National cultural life is a happy marriage of many influences, as the indigenous Malay culture is assimilated and adapted to different strains in a practice typical of Malay temperament. To date, about 500 Filipinos live in Nassau Bahamas. They are inclusive of Doctors, nurses, accountants and housekeepers. The majority are housekeepers with health care workers being ranked second. This assignment seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Describe the cultural norms, values and religious practices of the Filipino Nationality Interview an individual from the culture/religion.
Some of them include: The Traditional Concept- The traditionalists holds that Filipino culture was developed due to the conglomeration of the physical, intellectual, and spiritual aspects. It assumed that underneath the independent and widely divergent culture as shown in the way of life, there is an underlying basic root of unity that holds the cultural thread together and infuses one clear, distinct substance through its vein. This includes the art of living, philosophy in life and attitudes towards God, nature and fellowmen (Wilma & Doris).
The Nationalistic View- This concept regards culture as the summation of the deeds of the people, the description of their past and present condition and expression of their values, thoughts and emotions and the depiction of their historic struggles to liberate themselves. True national culture is inextricably linked to the people’s needs, ideas, emotions and practices (Wilma & Doris). Cultural Dualism- This theory maintains that the Philippines is a transitional society dominated on one side by the traditional society and on the other side by the modern culture.
The norms and values of these two forces inevitably oppose each other, leading to conflicts in the life of the individual. Because of the conflict brought by the various foreign influences into the Philippines, the Filipinos have to engage into selective integration and modification of foreign influences into a distinct Filipino culture (Wilma & Doris). Belief System- Filipinos are religious. They have a strong belief in supernatural powers and view themselves as only speck in this wide universe. This belief in the supernatural powers taught them to trust prayers rather than hard work in the realization of their dreams.
Success is considered a blessing from above, a result of good luck and faith. It also taught them to value traits like perseverance, patience and endurance. Good is considered relative. What is considered good to one, may not be good to another. Happiness and success differ from one person to another. Elders, parents and superiors are respected and obeyed. Hospitality is one practice Filipinos believe in because it is their way of implementing the golden rule, “Do unto others what you want others do unto you. “(Wilma & Doris) Value System- cultural values are shared assumptions of what is right, good, or important.
Value actually guide man’s behavior and action as he relates himself n most situations in life. The Filipino values can best be seen from the aspects of personal and social relationships. Personally, the Filipino value more their honor and status than anything else. The majority of them takes care of their honor (Garland) rather than wealth (Wilma &Doris) In decision making, the Filipinos usually consult and take into consideration the consensus of the family members and the feelings of those who are to be affected. Socially, the Filipinos give more emphasis on social relationships.
This can be seen through the hospitality they give to their visitors and friends. They love o mingle with people particularly with friends and relatives. They engage themselves in mutual co-operation, which is best pictured through the “banning. ” (Wilma &Doris) In terms of emotions,. Women in the Philippines are highly regarded and respected and can be relied upon when it comes to family affairs. Family Dynamics- In the Philippine society, multidimensional households are accepted arrangements where respect and love for parents and older family members are taught and expected of the children.
Caring for aging relatives is integrated over time into these relationships and interdependence is deeply embedded in the culture (Wilma & Doris). Ball an- A common expression among Filipinos, in this rest on the fatalistic outlook and strong dependence on the “spirits” who will take care of everything if they are really meant for a person. Authoritarianism- Is the dependence of the Filipinos in a paternalistic rather than in a stern way upon the elders of the family, upon their boss, if unemployed, and upon people in authority as their father figure.
Individualism- is a pattern of behavior which characterizes the Filipino as self- centered. The desire to make a name for himself becomes the primary titivation for success. Amoral-prior- It is the individual’s highly emotional reaction to protect his honor and dignity when they are threatened or questioned and to retaliate (Wilma ) FILIPINO CULTURE TRADITIONS The Filipino people are rich in customs and traditions. Many of these are in connection with their family life such as dating, marriage and burial, religious (The Philippines-introduction).
Dating- A man who had the courage to ask for a date had to pass several tests. First, he got the permission of the girl’s parents to visit their daughter. Once he was permitted, his formal visit was in lull attendance of the older members of the family who also participated in the conversation. The hardest test was how to convince the girl to say yes because the woman played hard to get. She kept putting off her answer. When the man finally succeeded, the girl was strictly chaperoned during their date so that he was not even able to whisper romantic words (The Philippines-introduction).
