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Having no income and structure can cause problems such as starvation in children, poor health in general and a poor concentration bevel while at school. Another way a family could be stressed could be if there is a serious loss in the family. Depression can lead to low morale and even worse suicide in teens. Play has been defined as any activity freely chosen, intrinsically motivated, and personally directed. It stands outside ‘ordinary life, and is non-serious but at the same time absorbing the player intensely. It has no particular goal other than itself.

Play is not a specific behavior, but any activity undertaken with a playful frame of mind. Psychiatrist Stuart Brown writes that play is ‘the basis of al art, games, books, sports, movies, fashion, fun, and wonder – in short, the basis of what we think of as civilization. ‘ (Brown 2009). According to play therapist O. Fred Donaldson, a child who has been allowed to develop play resources receives many enduring advantages. She develops a universal learning skill. Play maximizes her potential by developing creativity and imagination.

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Play promotes joy, which is essential for self-esteem and health. The learning process is self- sustained based as it is on a natural love of learning and playful engagement with life. (www. Originally. Mom/develop. HTML) Play directly influences the practice of practitioners in the early years settings like Nursery Schools, but is becoming even more common place in Primary school settings as well. As the developmental biologist Jean Pigged observed, ‘We can be sure that all happenings, pleasant or unpleasant, in the child’s life, will have repercussions on her dolls’ (Pigged 1962).

It has been suggested that as the parents are the original educators for children, they need to provide their children with the best possible start in life, including providing stimulating and age-appropriate toys. In my setting I display respect for each individual, namely with the children I seek to understand before being understood. It is incredibly important to gather all the background information about the children in the setting so it is important to ‘work in partnership with the parents’ (The Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 (CONDO as they are the educators in the child’s formative years.

As well, the current relevant information about each belief system and values is highly important to make decisions about a child and family in a non-judgmental fashion. Thus, to incorporate this knowledge before planning for the individual deeds of each child is paramount to respect the dignity of a child i. E. A child with poor language abilities may need different types of communication tactics to ensure inclusive learning such as visual stimulation in the form of demonstrations, videos, pictures or hand gestures.

I value differences between children by using inclusive practice, which involves a lot of detailed planning like, identifying appropriate support during play and encouraging a child to participate as part of a group in an activity regardless of their ethnicity or dietary requirements or gender, from my experience i feel that it is important to involve al children in activities suitable to their needs without ever compromising their beliefs. ‘You have the right to choose your own religion and beliefs. Your parents should help you decide what is right and wrong, and what is best for you. (www. Eunice. Org) By making sure I avoid making assumptions I give every child the same opportunities, to gauge their individual development stage and needs as opposed to presuming all children of a certain age and physicality must be capable i. E. If a child has only one arm or is native to a different country and therefore does not speak English, they should still be encouraged to take art in activities provided all necessary planning is in place to suit their unique individual needs, also avoiding isolating them from the other children.

Similarly helping young children to understand that we are all not the same and are differences make us who we are in relation to culture, religion, lifestyles and beliefs, I can confirm that everyone deserves respect no matter how diverse by encouraging children talk about these, showing photographs to them, reading stories and listening to music from different religious or cultural festivals.

If there are children with different cultural backgrounds in the setting, someone room their family could be asked to come and talk about it, this will cement relationships with the parents. See Appendices The practitioner must realizes that in order to meet the individual needs of the child, as well as making every child feel included, good relationships and communication are developed between education, health and social services so that children and their families have a broad network of co-ordinate support designed to treat the welfare of the children as paramount. Such partnerships can have an important role to play in certifying that children’s experiences and learning are maximized’. Early intervention in a multi-professional approach can be vital to spotting disabilities, behavior issues or SEEN to best meet the needs of the child as early as possible with a better chance of help and support, while always being aware of the crucial timeshare from intervention through assessment to diagnosis to therapy.

Realizing that a single point of contact is valuable in one setting in particular i. E. School can be visited by a number of professionals from different backgrounds like social worker or speech and language therapist in a familiar place for the child making them feel more comfortable. Using a holistic approach is key to demonstrate all round care from a variety of professionals with different therapies and exercises designed with the best interests of the child at the core.

The individual almost selfish desire to further the practitioner’s knowledge through time spent and one on one opportunities with professionals with different expertise, can lead to an increased well rounded wisdom about children. This in turn could lead to a more acute view on children in the future practice i. E. Noticing warning signs more and obvious barriers reprimanding the children’s abilities. From my research I mound that one of the most widely renowned supportive government initiatives in the U. K today is SURE START.

