Consideration of Wetland as a Land Use in Malaysia

Wetland is a land usage in Malaysia. Discuss the rational and standards used for such a consideration. Explain the methodological analysis used to get at this consideration.


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There are several principles to see wetlands as one of the land usage in Malaysia.

A )Based on value and part of wetlands toward economic system and ecologyof Malaysia

Land usage is characterized by the agreement, activities and inputs by people to bring forth, changed or keep a certain land screen, whereby the land screen is the ascertained ( bio ) physical screen on the earth’s surface. In Peninsular Malaysia, the land usage of the entire country consist of 58.6 % for wood, 26.6 % for cultivation, 0.8 % for urban, 0.7 % excavation, 8.1 % of swamps and the remainder 5.6 % is for other utilizations ( Di Gregorio and Jansen, 1998 ) .

Furthermore, land usage is described as the direction of land to run into human demands, which include rural land usage and besides urban industrial site ( FAO Development Series 1, 1993 ) . Based on this word picture, the wetlands is perfectly one of the chief land usage in Malaysia. It is because, wetland has many benefits and dramas of import maps for agribusiness, piscaries, inundation control, groundwater refilling, shoreline stabilisation and storm protection, H2O purification, reservoirs of biodiversity, H2O conveyance, energy resources ( such as peat and works affair ) , wetland merchandises, cultural values, diversion and touristry and clime alteration extenuation and version. For touristry, in Malaysia, Tasek Bera has found to be on the list as one of the tourer attractive force for wetland site. Besides natural wetland constructed wetlands are reservoirs ( dikes ) , rice Fieldss and created and rehabilitated wetlands such as Putrajaya Wetland ( National Report on Wetland in South China Sea, Malaysia ).

The of import of wetlands as land usage in Malaysia is besides illustrated by mentioning to Postpone 4 where a list of extremely influential authorities bureaus including their brief range of work when straight involved in the direction of the wetlands.

Table 4. Government bureaus involved in wetland direction in Peninsular Malaysia.

No Agency relevant Legislation or Regulation Concern for:
1 Economic Planning Unit Federal Constitution National Land Code 1965 Wetland home ground issues that affect the state’s involvements in footings of environment
2 Town and Country Planning Department, Ministry of Housing and Local Government
  • Town and Country Planning Act 1976
  • Guidelines for Development and Planning in Coastal Areas ( Planing Standard JPBD 6/97 )
Development programs ( eg. policies on wetland home ground )
3 Local Planning Governments Town and Country Planning Act 1976 Local forward planning and planning control ( eg. execution of policies on wetland home ground )
4 Department of Irrigation and Drainage ( DID ) , Ministry of Agriculture
  • Administrative round no. 5/87 ( requires all development submit programs to DID )
  • Guidelines on Erosion Control for Development Projects on the Coastal Zone, Guidelines no. 1/97
  • Engineering attack to protect the environment ( eg. wetland home ground )
  • Control and direction of implosion therapy ( natural way- wetland countries )
5 Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
  • Environmental Quality ( Prescribed Activities ) ( Environmental Impact Assessment ) Order 1987
  • Environmental Quality Act 1974
EIA prescribes activities such as land renewal, ( eg. development in wetland home ground )
6 Department of Forestry, Ministry of Primary Industries
  • National Forest Act 1984
  • Forest Rules 1986
Planning, managing and implementing forestry Torahs and patterns with regard to wetlands.
7 Fisheries Department Fisheries Act 1985 Activities result in the creative activity of unreal wetlands such as aquaculture ponds for shrimps and fish.
8 Land and Mines Department National Land Code 1965
  • Land disposal ( eg. wetland home ground )
  • Limit for wetland countries
9 Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism Ecotourism guidelines for coastal development, ( Beach ) Coastal wetland resources
10 Department of Wildlife and National Park
  • Marine Parks Regulations, sections 41-45 of Fisheries Act 1985
  • Protection of Wildlife Act 1976
Conservation country with of import wetland resources

Beginning: Asmawi, 2007

B )Based on its land area

The wetlands still have important land area in Malaysia although it has been changed to other type of land usage. By mentioning to National Spatial Framework ( attached asAttachment 1) from National Physical Plan-2, 2010, wetlands are still one of the seeable countries when we see it diagrammatically. In add-on, Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3 besides diagrammatically show that wetlands land area is still important.

