The first teacher of Rizal was his mother. On her lap, he learned at the age of 3, the alphabet and the prayers. Rizal’s parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home. The first was Maestro Celestino and the second, Maestro Lucas Padua. Later, an old man named Leon Monroy, a former classmate of Rizal’s father, became his tutor. One Sunday afternoon in June, 1869, Jose and his brother Paciano left Calamba for Binan. The next morning (Monday) Paciano brought Jose to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz.
In the afternoon of his first day in school, Jose met the bully, Pedro. He was angry at this bully for making fun of him during his conversation with the teacher. Jose challenged Pedro to a fight. Jose, having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel, defeated the bigger boy. After the class, a classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match. Jose, having the weaker arm,he lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk. Near the school was the house of an old painter, called Juancho. Jose spent hours at the painter’s studio.
Juancho freely gave him lessons in drawing and painting. Jose and his classmate, Jose Guevarra, who also loved painting, became apprentices of the old painter. In academic studies, Jose beat all Binan boys. He surpassed them all in Spanish, Latin, and other subjects. They were all jealous of his intellectual superiority. Before the Christmas season in 1870, Jose received a letter from his sister Saturnina, informing him of the arrival of the steamer Talim which would take him from Binan to Calamba. He left Binan on Saturday afternoon, December 17, 1870.
On the night of January 20, 1872, the Gom-Bur-Za (Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora), despite the archbishop’s plea for clemency because of their innocence, were executed at sunrise, February 17, 1872, by the order of Governor General Izquierdo. Their martyrdom was deeply mourned by the Rizal family especially Paciano and many other patriotic families in the Philippines. Before June of 1872, Dona Teodora was suddenly arrested on a malicious charge that she and her brother, Jose Alberto, tried to poison the latter’s perfidious wife.
After arresting Dona Teodora, the sadistic Spanish lieutenant forced her to walk from Calamba to Santa Cruz (capital pf Laguna Province), a distance of 50 kilometers. Upon arrival in Santa Cruz, she was incarcerated at the provincial prison, where she languished for two years and a half until the Manila Royal Audiencia (Supreme Court) acquitted her of the alleged crime. Scholastic Triumphs at Ateneo de Manila (1872-1877) Jose, who had not yet celebrated his 11 th birthday, was sent to Manila. He studied in the Ateneo Municipal, a college under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits.
On June 10, 1872, Jose, accompanied by Paciano, went to Manila. He took the entrance exams on Christian doctrine, arithmetic, and reading at the College of San Juan de Letran, and passed them. But his father changed his mind and decided to send him to Ateneo instead. At first, Father Magin Ferrando, the college registrar, refused to admit him for two reasons: (1) he was late for the registration and (2) he was sickly and undersized for his age. Rizal was then 11yrs. old. However, upon the intercession of Manuel Xerez Burgos, nephew of Father Burgos, he was admitted. He boarded in a house outside Intramuros, on Caraballo St. , 25 min.
walk from the college. The system of education in the Ateneo was more advanced than that of other colleges in that period. It trained the character of the student by rigid discipline and religious instruction. It promoted physical culture, humanities, and scientific studies. Students were divided into two groups, namely: the “ Roman Empire” consisting of the internos (boarders) and the “Cathaginian Empire” composed of the externos (non-boarders). The best student in each “empire” was the emperor; the second best, the tribune; the third best, the decurion; the fourth best, the centurion; and the fifth best, the standard-bearer.
On his first day of class in June 1872, he met his first professor named Fr. Jose Bech. Being a newcomer and knowing little Spanish, Rizal was placed at the bottom of the class. At the end of the month, he became “emperor”. He was the brightest pupil in the whole class, and he was awarded a prize. To improve his Spanish, Rizal took private lessons in Santa Isabel College during noon recesses at three pesos. On March, 1873, Rizal returned to Calamba for summer vacation. Without telling his father, he went to Santa Cruz to visit his mother in prison. In his second term in school he once more became “emperor”.
