigrants play in the region?

    In the Compromise of 1850 Texas ceded its claims to the area lying east of the Rio Grande in exchange for ten million dollars and the US government established the New Mexico Territory on September 9, 1850. Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, including descendants of Spanish colonists and recent immigrants from Latin America.

    6
    Describe the culture that flourished in California prior to the influx of Anglos after 1849. What was the impact of this influx on the californios? How was the pattern in Texas similar?

    The Mexican culture flourished. The californios took jobs and made it harder for many Anglo Americans to come across one. It was the same but with the different people.

    7
    In what occupations did most Chinese immigrants work from the 1860s to 1890s? What was Chinese community life like in the cities, especially San Francisco?

    A large group of Chinese immigrants made the San Francisco area their home in the late 1800’s. They were treated as second class citizens and took jobs doing hard labor and domestic work. Most were paid poorly.

    8
    What led to the increasing Anglo-European hostility toward the Chinese in California? What were the social and public policy results of this hostility?

    In the early days of the Gold Rush most Anglo-European miners worked alone. The Chinese miners worked as a team. Their success stimulated resentment and violence by Anglo-European miners. They saw Chinese as being clandestine,
    and vaguely dangerous.

    9
    What were the reasons for the late nineteenth century boom on migration to the West from the eastern United States and Europe?

    Migration has been an important force in the development of America. Ever since the English settled along the banks of the James River in 1607, subsequent generations have looked beyond the boundaries of their settlements to the unsettled regions of the west. These people realized that the advancement of their civilization.

    10
    Describe the Homestead Act and related federal government laws to assist settlers in obtaining western land. Why was 160 acres not adequate?

    It allowed for many of the new people who moved to the west to buy land for a cheap price. And the 160 acres was to little to sustain a amount of graving and animals needed to make a profit.

    11
    Explain the rapid political progression from territory to state in most of the West. Why did Utah lag? What territories of the “lower 48” lacked statehood as of the turn of the century?

    12
    Describe the composition and structure of the labor force in the West. How was it shaped by racial prejudice?

    13
    What were the principal gold and silver boom areas from 1858 to 1874? What other mineral extraction became economically important?

    Topaz if you went deep enough but it took a lot of time and money and people or workers.

    14
    Describe the typical pattern of development and decline in the mining regions. What was life like for men and women in the mining camps and towns?

    Mining life for the men was long days and tough work conditions that were often dangerous. In some towns the women also worked the mines but normally they were in charge of taking care of the homes.

    15
    Describe the origins, purposes, and practices of the “long drive” and the “open range” cattle industry. What ended this brief but colorful boom? What was the long-run nature of the cattle business?

    To transfer animals across the country to be used for other things. It failed after a while due to droughts and the freezes

    16
    How did the Wild West shows of Buffalo Bill Cody and others shape the popular image of the American West?

    Wild West Shows were traveling vaudeville performances in the United States and Europe. The first and prototypical wild west show was Buffalo Bill’s, formed in 1883 and lasting until 1913. The shows introduced many western performers and personalities, and a romanticized version of the American Old West, to a wide audience.

    17
    What did Frederick Jackson Turner conclude about the importance of the western frontier? How influential, according to the “Debating the Past” selection, was his thesis? How did the “new western historians” and others challenge the Turner view?

    That there is a possibility of a new start or a new life. That the new life was important. They didn’t see the romantic part of the west just the new opportunities.

    18
    Describe the concept of Indian sovereignty and how it gave way to the “concentration” policy. What additional element did the Indian Peace Commission add to the policy?

    On July 20, 1867, Congress established the Indian Peace Commission to negotiate peace with Plains Indian tribes who were warring with the U.S. Tribal sovereignty in the U.S. is the authority of tribes to govern themselves, on reservations.

    19
    What happened to the great buffalo herds? How was the life of the Plains Indians affected?
    They started to go extinct due to over hunting also with the whites hunting the same time that the Indians were. It made life for the Indians super hard because they used the buffalo for everything.

    20
    Describe the general pattern of Indian wars from the 1850s to the 1880s. Why were the Indians unable to build on their victory at the Battle of Little Bighorn?

    Due to the use of reservations for Native Americans during the period of 1850-1880 any uprisings were localized. Plus with each attempt more land was taken from them as a punishment to this behavior.

    21
    What fundamental change in federal Indian policy was embodied in the Dawes Act? What were the results of this new policy?

    The Dawes Act, adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the land into allotments for individual Indians. The Dawes Act was amended in 1891 and again in 1906 by the Burke Act. The stated objective of the Dawes Act was to stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society.