Marriage- marriage is sacred to the Filipinos. One becomes the butt of jokes if he or she remains single. A bachelorhood is considered a potential competitor for the attention of a husband. Parents train their sons and daughters in the proper hooch of a mate. Both are reminded that if they marry, they had to get along well not just with one another but with their in-laws as well. Before marriage, the boy’s parents seek the approval of the girl’s parents for marriage with their daughter. This is called “Panamanian”.
The man’s parents often take along someone whom they believe is highly respected by the girl’s parents. This is especially when they fear that the girl’s parents would say no. The grandparents of the man also join the Panamanian. They first engage into discussions regarding the latest happenings and when the proper climate is established, the Nan’s father states the purpose of their visit, which is to ask for the girl’s hand in marriage. The girl’s parents are not expected to agree immediately. They will first talk about the shortcomings of their daughter.
If the future in-laws persist, the parents of the bride will then give their consent. The details of their marriage are discussed and agreed upon during the next visit of the future parents-in-law (The Philippines-introduction). Filipino Cuisine- The traditional Filipino diet is quite healthy and incorporates many different herbs and spices. Boiled rice, garlic and onions are staples of the Filipino diet ND are eaten with almost every meal. Other common foods include ground corn, rice noodles (Panic), mixed with vegetables (Pancakes), fish, pork, poultry and various fruits.
Common dishes amongst Filipino population are panic payable, lichen, cardiac, Lech flan, limpid and purple squid (The Philippines- introduction). Religious practices Before the introduction of Christianity, the Filipinos were mostly pagans. They worshipped spirits which they believed dwell in objects like trees, mountains and rivers. They worshipped nature, the sun the moon, and the stars. They also believed in a supreme God or deity. Because of their belief in a deity and in animate or living things their religion was called anima-dells.
It was not long after the Spain colonized the Philippines that the Filipinos become Christians. Today, the majority of the Filipinos are Catholics. (The Philippines-introduction). The Catholics Celebrations and Practices In spite of the diverse religious groups in the Philippines each with its particular practices; the Filipinos believe in only one God who is almighty and omnipotent. Religious practices show concern and love for one’s neighbors. Among the Catholics, the Ten Commandments has a patron saint The Fiesta Celebrations
Fiestas are held on the birthday of the patron saint celebrated with the holding of a novena, a nine-day devotion of masses followed by special prayers of praise to the patron saint. The plaza around the church is decorated with colorful buntings. On the ninth day which is the feast day of the saint, a high mass is celebrated by one or several priests. The plaza is transformed into a mini-market where ready-made clothes, toys, fruits, and native delicacies are sold. A brass band plays after the mass and then makes a round of the immediate vicinity playing popular Filipino songs, marches and kinsman.
This sets a happy, strives mood in the community with residents going on splurge entertaining relatives and friends from other towns (The Philippines-introduction). The town fiesta is an event that the residents look forward to. Three or four months before the fiesta, the family takes good care of a piglet and chickens earmarked for the fiesta. Of course, the fiesta is an occasion when friends and relatives can be together, enjoy each other’s account of the past year’s experiences and partake of the palatable dishes prepared for a day.
Children living out-of-town make a special effort to come home and be with their parents, elates, and friends for the fiesta. The fiesta is a Filipino heritage that has been handed down from generation. (The Philippines-introduction). The Christmas Celebration As soon as December sets in, everyone in the Philippines, young and old alike, are busy preparing for the biggest religious activity on December 25. Houses are cleaned, painted and decorated with new colorful curtains, Christmas decorations and multistoried lights.
Lanterns of different Christmas tree and a Belle are placed in the living rooms of the most homes. The nine-day masses or Miss De Gallo, celebrated at dawn when the coco starts o crow begin on December. These masses are well-attended in spite of the fact that those who attend wake up as early at three o’clock in the morning. As one walks to the church, one will notice the streets lined with small stores selling putt, baaing and putt bombing. The climax of the Christmas celebration is a midnight mass on Christmas Eve, December 24. The family makes an effort to go this mass.
On Christmas day children dressed in their best attires visit innings, innings, relatives and friends. They kiss the hands of the elders as a sign of respect. In return the elders give hem money gifts or native delicacies. Christmas is for everyone and at no other time of the year is the family more complete. Even married children who are abroad make a special effort to be home in the Philippines for Christmas. (The Philippines-introduction). The Holy Week (Catholic) Celebration The Lent season is as significant to the Filipinos as Christmas.