At the end of the school year, he received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold medal. He triumphantly returned to Calamba in March, 1874 for the summer vacation. He visited his mother again in the provincial jail. He told his mother that he had a dream that she would be released in three months and it became true. It was during the summer vacation in 1874 in Calamba when Rizal began to take interest in reading romantic novels. His first favorite book was The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas. As a voracious reader, he read not only fiction, but also non-fiction.
Later Rizal read Travels in the Philippines by Dr. Feodor Jagor. In June 1874, Rizal returned to the Ateneo for his junior year. He won only one medal- in Latin. He failed to win the medal in Spanish because Spanish was not fluently sonorous. At the end of the school year (March 1875), Rizal returned to Calamba for the summer vacation. During his fourth year in Ateneo on June 16, 1875, he became an interno in the Ateneo. One of his professors that time was FR. Francisco de Paula Sanchez, a great educator and scholar. He topped all his classmates in all subjects and won five medals at the end of the school term.
On Commencement Day, March 23, 1877, Rizal, who was16yrs. old received the degree of Bachelor of Arts, with the highest honors. Rizal was a member of the academy of Spanish Literature and the Academy of Natural Sciences. Aside from writing poetry, he devoted his spare time to fine arts. He studied painting under the famous Spanish painter. Rizal, to developed his weak body, engaged himself in gymnastics and fencing. The first poem Rizal wrote during his days in the Ateneo was Mi Primera Inspiracion (My First Inspiration) which was dedicated to his mother on her birthday.
He also wrote Through Education Our Motherland Receives Light and The Intimate Alliance Between Religion and Good Education which showed the importance of religion in education. Shortly after his graduation, Rizal, who was then 16yrs old, experienced his first romance. The girl was Segunda Katigbak, a pretty 14 year-old Batanguenia from Lipa. Rizal came to know Segunda more intimately during his weekly visits in La Concordia College. It was indeed “love at first sight”. But it was hopeless since the very beginning because Segunda was already engaged to her townmate, Manuel Luz.
Rizal arrived by steamer in his hometown. He was saddened to find out about his mother’s growing blindness. COLLEGE EDUCATION April 1877 – Rizal at 16 years old, matriculated in the University of Sto . Tomas taking the course on Philosophy and Letters. He enrolled in this course for two reasons: (1) his father liked it and (2) he was “still uncertainas to what career to pursue” 1877-78 -During his first term he studied Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theodicy, and History of Philosophy. -Also studied in Ateneo and took the vocational course leading to the title of perito agrimensor (expert surveyor).
He excelled in all subjects obtaining gold medals in agriculture and topography. At the age of 17, he passed the final examination in the surveying course but he could not be granted at the title because he was below age. The title was issued to him on November 25, 1881 . He was then a Thomasian, he frequently visited the Ateneo. He had so many beautiful memories and whose Jesuit professors. He continued to participate actively in the Ateneo’s extra-curricular activities. He was the president of the Academy of Spanish Literature and secretary of the Academy of Natural Sciences .
He also continued his membership in the Marian Congregation of which he was the secretary 1878-79 -During the following term he received the Ateneo Rector’s Advice to study medicine, enrolling simultaneously in the preparatory medical course and the regular first yer medical course. Romances with Other Girls – Romantic dreamer “nevtar of love”. His sad experience with first love made him wiser in the ways of romance. After losing Segunda Katigbak, he paid court to a young woman in Calamba. He called her simply “Miss L” (fair with seductive and attractive eyes.
He suddenly stopped his wooing and the romance died natural death. Nobody knows who this woman was. He did not gave her name and gave two reasons for his change of heart namely: (1) the sweet memory of Segunda was still fresh in his heart and (2) his father did not like the family of “Miss L” During his sophomore yaer at the University of Santo Tomas , he borded the house of Dona Concha Leyva in Intramuros. The next door neighbors were Capitan Juan and Capitana Sanday Valenzuela from Pagsanjan, Laguna who had a charming daughter named Leonor. He courted her, was a tall girl with aregal bearing.