This initiative encompasses ‘health, education and social care and aims to advantage children, parents and local communities’. It does so by increasing the availability of childcare mainly for families in disadvantaged areas and strives to aid every child with the best possible start in life. Some of the care services provided by SURE START include, ‘outreach and home visiting services’ as well as ‘family support and parenting information’ offering alternative home based or communal group interaction with trained refashions and other parents using the services.

Somewhat differently, I have also found there is current research going on by a registered charity called I CAN that relates directly to working with children with communication difficulties by helping them to communicate in a range of ways from speaking, language development and body language, it’s said that ‘2 or 3 children in every classroom have communication difficulties that require specialist help’.

Particularly in early years settings there has been specific research into the importance of early intervention when it comes to communication difficulties. One of the evidence papers created from the research conducted by the charity illustrates how crucial language is at this stage in the child’s individual development in communication both verbally and non-verbally. One way that would help maintain professional relationships with children is to ensure good communication skills are being used i. . Using clear and concise speech along with straightforward easy to understand language. Moreover a rich and stimulating environment should be provided to promote learning and is essential in presenting the children with opportunities to explore, experiment, plan and make decisions. A practitioner should ensure children’s work is displayed in an accessible area to improve the independence for them to place their own pictures or models.

An attractive and varied environment aims to give children unique opportunities to be physical, social, to be quiet and busy as well as curious to listen to stories and engage in pretend plays which are all intriguer in challenging the children’s learning to develop their ideas and use the resources available. For example practitioners have a particularly important role in facilitating an enabling environment for children from different religious r cultural backgrounds by preparing food or talking about different religious festivals or showing and celebrating a variety of holidays and music from other countries.

Another way practitioners can maintain a professional relationship with adults is to ensure high levels of standards are being upheld throughout the child’s stay at the setting. The easiest way to communicate with parents of the children is to establish trust and confidence by allowing the practitioner to be seen as a well informed and in a caring and supportive light. However, it remains essential that parents receive clear guidance on both the nature and mount of their involvement to ensure consistency and equality throughout the setting with regards to adult relations.

Parents need to be made feel valued and their contributions respected but need to be aware of the expectations of child protection boundaries laid out by the setting’s individual guidelines and parents must learn to regard the practitioners enforcement of this confidentiality. It has been said that, ‘Under the Human Rights Act 1998 and international law, everyone has a right to privacy, dignity and safety. ‘ (http://move. Education. Gob. UK) and the same must be applied to children.

And so there are ways in which the dignity and privacy of children is maintained when a child needs intimate personal care. In situations when the child has to use the toilet the practitioner must be aware of the signs that a child needs to go to the toilet and to avoid asking the child do they need to go in case of unnecessary nerves. In order to show empathy with the child it is important to remain calm if there has been an accident and to react quickly ensuring the child is nearby the toilet.

For older children who are already potty trained, letting the child use the toilet nearby in private is important for heir own personal space. When it comes to dressing a child or baby always handle their limbs and joints with care to avoid damaging them. Always support the head of the baby as they may still be developing and with older children ask them if they need help instead of rushing and being impatient as this could embarrass the child.

From my own experience, it was part of the policies myself and my co-counselor followed when we had to ask prior permission to apply sunscreen to their child for the three week session in our care. This was important as the parents were consulted and involved. We also asked the children if they wanted help or to do it themselves on the parts of their bodies they could reach, trying to make it a fun experience as well. Since these children were only five years old, for their own safety in the sun, the practitioners applied most of the sunscreen to ensure an even coverage.

Giving medication should always be done with the greatest of care. One safeguarding feature the practitioners demonstrate is to keep the medication in a locked cupboard high up out of children’s reach. To always ensure that two members of staff are administering the medication can also go towards retention the practitioner from a potential law-suit if something goes wrong. As a child protection step, checking the date and dose of the medication is vital to make sure the child is safe and not poisoned.

Keeping the child’s dignity while feeding them is as straightforward as keeping them clean throughout, including if they’ve been sick. Cleaning up and mess and making sure the child eats as much as they can to keep their hunger down and nutrient level up. Everyone has views and opinions and everyone has the right to express their views and opinions where appropriate and no more so than children as the INCUR states, ‘Article 14- You have the right to think and believe what you want and to practice your religion, as long as you are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights.

