Cressa Cretica Linn: an Important Medicinal Plant Essay

Cressa Cretica Linn: An Important Medicinal Plant-A Review on Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties Sangeeta Rani1*, Sudhir Chaudhary1, Pradeep Singh1, Garima Mishra1, K - Cressa Cretica Linn: an Important Medicinal Plant Essay introduction. K. Jha1, R. L. Khosa2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Teerthanker Mahaveer College of Pharmacy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, 244001. 2 Deptt. of Pharmacy, Bharat Institute of Technology, Partapur Bypass, Delhi Road, Meerut. _____________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The importance of medicinal plants in traditional health care practices, providing clues to new areas of drug research and biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. Cressa cretica (Linn) belonging to family Convolvulaceae, commonly known as Rudravanti is a erect, small, dwarf shrub, usually grows in sandy or muddy saline habitats. Though almost all of its parts are used in traditional systems of medicines, leaves and roots are the most important parts which are used medicinally. The present article gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties. The review reveals that wide numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant which possesses activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, testicular functions, antifertility activities and various other important medicinal properties. It is known to possess flavonoids, heavy metals, lead, copper, zinc and nickel present in Cressa cretica. It contains terpenic compounds, syringaresinol-β-ddeglucoside, triacontanoic acid, stigmasterol, ursolic acids, β-amyrin and edible fixed oil. It also contains quercetin, n-octacosanol, scopoletin and umbelliferone. Keywords: Cressa cretica, Rudanti, pharmacological properties, scopoletin ____________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Many traditional medicines in use are derived from medicinal plants, minerals and organic matter. [1] A number of medicinal plants, traditionally used for over 1000 years named rasayana are present in herbal preparations of Indian traditional health care systems. [2] In Indian systems of medicine most practitioners formulate and dispense their own recipes. [3] Plant based drugs have been in use against various diseases since time immemorial. The primitive man used herbs as therapeutic agents and medicament, which they were able to procure 91


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Sangeeta Rani et al J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (1): 91-100 ______________________________________________________________________________ easily. The nature has provided abundant plant wealth for all living creatures, which possess medicinal virtues. [4] The important values of some plants have long been published but a large number of them remain unexplored as yet. So there is a necessity to explore their uses and to conduct pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties. [5] Herbal medicines have a strong traditional or conceptual base and the potential to be useful as drugs in terms of safety and effectiveness leads for treating different diseases. World Health Organization has made an attempt to identify all medicinal plants used globally and listed more than 20,000 species. [6] According to the WHO more than 80% of the world’s population realise on traditional herbal medicine for their primary health care. [7] Although herbal medicine has existed since the dawn of time, our knowledge of how plants actually affect human physiology remains largely unexplored. Numbers of plants are claiming various medicinal uses and many researches are going on in this view. India is one among the 25 hotspots of the richest and highly endangered eco-regions of the world. [8] Cressa cretica (Linn) belonging to family Convolvulaceae, commonly known as Rudravanti is a erect, small, dwarf shrub, [9] usually grows in sandy or muddy saline habitats along with the species Suaeda maritima, Salicornia europaea, Salsola soda, Limonium vulgare subsp. Serotnum, and Crypsis aculeate. [10] Variation in Cressa has been handled in two ways: extreme lumping into the single species C. cretica, or extreme splitting of every morphological variant into 19 species. [11-15] Those in the New World represent C. nudicaulis and C. truxillensis. [16-18] The two in the Old World, however, are still being placed in a single species, C. cretica. [15-21] Taxonomic classification Kingdom – Phyllum Class Subclass Order Family Genus Species –

Plantae Angiosperms Magnoliatae Asteridae Polemoniales Convolvulaceae Cressa Cretica

Synonyms Sanskrit Hindi Oriya Bengali Tamil Telugu Kannada Konkani Malayalam Marathi

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Rudanti Rudravanti Dahna Rudravanti Uppusanaga Uppugaddi, Uppusenaga Mullumaddugida Chaval Azhukanni Lona, Rudravanti


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Sangeeta Rani et al J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (1): 91-100 ______________________________________________________________________________ Geographical Source C. cretica is a remarkable salt tolerant plant, common in coastal areas [22] usually occurring in mono specific stands along the landward edge of marshes. [23] This plant is distributed throughout India, Timor, and Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Southern Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria). Morphology C. cretica L. is an erect, small, dwarf shrub [24] upto 38cm height. Roots are horizontal, geminate, with lateral branches leading upward to produce above-ground parts. It is a perennial sub shrub or herb, usually much-branched. Stems are at first erect and then become decumbent, apparently short-lived, gray appressed pilose to sericeous. Leaves on main branches are often larger than those on branchlets, the blade 1-12 mm long, lanceolate, ovate or elliptic- to scalelike, sessile, Peduncle lengths, stamen lengths, filament pubescence and ranges distinguish. [2528] Flowers are solitary, white or pink, axillary, 5-8 mm long, sessile or on short peduncles, bracteates, in spicate to head-like clusters at tips of branchlets, bracteoles unequal in length. Sepals ovate to obovate imbricate. Corolla salver form, the limb 5-lobed, the lobes mostly ovate, imbricate, spreading to reflexed. Stamens exserted; filaments filiform; styles exserted. Ovary 2locular, 4-ovulate; styles 2, distinct to the base; stigmas capitate. Fruit is capsular, ovoid, unilocular, 2-4-valved, and usually one-seeded. Seeds are 3-4 mm long, glabrous and smooth, and shining to reticulate, dark brown. [26,27,28]

Fig. Leaves & Flowers of Cressa cretica

Traditional Uses Traditionally, the plant is used in diabetes and asthma. It is used as an expectorant, stomachic, antibilious and altenative. [29] The plant has anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood and is useful in constipation, leprosy, asthma and urinary discharges. [30] It is reported to be antibilious, antitubercular and expectorant. [31, 32] The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. [32] Dry leaves of C. cretica crushed with sugar are used as emetic in Sudan. [33] Phytochemistry Bahar Ahmed (1998) reported the alc. ext. of fruits of Cressa cretica Linn. has afforded a new coumaranochromone glycoside, designated as cresoside. It has been characterized as 7,4’dihydroxy-5-methoxycoumaranochromone-7-O-β-D-glucoside on the basis of spectral and chem. methods. [34] Ramidi Ramachandran et al (2003) isolated eight acyclic terpenic compounds namely cressanyl 93

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Sangeeta Rani et al J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (1): 91-100 ______________________________________________________________________________ ester A, B, C, D, E, F and G, and cressatriterpenic acid were isolated from the air-dried and coarsely powdered aerial part extracts of C. cretica using

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