    22
    How did the completion of the transcontinental railroad and other lines in the region affect the settlement of the war? How were the railroads financed?

    It made fighting a lot more difficult due to the roads in the way. With the peoples taxes.

    23
    What problems not typical of the East did farmers encounter on the Great Plains? What methods and devices helped alleviate these problems? Why was there something of a reverse migration starting in the late 1880s?

    Market forces were changing the nature of American agriculture by making farmers try to do in agricultural economy what was done in the manufacturing economy. Commercial farmers were not self-sufficient and made no effort to become so. They specialized in cash crops, which they sold in national or world markets. They did not make their own household supplies or group their own food but bought them instead at town or village stores.

    24
    How did domestic and worldwide market forces change the nature of American agriculture in this period?

    25
    What were the three main grievances of the late nineteenth century farmer? How were these complaints compounded by attitudinal factors?

    The first and most burning grievance was against the railroads. In most cases, the railroads charged higher freight rates for farm goods than for other goods, and higher rates in the South and West than in the Northeast. Railroads also controlled elevator and warehouse facilities in buying centers and charged arbitrary storage rates. Farmers also resented the
    institutions controlling credit- banks, loan companies, insurance corporations. Since there were few credit sources in the West and South, farmers had to take loans on whatever they could get, often at interest rates ranging from 10 to 25 percent. Many farmers had to pay these back in years when prices were dropping and currency was becoming scarce.

    SEVENTEEN

    1
    What were the key late-nineteenth-century technological innovations in communications, office productivity, and ocean transportation?

    spatial evolution of economic systems and associated technical developments. It is possible to summarize this evolution, from the pre-industrial era to transportation in the early 21st century,

    2
    What developments allowed the widespread use of electricity as a source of light and power to become commonplace by the turn of the century?

    Developments with renewable energy and electricity is what made the widespread use of electricity as a source of light and power.

    3
    Explain the new Bessemer and open-hearth technologies developed for the large-scale production of durable steel. What impact did the vast expansion of steel production have on transportation industries in the late nineteenth century? In Europe before Henry Bessemer invented his Converter in 1856, steel had been an expensive, high-quality metal made by artisans. It was used mainly for tools and weapons while engineers generally preferred wrought and cast iron.

    4
    Describe the beginnings of the oil industry in the United States. What was the main use of petroleum at first?

    Indians had known of the oil in western Pennsylvania, and had made some use of it for many years before the mid-19th century. Early European explorers noted seeps of oil and natural gas in western Pennsylvania and New York. Interest grew substantially in the mid-1850s as scientists reported on the potential to manufacture kerosene from crude oil, if a sufficiently large oil supply could be found.

    5
    Although the age of the automobile and the era of significant American aircraft production would not fully arrive until the 1910s and 1920s, what developments of the 1890s and the first decade of the twentieth century laid the basis for the later boom?

    The automobile was in development. In the 1870s, designers in France, Germany, and Austria inspired by the success of railroad engines were already beginning to develop motors that might drive independently controlled vehicles. They achieved early successes with an “internal combustion engine,” which used the expanding power of burring gas to drive pistons; and with this new engine created the first automobiles. Charles and Frank Duryea built the first gasoline-driven motor vehicle in America in 1903. Three years later, Henry Ford produced the first of the famous cars that would bear his name. By 1910, the industry had become a major force in the economy, and the automobile had begun to reshape the American landscape. In 1895, there had been only four automobiles on the American Highways.

    6
    How did expanding research and development activities, “scientific management,” and mass production reshape American industrial production? What role did General Electric and the Ford Motor Company play in these early twentieth-century developments?

    Scientific management was a way to manage human labor to make it compatible with he demands of the machine age. But scientific management was also a way to increase the employer’s control of the workplace, to make working people less independent. The most important change in production technology in the industrial era was the emergence of mass production and, above all, the moving assembly line, which Henry Ford introduced in his automobile plants in 1914. This revolutionary technique cut the time for assembling a chassis from twelve and a half hours of his workers while cutting the base price of his Model T from $950 in 1914 to $290 in 1929. Ford’s assembly line became a standard for many other industries.

    7
    How did the rapidly expanding railroads of this era contribute to the expansion of the American economy?

    8
    Describe how railroads took the lead in new patterns of business organization and management in the late nineteenth century. What legal and financial advantages does the corporation form of enterprise offer to business and investors?