Sent her love notes written in invisible ink. Orang (pet name of Leonor Valenzuela). Her next roamance was with another Leonor — Leonor Rivera, his cousin from Camiling. 1879 – start of junior yaer at the university, he liveed in “Casa Tomasina”. His landlord-uncle had a pretty daughter, Leonor, a student at La Concordia College. Between them sprang a beautiful romance. Named her “Taimis” in order to camouflage their intimate relationship from their parents and friends. 1878 – When he was a freshman medical student at the University of Santo Tomas he experienced his first taste of Spanish brutality.
1879 – The Liceo Artistico-Literario(Artistic-Literary Lyceum) of Manila , a society of literary men and artists held a literary contest. It offered a prize for the best poem by Rizal, who was then eighteen years old, submitted his poem entitled A La Juvented Filipina(To the Filipino Youth). 1880 “The Council of the Gods” – The Artistic-Literary opened another literary contest to commemorate the fourthy centennial of the death of Cervantes Spain’s glorified man-of-letters author of Don Quixote and the contest was opened to both filipinos and Spaniards.
They awarded the first prize to Rizal’s work because of its literary superiority over the others. Aside from the two prize-winning works Rizal produced other poems and a zarzuela, Junto al Pasig(Beside the Pasig) May 1881 – (Summer month) He was still a medical student at the University of Santo Tomas went to pilgrimage to the town of Pakil , famous shrine of the Birhen Maria de los Dolores Rizal was the champion of the Filipino students in their frequent fights against the arrogant Spanish students.
1880 – Rizal founded a secret society of Filipino students in the University of Santo Tomas called Companerismo (Comradeship) whose members were called “Companions of Jehu” Rizal was unhappy at this Dominican Institution of higher learning because (1) the Dominican professor were hostile to him, (2) the Filipino students were racially discriminated against by the Spaniards, and (3) the method of instruction was obsolete and repressive.
In his novel, El Filibusterismo, he described how the Filipino students were humiliated and insulted by their Dominican professor and how backward the method of instruction was especially the teaching of the natural sciences. Rizal failed to win scholastic honors although his grades in the first year of the philosophy course were all “excellent” and were not impressive in the the four years of his medical course After finishing the fourth year o0f his medical course he decided to study in Spain . He could no longer endure the rampant bigotry, discrimination, and the hostility in the University of Santo Tomas .
Rizal did not seek his parents’ permission and blessings to go abroad because they will disapprove. November 3, 1882 – Rizal enrolled in the Universidad Central de Madrid (Central University of Madrid) in two courses — Medicine and Philosophy and Letters. Aside from his heavy studies, he studied painting and sculpture in the Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando; took lessons in French, German, and English under private instructors; and practiced fencing and shooting in Hall of Arms of Sanz y Carbonell.
His first thirst for knowledge of music, he visited the art galleries and museums and readbooks on all subjects under the sun, including military engineering in order to broaden his cultural background. 1882 -Rizal joined the Circulo Hispano-Filipino (Hispano Philippine Circle), a society of Spaniards and Filipinos. He wrote a poem entitled “Me Piden Versos” (They Ask Me For Verses) which he personally declaimed during the New Year’s Eve reception of the Madrid Filipinos held in the evening of December 31, 1882 A favorite pastime on Madrid was reading instead of gambling and flirting with women.
With the money he saved, he purchased books from second-hand bookstore. He was able to build a fair-sized private librarian. HIs collection of books included The Bible, Hebrew Grammar, Lives of the Presidents of the United States from Washington to Johnson, Complete Works of Voltaire(9 volumes), Complete Works of Horace (3 volumes) and etc. March 1883 – Rizal joined the Masonic Lodge called Acacia in Madrid November 15, 1890 – Rizal became a Master Mason February 15, 1892 – Rizal was awarded the diploma as Master Mason by Le Grand Orient de France in Paris November 20, 21 and 22, 1884 – Rizal involved in student demonstrations.