Christian Filipinos commemorate the passion and death of Jesus Christ with as much sincerity and seriousness as His birth. On Ash Wednesday, the faithful go to church were a sign of the cross is imprinted with ashes on the forehead of every season. Chanting of the Passion (Chrism’s suffering before His death) in the native tongue of the region begins on Holy Week and is held at certain hours of the night. On Holy Thursday, the chanting goes on the whole day and night until the following morning. By Good Friday, the whole town is deep in meditation on the passion and death of Christ on the Cross.
In Church one can observe individuals as well as families praying the Stations of the Cross. Good Friday is a day of fasting and penance to atone for one’s sins. A penance quite common in the barrios is for a penitent to cover his face with a black cloth ND walk down the streets beating his back with thin bamboo sticks until blood oozes out of his wounds. In afternoon the devotees flock to church for sermon on the Seven Last Words of Jesus as he hung on the cross. Easter Sunday is a memorable day. The faithful wake up early for the saluting, a re-enactment of the Risen Lord’s meeting with His Mother at dawn.
There are many more religious celebrations and festivities observed by the Catholics in the Philippines which vary from community to community and all of which give honor and glory to Jesus Christ this is according to all Catholics believers. INTERVIEW AN INDIVIDUAL FROM FILIPINO CULTURE Define Health and Wellness When interviewed on April 26, 2014, Ms. Caboose confirmed that health in the Filipino culture is based on the principle of balance and harmony. Health is a result of being in balance, while illness is the result of an imbalance.
The Filipino people have beliefs about hot and cold, and felt that keeping the body in a warm condition promoted health, while a rapid change between hot and cold could bring on disease and illness. Principle of Balance (Timpani). This is a key indigenous health concept that includes a complex set of fundamental principles. A range of “hot’ and “cold” beliefs concerning balances in the body and food and dietary balances includes the following: Rapid shifts from “hot” to “cold” lead to illness. ‘Warm” environment is essential to maintain optimal health. Cold drinks or cooling foods should be avoided in the morning.
An overheated body (as in childbirth or fever) is vulnerable; and heated body or muscles can get “shocked” when cooled suddenly. A layer of fat (“being stout”) is preferred to maintain “warmth” and protect vital energy. Heat and cooling relate to quality and balance of air (hanging, ‘Winds”) in the body. Sudden changes in weather patterns, cool breezes or exposure in evening hours to low temperature, presence of hot sun immediately after a lengthy rain, vapors rising from the soil all may upset the body balance by simply blowing on the body surface. (Ms. S. Caboose 2014, peers, com.. April 26,) such as: 1) Flushing. The body is thought to be a vessel or container which can collect impurities and must be cleansed of debris by stimulating physiological events such as sweating, vomiting, expelling gas, or having appropriate volume of menstrual bleeding. 2) Heating. Related to balance described above ) Protecting: a gate keeping system to guard the body. Indigenous community resources. Cultural healers help to “protect” the body and treat supernaturally with herbal/medicinal treatments, incantations, and offerings. The helot is a type of ancient tribal priestess.
Babylon, a common Filipino indigenous practitioner, uses three types of treatment: prayers and rituals, herbal plants, and massage/manipulation of bones and body tissues. A helot usually is respectful of the value of medical care. An orbicular (herbalist) has special treatment skills with liquid infusion and dietary measures. Health Practices of the Filipino Filipino elders may often follow a pathway to seeking professional health care that begins with self-monitoring of symptoms to ascertain possible cause, severity, threat to one’s functional capacity, and economic and/or emotional inconvenience to the family.
Options are considered to either discuss the concern with a trusted family member, friend, or spiritual counselor/healer, or to self-administer natural and commercial remedies (such as herbs, food, teas, nonprescription medicines, nutritional supplements) (Ms. S. Caboose 2014, peers, com.. , April 26). Severe somatic symptoms such as pain, dizziness, lifelessness, loss of appetite, physical incapacitation would motivate elder and family members to seek advice and treatment from an indigenous diagnostician, a family member or friend who is a health professional, and/or formal medical care (Mrs..
S. Caboose 2014, peers, com.. , April 26). When interviewed on April 26, 2014 Ms. Caboose confirmed that the attributes that control the disease to adherence to treatment She further confirmed that although the value of such health practice was oriented more towards their role in the family and the desire to participate more fully in family and group life. They also engage in self- are practices that include diet management, exercise such as walking, singing, dancing, socializing, use of herbal oils and liniments, and healing massages, or visits to healers.