    Corporations began to sell stock to finance business ventures in order to grow particularly in the railroad and steel industries. Corporations changed systems of management as well making distinct hierarchies and managers and individuals responsible for individual responsibilities.

    9
    Compare and contrast the vertical and horizontal integration strategies of business combination. Which approaches did Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller utilize? What “curse” of the business world was consolidation designed to attack?

    Horizontal integration was the combining of a number of firms engaged in the same enterprise into a single corporation. Vertical integration was the taking over of all the different businesses on which a company relied for its primary function. Carnegie used vertical integration. At first, Rockefeller expanded horizontally. At first he simply bought out competing refineries. But soon he built his own barrel factories, terminal warehouses, and pipelines; expanding vertically.

    10
    Although the term “trust” came to be a general term for any big business, there were legal differences between a formal “trust” and a “holding company.” Explain the differences. What were the advantages of the latter?

    Financiers and industrialists used pools, trusts, and holding companies to expand their control like so: Trusts – stockholders in individual corporations transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust for less cost to manage their company for a cheaper Price holding company – they produced a central body that buys up the stock of various members and establishes direct, formal ownership of corporations in the trust to exercise more power and control.

    11
    What kept alive the ideology of individualism and the faith in the “self-made man” among the American masses?

    The success stories of the poor transforming into the wealthy kept the “self-made man” and “rags to riches” hopes alive. These dreams were not very realistic because only a select few could fully undergo a poor to rich transformation.

    12
    Compare and contrast Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth. Who was the principal proponent of the latter?

    Social Darwinism and classical economics complemented each other because Social Darwinism emphasized the point that the fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace while classical economics explained that those who succeeded deserved their success. Social Darwinism further explained the classical economic theory, giving a legitimate reason for why the wealthy was wealthy. The formulators of the theories were Spencer, Sumner, and, of course, Charles Darwin. The great industrialists embodied such concepts to justify their tactics and legitimize their success.

    13
    Describe the radical and idealistic alternative visions of late-nineteenth-century writers and activists. How realistic were such views?

    The “alternate visions” to the business-dominated view of society were challenging the corporate ethos and sometimes challenged capitalism itself. Some argued that civilization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence, which was able of shaping society as it wished. These radical voices were very influential during this time when the country was still in the first few steps of forming its own government.

    14
    What negative consequences of monopoly did many Americans come to fear?

    Some of the visible things that the Americans blamed on the trend toward “monopoly” were the artificially high prices and producing a highly unstable economy. Which they all had a right to fear.

    15
    America’s new urban working-class was drawn primarily from what two groups?

    The two sources of the massive migration into the industrial cities of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were the demand for factory laborers and the great wave of immigration from Mexico, Asia, Canada and Europe.

    16
    Contrast the earlier immigrants to the United States with those who came to dominate by the turn of the century. What attracted immigrants, especially the later groups, to the United States? How did native-born Americans and earlier immigrants react?

    The traditional immigrants to the United States came from England, Ireland, and northern Europe. The immigrants who came after the 1880s were usually from southern and eastern Europe mostly Italians, Poles, Russians, Greeks, Slavs, Mexicans, and Asians. These migrants came to American in order to escape poverty and oppression in their home lands, but they were lured to the US by expectations of new opportunities. When these new groups arrived, it heightened the ethnic tensions into the dynamic of the working class.

    17
    What were the uncertainties and hazards of industrial labor?

    The hours and the labor was something that many feared and often hated. The hazards included high risk of death and sickness.

    18
    Why did industry increasingly employ women and children? How were they treated? There was a decrease in the need for skilled work induced many employers to increase the use of women and children, whom they could hire for lower wages than adult males. Women worked for wages as low as $6 to $8 a week, well below the minimum necessary for survival.

    19
    What was America’s first major, national labor conflict? How did it end?

    The Railroad Strike of 1877. The failure of the strike seriously weakened the railroad unions and damaged the reputation of labor organizations in other industries as well.

    20
    Compare and contrast the organization, membership, leadership, and programs of the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor. Why did the AFL succeed, while the Knights disappeared?

    21
    Compare and contrast the Haymarket affair, Homestead strike, and Pullman strike. On balance, what was their effect on the organized labor movement?