These were caused by the address of Dr. Miguel Morayta, professor of history, at the opening ceremonies of the academic year, in which he proclaimed “the freedom of science and the teacher”. June 21, 1884 – Rizal completed his medical course in Spain . He was conferred the Degree of Licentiate in Medicine by the Universidad Central de Madrid 1884-85 – He studied and passed all subjects leading to the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Due to the fact, he did not present the thesis required for graduation nor paid the corresponding fees, he was not awarded his Doctor’s diploma.
June 19, 1885 (his 24th birthday) – He was awarded the degree of Licentiate in Philosophy and Letters by the Universidad Central de Madrid. He became qualified to be a professor of humanities in any Spanish university. And by receiving his degree of Licentiate in Medicine he became a full-pledge physician, qualified to practice medicine. RIZAL’S CHILDHOOD DAYS (Childhood Years in Calamba) Earliest Childhood Memories: Jose Rizal had many beautiful memories of his childhood in his native town Calamba. It’s scenic beauties and it’s industrious, hospitable, and friendly folks profoundly affected his mind and character.
The happiest period of Rizal’s life was spent in this lakeshore town. The first memory of Rizal, in his infancy, was in the family garden when he was 3yrs. old. Because he was a frail, sickly and undersized, he was given the tenderest care by his parents. His father built a Nipa cottage for him to play in the daytime. Another childhood memory was the daily Angelus prayer. By nightfall, his mother gathered all the children at the house to pray the Angelus. He also remembered the aya (nurse maid) related to the Rizal children amy stories about the fairies; tales of buried treasure and trees blooming with diamonds, and other fabulous stories.
Of his sisters, Jose loved most the little Concha (Concepcion), who was a year younger than him. He played with her and from her he learned the sweetness of sisterly love. Unfortunately, Concha died of sickness in 1865 when she was only 3yrs. old. Jose cried bitterly at losing her. The death of Concha brought him his first sorrow. Rizal grew up a good catholic. At age of 3, he would take part in the family prayers. When he was 5yrs. old, he was able to read the Spanish family bible. He loved to go to church, to pray, to take part in novenas, and to join religious processions.
One of the men he esteemed and respect in Calamba was the scholarly Father Leoncio Lopez, the town priest. He used to visit him and listen to his stimulating opinions on current events and sound philosophy of life. On June 6, 1868, Jose and his father left Calamba to go on a pilgrimage to Antipolo, in order to fulfill his mother’s vow, which was made when Jose was born. After praying at the shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo, Jose and his father went to Manila to visit Saturnina, who was a boarding student in La Concordia College in Santa Ana.
Of the stories told by Dona Teodora, Jose remembered the Story of the Moth. The tragic fate of the young moth, which “died a martyr to it’s illusions”, left a deep impress on Rizal’s mind. He justified such noble death, asserting that “to sacrifice one’s life for it”, meaning for an ideal, is “worthwile”. And, like that young moth, he was fated to die as a martyr for a noble ideal. At age of 5, he began to make sketches with his pencil and to mould in his clay and wax objects. Jose had the soul of a genuine artist. He also loved to ride the
pony that which his father gave him and take long walks in the meadows and lakeshore with his black dog named Usman. Aside from his sketching and sculpturing talent, Rizal possessed a God-given gift for literature. At age of 8, Rizal wrote his first poem in the native language entitled Sa Aking Mga Kababata (To My Fellow Children). After writing his first poem, Rizal who was then 8yrs. old, wrote his first dramatic work which was a Tagalog comedy. Rizal was also interested in magic. He learned various tricks, such as making a coin disappear and making a handkerchief vanish in thin air.
