Difference between humanistic and psychoanalytical perspective Essay
The humanistic perspective is the view that identification with other humans is the most important association. Humanism is the philosophy that advocates a humanistic perspective of the world. Humanism generally states that human beings have basically the same needs and values regardless of their specific life circumstances. The humanistic identity stands in opposition to extreme forms of national, religious, racial, and gender identity. A management perspective that emerged around the late nineteenth century emphasized understanding human behavior needs and attitudes in the workplace.
Mary Parker Follett and Chester Barnard were early advocates of a more humanistic perspective on management that emphasized the importance of understanding human behaviors needs and attitude in the workplace as well as social interactions and group processes. These subfields based on the humanistic perspective: the human relations movement, the human resources perspective and the behavioral sciences approach. The Humanistic perspective offers a very positive viewpoint of human nature and potential.
Emphasizing the personal worth of each individual, this perspective suggests that we are each responsible for our own happiness and well-being as humans. We have the innate capacity for self-actualization which is our unique desire to achieve our highest potential as people. HUMANISTIC THEORISTS Humanistic theorists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are likewise concerned with the striving of the human spirit to seek meaning and self-fulfillment. Such a person lives life to the fullest, is rooted in the here and now and trusts his/her own feelings.
Rogers felt that while people are innately driven to be fully functioning, there are obstacles preventing them from achieving this objective. The focus of the humanistic perspective is on the self, which translates into “YOU”, and “your” perception of “your” experiences. This view argues that you are free to choose your own behavior, rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforces. Issues dealing with self-esteem, self-fulfillment, and needs are paramount. The major focus is to facilitate personal development. Carl Rogers feels that each person perates from a unique frame of reference in terms of building Self Regard or their self concept. Self Concept is one’s own belief about them. These beliefs stem, in part, from the notion of Unconditional Positive Regard and Conditional Positive Regard. Unconditional positive regard occurs when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. Rogers’s theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest; hence, they are seen as fully functioning people.
Abraham Maslow feels that individuals have certain needs that must be met in an hierarchical fashion, from the lowest to highest. These include basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, Self-Actualization. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the needs must be achieved in order. For instance, one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been met. PSYCOANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVE The psychoanalytic approach focuses on the importance of the unconscious mind (not the conscious mind).
In other words, psychoanalytic perspective dictates that behavior is determined by your past experiences that are left in the unconscious mind (people are unaware of them). This perspective is still based on Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective about early experiences being so influential on current behavior. The Unconscious Revealed Defense Mechanisms: Defense Mechanisms – one way the ego deals with anxiety • They can operate unconsciously • Can distort, transform, or falsify reality • If used all the time or to an extreme degree, it’s pathological.
As a therapy, psychoanalysis is based on the concept that individuals are unaware of the many factors that cause their behavior and emotions. These unconscious factors have the potential to produce unhappiness, which in turn is expressed through a score of distinguishable symptoms, including disturbing personality traits, difficulty in relating to others, or disturbances in self-esteem or general disposition. In addition to being a therapy, psychoanalysis is a method of understanding mental functioning and the stages of growth and development.
Psychoanalysis is a general theory of individual human behavior and experience, and it has both contributed to and been enriched by many other disciplines. Psychoanalysis seeks to explain the complex relationship between the body and the mind and furthers the understanding of the role of emotions in medical illness and health. In addition, psychoanalysis is the basis of many other approaches to therapy. Many insights revealed by psychoanalytic treatment have formed the basis for other treatment programs in child psychiatry, family therapy, and general psychiatric practice.
Principles of Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis: Freud (1949) explains the principal tenets on which psychoanalytic theory is based. He begins with an explanation of the three forces of the psychical apparatus–the id, the ego, and the superego. The id has the quality of being unconscious and contains everything that is inherited, everything that is present at birth, and the instincts The ego has the quality of being conscious and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id and of the instincts, becoming aware of stimuli, and serving as a link between the id and the external world.
In addition, the ego responds to stimulation by either adaptation or flight, regulates activity, and strives to achieve pleasure and avoid unpleasure (Finally, the superego, whose demands are managed by the id, is responsible for the limitation of satisfactions and represents the influence of others, such as parents, teachers, and role models, as well as the impact of racial, societal, and cultural traditions. Freud states that the instincts are the ultimate cause of all behavior. The two basic instincts are Eros (love) and the destructive or death instinct. The purpose of Eros is to establish and preserve unity through relationships.
On the other hand, the purpose of the death instinct is to undo connections and unity via destruction the two instincts can either operate against each other through repulsion or combine with each other through attraction. The four main phases in sexual development are the oral phase, the sadistic-anal phase, the phallic phase, and the genital phase, and each phase is characterized by specific occurrences. During the oral phase, the individual places emphasis on providing satisfaction for the needs of the mouth, which emerges as the first erotogenic zone (During the sadistic-anal phase, satisfaction is sought through aggression and in the xcretory function. During the phallic phase, the young boy enters the Oedipus phase where he fears his father and castration while simultaneously fantasizing about sexual relations with his mother The young girl, in contrast, enters the Electra phase, where she experiences penis envy, which often culminates in her turning away from sexual life altogether. Following the phallic phase is a period of latency, in which sexual development comes to a halt finally, in the genital phase, the sexual function is completely organized and the coordination of sexual urge towards pleasure is completed.
Errors occurring in the development of the sexual function result in homosexuality and sexual perversions, according to Freud. The basic objective of psychoanalysis is to remove neuroses and thereby cure patients by returning the damaged ego to its normal state During analysis, a process that often takes many years, patients tell analysts both what they feel is important and what they consider to be unimportant. An aspect of analysis that has both positive and negative repercussions is transference, which occurs when patients view their analysts as parents, role models, or other figures from their past.
Transference causes patients to become concerned with pleasing their analysts and, as a result, patients lose their rational aim of getting well. The method of psychoanalysis involves several significant steps. First, analysts gather material with which to work from patients’ free associations, results of transference, dream interpretation, and the patients’ slips and parapraxes Second, analysts begin to form hypotheses about what happened to the patients in the past and what is currently happening to them in their daily life.
It is important that analysts relay the conclusions at which they arrive based on their observations only after the patients have reached the same conclusions on their own accord. Should analysts reveal their conclusions to patients too soon, resistance due to repression occurs. Overcoming this resistance requires additional time and effort by both the analysts and the patients.