    Haymarket Affair
    Only strike where the police harassed the strikers. Only strike where a bomb was thrown. Homestead strike
    The strike occurred because the company stopped discussing decisions with the union (Amalgamated) which denied the union’s right to negotiate at all. The strikers approached the plant by river on barges. They poured oil on the water and set it on fire and met the guards with guns and dynamite. After the strike the union was powerless over the National Guard and the strike collapsed. Pullman strike

    The reason for the strike was because of high accommodations prices with a wage cuts. The first strike with two good opposing sides. Eugene V. Debs with the American Railway Union supported the strikers by refusing to handle Pullman cars and equipment. Opposing the strikers was the General Managers’ Association. One of the first non-violent and effective strikes. Within a few days of striking, transportation from Chicago to the Pacific Coast was paralyzed. The first strike where a federal court intervened by issuing an injunction forbidding the union to continue the strike. When Debs and his associates defied it, they were arrested and imprisoned. With federal troops protecting the hiring of new workers and union leaders in a federal jail, the strike quickly collapsed.

    22
    What factors combined to help explain why organized labor remained relatively weak before World War I? The rapidly expanding industrial economy, wages for workers rose hardly at all, and not nearly enough or keep up with the rising cost of living. Also the principal labor organizations represented only a small percentage of the industrial work force.

    EIGHTEEN

    1
    What was the attraction of the city, and what were the main sources of urban growth in this period?

    The main sources of urban growth were immigrants. The city attracted people form the countryside because it offered more and better-paying jobs than were available in rural America or in the foreign economies many immigrants were fleeing. People moved to cities because of new forms of transportation made it easier for them to get there. Railroads made simple, quick and relatively inexpensive what once might have seemed a daunting journey from parts of the American countryside to nearby cities.

    2
    How did the immigrants, rising in number after the 1880s, differ in ethnic background and economic status from most of the earlier immigrants?

    Most new immigrants from Europe were at least modestly prosperous and educated. Germans and Scandinavians in particular had headed west on their arrival, either to farm or to work as businessmen, merchants, professionals, or skilled laborers in Midwestern cities such as St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee. Most of the new immigrants of the late nineteenth century, however, lacked the capital to buy farmland and lacked the education to establish themselves in professions. So, like the poor Irish immigrants before the Civil War, they settled overwhelmingly in industrial cities, where most of them took unskilled jobs.

    3
    Why did most immigrants settle in industrial cities? What were the ethnic neighborhoods like?

    Most of the new immigrants were rural people and their adjustment to city life was often a painful one. To help ease the transition, many national groups formed close-knit ethnic communities within cities: Italian, Polish, Jewish, Slavic, Chinese, French-Canadian, Mexican and other neighborhoods that attempted to re-create in the New World many of the features of the old.

    4
    Which immigrant groups adapted especially well economically? Which groups lagged? Why?
    The Irish, the Chinese due to the Americans hatred towards them that allowed them to not be able to work at high paying jobs or even to get hired.

    5
    What social institutions and community actions helped facilitate immigrant assimilation, especially that of European immigrants, to life in America?

    Most of the new immigrants were rural people and their adjustment to city life was often a painful one. To help ease the transition, many national groups formed close-knit ethnic communities within cities: Italian, Polish, Jewish, Slavic, Chinese, French-Canadian, Mexican and other neighborhoods that attempted to re-create in the New World many of the features of the old.

    6
    What organizations and laws resulted from the resentment that many native-born Americans felt toward the new immigrants? Why didn’t Congress pass more such laws?

    7
    In what ways was the huge migration into the United States part of a worldwide phenomenon? What were the “push” and “pull” factors that brought immigrants to the U.S.?

    8
    What motives led to the movement for great urban parks, libraries, museums, and other public facilities in the late nineteenth century? What park became the standard?

    9
    How did large cities expand their boundaries and the land available for development in this period?

    10
    Compare and contrast the urban and suburban residential patterns of the wealthy and moderately well-to-do with those of the majority.

    In this grouping, low urban densities frequently associated with the process of suburbanization are known as urban sprawl. In low & middle-income countries the related process of peri-urbanization is increasingly taking place, which the boundaries between the ‘urban’ and the ‘rural’ are continually being re-negotiated, and rather than being clearly defined

    11
    How did urban mass transportation technology evolve from horse-drawn streetcars to more modern mass transit?

    12
    What new construction technologies made the “skyscraper” possible?

    The invention of the elevator and new steel helped allow the building of tall skyscrapers

    13
    Describe the urban hazards of fire, disease, and sanitation and the public and private responses to them. What was the effect of the several great fires and disasters from 1871 to 1906?