He read many books on magic and attended performances of the famous magicians in the world. RIZAL’S CHILDHOOD Dr. Jose Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda or better known with the name Dr. Jose Rizal is a son of the couple Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro and Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda y Quintos. They lived in the foot ot Mt. Makiling and in the shore of the lake of Laguna with the ten more siblings of Rizal which are Saturnina, Paciano, Narcissa, Olimpia, Lucia, Maria, Jose, Concepcion, Josefa, Trinidad at Soledad. As a son and sibling, Jose was very loving.
Jose was just like all the other children. He believed in ghosts, sire on the mound, evil spirits, and other children’s stories. Rizal’s mom was responsible of teaching him the alphabet and she also made Rizal pray at three years old. Because of her surveillance, she discovered Rizal’s talent in writing poems. When she discovered it, she told Rizal to write even more. Rizal was sent to Binan for him to constinue his studies. He was accompanied by Paciano, whom he treated as a second father. They went to her aunt’s house where he would rent.
During his stay there, he felt really sad and homesick. On Rizal’s first day of school, Paciano brought the younger brother of MAESTRO JUSTINIANO AQUINO CRUZ. The school was in the teacher’s house, which is a bahay kubo. Rizal was asked if he knew how to speak in Latin and Spanish. He answered that he knows just a little bit of it. By the teacher’s question, he realized that he was being judged. In school, he was also sften times in trouble. He was even the one who started a rumble in ther school because his classmates were laughing at him.
Rizal as a child was not a troublemaker, but if someone gave him the chance to, he wouldn’t reject at all. Rizal had many troubles and a lot of rivals in school. On the other hand, he was still able to gain a lot of awards. The Rizal that was last in Latin became the first in class. There are those who envy him, that’s why they told their teachers a lot of bad things about Rizal. There were several lies that were thrown unto him that’s why he was beaten six times by his teacher. Also during this period, Rizal felt very sad and disappointment about the imprisonment of the GOMBURZA.
He heard of the war in Cavite and the execution of the three friars namely Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez, at Jacinto Zamora. Rizal was really hurt because Padre Jose Burgos was a very close student of Paciano. After the death of GOMBURZA, his mom helped Rizal because he was accused of poisoning his sister-in-law.. Rizal was very affected about this. The story of the life of Rizal is also written errors made by him. He also has a child like us all. He faced all the trials and never gave upHere I admire him. All the learnings from his mother had been followed.
Rizal was a loving brother and son. His offensive behavior is shown. In my opinion, we find people like him only once in a lifetime. Almost all teens are now in the modern age and they forget the teachings of their parents. Although we wouldn’t admit, we are one of the youth that always forget the teachings of our parents. Sometimes we forget that we must pray before eating. I admire Rizal for the teaching of the mother was taking him even though he is old already. ——————————————————————– JOSE RIZAL’S EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Rizal’s first teachers: 1. Dona Teodora – was his mother she was patient, conscientious and , understanding – she discovered that her son had a talent for poetry – she encouraged him to write poems 2. Private Tutors of Rizal – Maestro Celestino – Maestro Lucas – Leon Monroy Rizal goes to Binan,Laguna: – June, 1869 Rizal left for Binan – Was accompanied by Paciano his older brother – He was taught by Maestro Justiniano – In academic studies, Rizal beat all Binan boys – He surpassed them all in Spanish, Latin, and other subjects Life and Studies in Ateneo
– Ateneo De Municipal established by the Jesuits – Rizal entered in 1872 – He belonged to the class composed of Spaniards, mestizos and Filipinos – His teacher was Fr. Jose Bech – He was considered as an inferior and was placed at the buttom of the class – By the end of the month he became the emperor and received a prize, a religious picture – To improve his Spanish Rizal took private lessons in Santa Isabel College – During his 4th year in Ateneo he received 5 medals and graduated as sobresaliente – He graduated on March 23, 1877(16 years old)
– Received the degree of bachelor of arts, with highest honors not a valedictiorian Extra Curricular Involvement – an emperor inside the classroom – campus leader – active member and became a secretary, the Marian Congregation Religious Society – member of the Academy of Spanish Literature and the Academy of Natural Sciences – poet – studied painting under the famous Spanish Painter, Agustin Saez – improved his sculpture talents under the supervision of Romualdo de Jesus – engaged in gymnastics and fencing and continued the physical training under his sports-minded Tio Manuel.