Parents should guide children on these matters. ‘ Each individual child will have had their own unique experiences which lead to developing their views. When listening to children I ensure that I listen with the same level of interest as I listen to the other adults in the setting with intrigue and enthusiasm. This may go on to encourage the child to have the confidence to talk openly in front of other adults or to go on to talk in front f other children to show that what they have to say is important too.

If they suggest something new to try I try it and it pushes them to make better more frequent suggestions in future as well as encouraging problem solving and self control. As a practitioner I learn to use body language and facial expressions to show interest, along with involving other children in the conversation ask them to listen to each other when one of the children is expressing an opinion, this can make the child’s spoken word feel valued and important as I am an adult listening to a child.

On the other hand if a child is consistently ignored r snubbed by adults in the setting the other children may pick up on this and display the undesirable behavior themselves, it could result in the ignored child becoming a victim of bullying, or alternatively that child could take a destructive approach to seeking attention and having their opinions heard and become a bully in them self.

Certainly the ignored child could become shy, timid or even afraid to speak because what they say is deemed irrelevant and UN-important, this could result in a child growing up with low self-esteem and undermined putting them off expressing their views further down the road.

Inclusive practice is at the forefront of ensuring that all children feel valued and respected and are not necessarily treated the same but are given the same opportunities for development, after all it is the practitioners job to ensure all children develop to the best of their ability and creating an enabling environment is key to putting the developmental needs of the child at the centre of practice.

As part of every child’s rights inclusion and education are essential in making sure no child feels left out or excluded as it may result in an adverse outcome in later life like low self-esteem or depression and isolation. In my setting there is a child who has special dietary requirements and cannot eat the type of food that is scheduled on the menu and so to avoid making that child feel discriminated against alternative meals are included.

If it so happens that in a Catholic Curriculum school there is a child who is a Jew, there must be a prayer created for all to say without leaving anyone out but still fulfilling the faith component. In Early year’s setting there can be a variety of children from different nationalities and religions and so it is important to remember while celebrating the main calendar festivals ND holidays that all cultures festivals are also celebrated in order to include all children regardless of religion or culture or nationality.

If there is a child attending that has a communication difficulty such as deafness, it’s important that child is not left out and so dressing large symbols around the setting, perhaps having a flashcard key ring and using sign language to communicate effectively. One strategy used very commonly in classrooms as well as at home is the praise and encouragement strategy. The research carried out by Skinner, who was born in March 1904 and was a psychologist, author, inventor and advocate for social reform within America.

Skinner emphasized the reinforcement process, he believed that this were the shaping of behavior 1958. Punishment is normally seen as negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement strengthens the behavior of children as you praise them after some good behavior is performed, on the other hand negative reinforcement also strengthens behavior and it is more likely that this behavior will reoccur. The difference is positive reinforcement is something applied whereas negative reinforcement is something removed or avoided.

Skinner believed that punishment has an effect f the behavior weakening and is less likely of the behavior reoccurring. So according to this theory the parent of a child could reward positive behavior to get the desired outcome during time at home. Another strategy that can be put in place by parents of children, in order to control behavior, is by being generally consistent in their approach. Children need routine at bedtime, mealtimes and playtime. It is vital to be consistent with children so they learn that certain behavior is always either acceptable or unacceptable.

Early intervention with informed explanation, embracing diversity and preferences can make an impact on changing common misconceptions people have before discrimination spreads like a disease passed down to the children. Discrimination after all is the unfair treatment of a person if they are discriminated against based on prejudice. Consequently, it is firmly believed that the causes of such prejudice caused in children is from unhealthy and narrow- minded views from parents and families passed down to children through listening to what their parents say and acting as they do, children are like mirrors that way.

When children chose their friends it’s not because they are the same ace or gender, it’s because they have common interests which is something that can be nourished as good behavior, teaching the children that what are friends think and believe does not have to be what you value, we all have our own minds and feelings to express. The effects of this sort of discrimination could be that the children don’t make up their own minds about something or someone but instead decide to believe what their friends think instead.

This type of behavior directs the aspect of isolating a child of a minority making them feeling outnumbered, with no real friends and bullied. . E. If a child is told by their friend or parents not to play with him because he’s in a wheelchair, not only does it nourish fear but goes a long way to preventing comprehension of disabilities. Another great persuader in the backward mind frame of discrimination is the media, like papers, T.