    Big cities were able to cope with the urban hazards of fire, disease, and sanitation by constructing fireproof buildings and developing professional fire departments. They also forced cities to rebuild at a time when new technological and architectural innovations were available. Cities dealt with the disease and sanitation problem by developing flush toilets and sewer systems, but they could not solve the problem as long as sewage continued to flow into open ditches or streams, polluting cities’ water supplies.

    14
    What were the main environmental problems of the cities? What improvements were made in the early twentieth century?

    Some factors that contributed to the rise of political machines and their bosses were the chaotic growth of cities. It was also a product of the potential voting power of large immigrant communities. The typical operation of a political machine was to win votes for their organization which meant winning the loyalty of their constituents. Some positive and negative aspects of boss rule in large cities were the competition between political parties but also it prevented some middle-class representatives from progressing.

    15
    What bred the increasing crime rate of late-nineteenth-century America? How did the cities respond?

    Crime in turn-of-the-century America was prevalent in the South and in the West. Cities responded to this by developing larger and more professional police forces. They also build urban National Guard groups imposing armories on the outskirts of affluent neighborhoods and stored large supplies of weapons and ammunition in preparation for uprisings that virtually never occurred.

    16
    What factors contributed to the rise of political machines and their bosses? What were the positive as well as the negative aspects of boss rule in large cities?

    17
    Describe the changes in income and purchasing power of the urban middle and working classes. Who made the greater gains? Who lagged behind?

    The changes in income and purchasing power of the urban middle and working classes were increased by large amounts. The middle class people benefited the most from this because many more goods were made much cheaper.

    18
    What new developments in clothing, food, and retailing accompanied the new consumerism?

    A marked shift in both the ideology and practice of consumer practices and attitudes is what’s known as the “new consumerism”. Its essential features are a change in the operation of reference groups, and a shift from a model of consumer

    19
    How did the rise of mass consumption impact life for American women—especially middle-class urban women?

    20
    How did turn-of-the-century Americans come to reconceptualize their idea of “leisure”? How was this manifested differently among different groups?

    21
    Compare and contrast the rise of baseball with that of football. What other spectator sports became popular as Americans came to enjoy more leisure time?

    Both football and baseball drew in large crowds of mostly males. Baseball was the sport for males with a modest background and soon became organized as a national league consisting of the National League and the American League. Football grew in popularity with the more elite male population at first, since it originated in universities and colleges. Football became known as having a large amount of taint and violence. In 1896, rules governing eligibility were established and in 1910 the National College Athletic Association was established in an attempt to make it safer and more honest. Other sports soon became popular in leisure time such as basketball, boxing, and horse racing.

    22
    What was vaudeville? What role did black performers play in it?

    They were musicals and the black performers often copied their moves and replayed the plays for there own use.

    23
    How did motion pictures evolve from the 1880s to the early twentieth century?

    Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. They also started adding music to silent films to cover the noise of the projectors.

    24
    What important changes occurred in journalism in the decades after the Civil War?

    The circulation of daily newspapers increased nearly nine fold. Newspaper chains started to develop.
    Yellow Journalism

    25
    What is meant by “highbrow” and “lowbrow” culture?

    26
    What issues did the realist novelists explore?

    The issues the realist novelists explored the new civilization by evoking an older, more natural world. American literature was the effort to re-create urban social reality. Some other contemporaries followed Dreiser in chronicling the oppression of America’s poor. Other critics of American society responded to the new civilization not by attacking it but by withdrawing from it.

    27
    In what ways did American art begin to emerge from its European dominance?

    28
    How did Darwinism challenge traditional American religious faith? What were the differing responses? (See previous chapters for Social Darwinism.)

    Darwinism challenged the traditional American faith because he challenged instead of the beginning of the world as a divine plan it was more of a random process dominated by the fiercest or luckiest competitors. It contributed to growing schism between urban and rural values by industrialists used so enthusiastically to justify their favored position in American life.

    29
    How did the rising respect for scientific inquiry combine with Darwinism to affect a wide range of intellectual inquiry?

    30
    Describe the evolution of free public schooling in the United States. What parts of the nation lagged in education?

    31
    What government and private actions combined to lead the establishment of new universities and colleges and significant expansion of existing institutions after the Civil War? How did these institutions contribute to economic advancement?

    The land-grant act, compulsory school attendance laws I effect, financial tycoon investments in schools such as Carnegie.

    32
    What opportunities for higher education were available to women in this era? What were the distinctive characteristics of women’s colleges?

    There were three coeducational schools and some schools like Radcliff at Harvard were add-ons to already established male colleges. Women colleges were filled and taught mostly by unmarried women with a female superiority complex

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