Medical Studies in University of Sto. Thomas (1877-1882) – After graduating , he continued his education at UST – He finished a year in Philosophy and Letters – He decided to shift to a medical course – UST was under the Dominicans , rival of the Jesuits in education – Remained loyal to Ateneo participated in extracurricular activities in Ateneo and completed a course in surveying – As a Thomasian he won more literary laurels – During his first term in 1877-1878 in UST, he studied Cosmology, Metaphysics , Theodicy and History of Philosophy.
– It was during the school term 1878-1879 that Rizal pursued his studies in medicine Reasons why Rizal wanted to study Medicine: – He wanted to be a physician so that he could cure his mother’s failing eyesight – Fr. Pablo Ramon, the Father Rector of Ateneo whom he consulted for a choice of career, finally answered his letter , and recommended medicine Pre- Med Course – Curso de Ampiacion or Advanced course in Physics, Chemistry and Natural History.
– Out of the 28 young men taking Ampliacion only four including Rizal were granted the privilege of taking simultaneously the preparatory course and the first year of medicine – Rizal also received his four year practical training in medicine at the Hospital de San Juan de Dios in Intramuros – During his last year at the University, Rizal had obtained the global grade of Notable(Very Good) in all of his subjects, and he was the second best student in a decimated class of seven who passed the medicine course.
After which, Rizal decided to study in Spain. Academic Journey To Spain ( 1882-1885 ) – His departure for Spain was kept secret from Spanish Authorities, friars and even his parents especially his mother because she would not allow him to go – To avoid detection , he used the name Jose Mercado
– On May 3, 1882 he boarded on Salvadora bound for Singapore where he was the only Filipino passenger – On November 3, 1882, he enrolled in Universidad Central de Madrid taking up two courses: Philosophy an Letters and Medicine – On June 21, 1884 , he conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine – The Following academic year , he studied and passed all subjects leading to the degree of doctor of medicine – Unfortunately, he was not able to submit the thesis required for graduation nor paid the corresponding fees – With that, he was not awarded his Doctor’s Diploma
– Jose Rizal also finished his studies in Philosophy and Letters with higher grades – He was awarded the Degree of Licentiate in Philosophy and Letters by the Universidad Central de Madrid June 19, 1885 with the rating of excellent. Opthalmology studies and travels in Europe – Jose Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology. Among all branches, he chose this specialization because he wanted to cure his mother’s failing eyesight.
– In 1885, after studying at the Universidad Central de Madrid, Rizal, who was then 24 years old, went to Paris to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology Rizal friends in Europe: – Maximo Viola – Senor Eusebio Corominas – Don Miguel Morayta – Dr. Louis de Weckert – On February 3, 1886, after gathering some experience in ophthalmology, he left Paris and went to Heidelberg, Germany – He worked at the University Eye Hospital under the direction of Dr.
Otto Becker, a distinguished German ophthalmologist – On April 22, 1886, Rizal wrote a poem entitled A Las Flores de Heidelberg (To the Flowers of Heidelberg) because he was fascinated by the blooming flowers along the Neckar River, which was the light blue flower called “forget-me-not”. – On August 14, 1886, Rizal arrived in Leipzig. There, he attended some lectures at the University of Leipzig on history and psychology Resons Why Rizal choose to reside in germane longer: – to gain further his studies in science and languages
– to observe the economic and political conditions of the German nation – to associate with the famous scientists and scholars – lastly to publish his novel Noli Me Tangere Jose Rizal earned a Licentiate in Medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid, where he also took courses in philosophy and literature. It was in Madrid that he began writing Noli Me Tangere. He also attended classes in the University of Paris and, in 1887, he completed his eye specialization course at the University of Heidelberg. It was also in that year that Rizal’s first novel was published in Berlin.