Figure 1. Land Use Map of Peninsular Malaysia Year 1990 and 2006

landuse map.JPG

Beginning: Land Use Change in Malaysia ( 2013 )

Figure 1. Land Use Map of Sarawak Year 2000 and 2005landuse map2.JPG

Beginning: Land Use Change in Malaysia ( 2013 )

Figure 1. Land Use Map of Sabah Year 2000 and 2005

landuse map3.JPG

Beginning: Land Use Change in Malaysia ( 2013 )

The wetlands land area is extremely important because in Malaysia, it comprise of land of assorted types as defined by National Wetlands Policy ( 2005 ) , such as:

  1. Marine and coastal zone wetlands.
  1. Marine Waterss ( lasting shoal Waterss less than six meters deep at low ; tide ; sea bays, passs )
  2. Subtidal aquatic beds ; seagrass, seaweed beds
  3. Coral reefs
  4. Rocky shores including bouldery offshore island, sea drops
  5. Sandy beaches
  6. Estuarine Waterss
  7. Intertidal clay and flats
  8. Coastal, riverine and brakish H2O Rhizophora mangle swamps
  9. Lagoons
  1. Inland or freshwater wetland.
    1. Permanent rivers and watercourses ; includes waterfalls
    2. Seasonal and irregular rivers and watercourses
    3. Riverine floodplains ; includes flooded river basins, seasonally flooded grassland
    4. Permanent fresh water lakes ; included big oxbow lakes
    5. Seasonal fresh water lakes, flood plain lakes
    6. Permanent fresh water pools ( & gt ; 8ha )
    7. Seasonal fresh water pools
    8. Marsh
    9. Freshwater swamp and swamp wood ; seasonally flooded woods
    10. Peat swamp woods
    11. Nipah woods
    12. Melaleuca woods
    13. Other swamps ; sago swamps, riparian swamps, woodland swamps
    14. Freshwater springs
  1. Man-made wetlands.
    1. Water storage countries ; reservoirs, bombardments, hydro-electric dikes
    2. Aquaculture ponds ; fish pools, runt pools
    3. Excavations ; excavation pools
    4. Wastewater intervention ; sewerage farms, settling pools, oxidization pools
    5. Irrigated land and irrigation channels ; rice field, canals, ditches
    6. Other pools ; farm pools, ash pools, stock pools ( & lt ; 8ha )
    7. Constructed masrland, pool and lakes
    8. Constructed saline lakes

Although a batch of land usage alteration happened to the wetlands as shown in Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3 ; the wetlands land area is still important. Therefore, the rational is still there to see wetlands as land usage in Malaysia.

Table 1. Land usage alteration matrix for the period 1990 to 2006 in Peninsular Malaysia


Beginning: Land Use Change in Malaysia ( 2013 )

Table 2. Land usage alteration matrix for the period 2000 to 2005 for Sarawak


Beginning: Land Use Change in Malaysia ( 2013 )

Table 3. Land usage alteration matrix for the period 2000 to 2005 for Sabah


Beginning: Land Use Change in Malaysia ( 2013 )

It is an sarcasm because while Malaysia treats wetlands as one of its major land usage, the determination in Land Use Change in Malaysia ( 2013 ) in 3 Tables above shows the other manner around. A batch of wetlands have been changed to other land usage. The challenge here is to keep on class in continuing the NPP2 subjects and policies particularly the 1 that straight related to wetlands which is “Theme 6 – Conserving Natural Resources, Biodiversity & A ; the Environment” ( National Physical Plan-2, 2010 ) . In add-on, Malaysia already have duty to carry through Ramsar convention on protection of Wetlands which has been signed in 1994. This convention is an inter-governmental pact that provides a model for national action and international cooperation for the preservation and wise usage of wetlands and their resources. Presently, there are six Ramsar site in Malaysia with Tasek Bera being nominated as the country’s foremost Ramsar site. Besides Tasek Bera, other sites are Sg. Pulai, Pulau Kukup and Tanjung Piai in Johor, Kuching Wetlands in Sarawak and the latest add-on is the Lower Kinabatangan-Segama Wetland in Sabah. Despite Ramsar site, harmonizing to the Malayan wetland Directory, the list of wetland in Malaya shows the entire figure of 105 wetland sites ( ) . All this state of affairss increase the demand for proper Land Use Planning and comprehensive and holistically approached in direction of wetlands.


Di Gregorio and Jansen, 1998.

FAO Development Series 1, 1993.Guidelines for Land Use Planning.

Zainuddin Ab. Shukor, ( n.a ) .National Report on Wetland in South China Sea, Malaysia.

Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia.2010.National Physical Plan 2.

M.ZainoraAsmawi. 2009.Wetland Management of Kuala Selangor Nature Park, Malaysia.

Asmawi, M. ( 2007 ) .The Attempts of Town Planning in Wetland Management in Peninsular Malaysia. Proceeding of International Seminar on Wetland and Sustainability. Johor.

Wetlands of Malaysia.Retrieved March 2014 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.malaysia.wetlaneodymiums. org

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