She said there are no healers in the Bahamas, but they are back in the Philippines. (Mrs.. S. Caboose 2014, peers, com.. , April 26) described several health symptoms as below: Pain (mistake) Most Filipinos can be stoic, so do not rely on the expression of pain to determine a person’s level of pain. Offer pain medications as ordered. Some patients have a high pain threshold. Understand the numeric scale of expressing pain. Filipinos re fearful of becoming addicted to narcotics. They hate shots, preferring to take medications by mouth or through an intravenous drip.
Offer warm compress when necessary. Some will moan as a way of expressing pain. Dyspepsia (Hindi making)-“can’t breathe Filipinos tend to get frantic when dyspeptic. They will hyperventilate and will use oxygen after some explanation. Some will be more anxious about using oxygen, associating it with the severity of the disease. Nausea and vomiting (Nassau (“nauseated”)- Because of modesty and shame, a Filipino patient will alert a nurse after vomiting. Some will clean up or throw away vomits. Some will ask the nurse for nausea medication.
Constipation or diarrhea- Filipinos become uncomfortable if routine bowel movement is disrupted. Because of modesty, they will disclose this to a nurse only when asked. They will accept measures to correct alteration in bowel functions, but enemas are used only as a last resort. Fatigue (pagoda- “tired”)- Filipinos are accustomed to taking naps in early afternoon. They hesitate to use sleeping pills for fear of addiction. Depression (lungful-“sad”)- Because of shame, they will not acknowledge depression to health care professionals unless asked.
Self care for symptom management- Filipinos do not respond to illness unless it is advanced, they have taken to bed or are In severe pan. Role of Religion in Healing Roman Catholic Church beliefs often shape Filipinos’ outlook on treatment and prevention methods. Medical procedures frowned upon by the catholic Church are: Interventions related to birth control, organ donations, euthanasia, and homosexual practices. Traditional Filipinos abide by the churches’ standards, for the church is more of a way of life rather than just faith (References).
SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS According to (Caboose, 2014), to a lot of Filipinos, superstitious beliefs are very racial in making decisions and planning an important event. The superstitious beliefs of Filipinos are often consulted especially during important occasions such as weddings, trips, moving to a new house, opening a business, finding a job and many more major events in life. A few are mentioned below: Before moving to a new house; you should bring the following to the house first: salt, rice, water and a religious image.
According to Filipino beliefs, bringing these items to the house before sunrise will help bring positive energy to the house which will help the occupants become successful. A child becomes smarter if you trim his hair when he is exactly one year old then inserts his cut hair between books. According to beliefs of some Filipinos; children are supposed to have their hair trimmed only if they are already one year old. Some strongly forbid trimming the kid’s hair if they are not yet one year old. According to some, it is best if you trim the child’s hair and insert the cut hair in books. The bride should never try on the wedding dress.
It is believed that if the bride tries on the wedding dress before the wedding takes place, the wedding will not pursue or something negative will occur. Black ants inside the house mean good luck. When black ants are parading inside the house, you should be happy because it means that there is something good brewing. It could mean money coming or a job promotion. 2. DISCUSS HOW THESE PRACTICES WILL IMPACT YOU AS MEDICAL -SURGICAL NURSE Knowledge about cultures and their impact on interactions with health care is essential for nurses working in the Medical Surgical Area whether in the clinical area, education, or administration.
As a nurse clinician, educator, and administrator it is important to understand that the culture of the nurse, the ultra of the patient as well as the culture of the health care setting all have impact on the care the patient receives as well as the person rendering care. As a clinician it is important to be knowledgeable about cultural diversity in order to plan, develop and implement care for the culturally diverse patient. Also to be sensitive and respectful when working with nurses of different ethnic or religious persuasions.
As an educator, cultural practices will have an impact on the CUrriCUla and information related to health care beliefs, values and practices. Training and in-service for staff should focus on cultural diversity and practices. As an administrator cultural diversity will have an impact on formulating and implementing policies and procedures that assist in ensuring access to care for varying cultural and religious beliefs. Some of the Filipinos practices are discussed below.
The Filipino population often do not like hospital food, and rather than complain they would become quiet and withdrawn. Being aware of this may help the nurse to ask questions, or offer something different if this behavior was noted. The relatives would be encouraged to provide meals for their relatives; failing this the dietician will be made aware of special meals for this patient. It was also important to note that diet restrictions may be difficult for some based on their cultural beliefs about food (McBride, M).