V, radio and internet being all so accessible is hard to control the types of discrimination and prejudice they are exposed to, this in turn infuses a long-term effect as daily the children could be blasted with negative information about minorities that it would be hard to reverse these views. I. E. If he people on the television are at war and they are black, the children will get the biased one-sided view from respectable news reporters, possibly leading to the children developing these views like I shouldn’t play with the black child in the child centre in case he fights with me like on the T.

V. Discrimination in the wider sense of the word can directly affect some of the policies we have in Children’s centers such as having an anti-bullying policy in place to ensure all children are safe and no-one gets picked on or victimized due to their ethnicity, disability, gender, culture or religion. In the children’s centre there is always going to be a policy in place to provide access to all resources and places for a child with a physical disability to be included and can take part in all activities.

In a similar way staff attitudes and values need to be open minded no matter what their own preconceptions are about people, these need to be left at the door before they enter a children’s centre to ensure a non-discriminatory practice is being upheld by all practitioners. To let the children see the practitioners have respect for all walks of life in this accepting light, is key to their attitudes loading and following suit. I. E.

A child whom has to remain completely covered cannot be judged for this but instead be seen for who she is underneath the cultural identity. Naturally, cultural beliefs from different religions and a variety of races are respected in a children’s centre by the practitioners holding meetings with parents and family members from these minorities to gather as much information as possible. As well asking the children to talk about their differences and perhaps having a family coming to talk to all the children can lead to a more accepting view from the children.

During practice it has to be the ease that food can be prepared from different countries and cultures as music can be played to encourage a diverse and well mixed practice. Additionally, respect for individual and unique cultures is also observed by celebrating a range of holidays and various religious festivals from all over the world. When it comes to training the practitioners to be equipped to deal with children in a children’s centre, it’s invaluable to have everything up-to-date, such as ensuring the equal opportunities policy is in place.

This covers the aspect that all children from different backgrounds can join in and are free from discriminatory practice. Practitioners must guarantee they are all trained to be brushed up on their own skills and knowledge to comfortably accommodate children who might not speak English at all. Ultimately practitioners must learn that to effectively create an enabling environment for all children and meet the needs of each child individually they must not diminish the opportunity for furthering another child.

Taking part in meetings, making plans and setting goals all working towards developing the child to their full potential at the stage they are at is crucial in having practice in place to avoid and extinguish discrimination from children’s centers. A It is important to consult parents when providing learning opportunities for children, as most of the time the parents are the primary care givers and first educators of their children. They tend to know the child best and can help the practitioner select the best activity to suit the child’s level of ability as well as conducting activities that the child will be interested and engaged in.

Another way for the practitioner to meet all the individual care and learning needs of the children is to keep each child safe and to make sure they communicate with the children’s main careers. They way in which they can keep them safe is make ere they know who is picking the child up and make sure the child knows who is picking them up. It is also important for the practitioners to work effectively with other members of staff in the multi-agency teams as they need to make sure each practitioner that needs to be involved with the child is involved effectively and that the correct information is shared.

Also the importance of keeping other professionals involved in the planning opportunities for learning of the children is that their specialist experience can help keep the activity suited to the child’s specific needs. I. E. A speech and language therapist can provide specific information to help plan activities to develop the child in more specific target areas of their development.

Moreover, whilst in a childcare setting, it may be the case that it’s a multi-agency setting meaning other professionals could be working in the same setting but with a very different role and they would have to work together by communicating through an ongoing basis to work to meet the developmental needs of a child. Making notes from individual experiences with the child and sharing to compare and contrast and manage the planning together could also be effective in the setting as it means there will be no appetitive support or care as well as avoiding conflicting advice.

Another way in which multi-agency settings could be of benefit to children and their families is the characteristic that all of the team should be appropriately informed of any embarrassing issues so that the family will feel relaxed and understood from the start, instead of going to different settings and having to explain the circumstances over and over, it avoids lots of probing questions being asked and for them to not have to explain the issue several times in numerous settings.

As well, multi agency settings can allow for a wider spread of circumstances hat affect children and families i. E. Rather than all the pressure being on one practitioner in one setting, its spread more evenly so that needs can be met more effectively and within a better timescale. Childcare settings such as Nursery can benefit greatly from a multi-agency team as It gives each professional involved the opportunity to share expertise and experience with other professionals to bring vast amounts of knowledge about children but from very different fields of discipline.

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