Ecohejdi Research Paper During the 1500 Essay
Ecohejdi Essay, Research Paper
During the 1500 & # 8217 ; s to 1800 & # 8217 ; s, the strength and stature of a state dependedupon its political power, which can be traced to how self-sufficing itwas. Endeavoring to be self-sufficing was what states sought after ; dependence was non a feature of a powerful state. Raw materialswere the most needed point to beef up the cardinal authorities, and deterinteractions, such as trade with other states. The first state tointroduce mercantile system in America was Spain. The Spanish American colonieswere non allowed to merchandise straight with Europe. Alternatively they had to funnelall of the sugar and baccy, two common commdities of the new land, through Spain. When this was done, heavy usage responsibilities were imposed andthe cardinal authorities gained. Spanish American settlements were forced intoproviding cherished metals and natural stuffs to the female parent state. Thesecolonies existed merely to enrich Spain, even if the economic policiesadversly effected the wellbeing of the settlements. This clasp caused thecentral economic system of Spain to turn at the disbursal of the settlements. Duringthe continuance of this period, the 1500 & # 8217 ; s through the 1700 & # 8217 ; s, mercantilismhad a major consequence on the economic systems in the new universe. English speakingcolonies were effected by England & # 8217 ; s policies and Acts of the Apostless. These policies andacts were agencies of commanding the economic system of the settlements in America andstrengthen the cardinal authorities of England. Dutch bargainers had the commercial vas market good cornered in the 1640 & # 8217 ; s. It was really hard for English settlements to vie with the Dutch. With having 75 per centum of Northern Europes & # 8217 ; vass, being well-financedand experienced, the Dutch were traveling to remain in control of the marketunless European Parliament intervined. In 1651 the European parliamentenacted the first Navigation Act to undersell the Dutches domination. England was trusting that this Act would except the Dutch from trade withthe English and coerce its ain merchandiser Marine to turn. This act was thefirst effort to implement merchantilism by England. The act proclaimed thatall trade between France and English settlements, Europe and English settlements, and the settlements with themselves must be conducted on an English ship ( Kurland ) . The British were trusting that this would hike the economic system andexpand the mercant Marine. The failure of this act was caused byinadequate machinery to implement the jurisprudence. The English settlements publiclydefied the act and maintain on trading with the Dutch. The Restoration of Charles II brought about major alterations in 1660. All ofthe Acts of the Apostless of the Commonwealth Parliament, including the Navigation Act of1651, were considered illigal under his regulation ( Kurland ) . Charles II did notintend on making off with the act, but revising it. The Navigation Act of1660 was a restatement of the 1651 act, but it besides established a list ofitems including: baccy, cotton, wool, and anil, that couldn & # 8217 ; t beshipped outside of the British imperium ( Barck and Lefler ) . This Act madethe English settlements frusterated for they could acquire a higher monetary value forthese points outside of the British imperium. The Navigation Act worked as adisadvantage to the settlements, but helped the cardinal economic system and governmentof the British by excepting such natural stuffs from trade to othercountries. The Staple Act of 1663 was an outgrowth of the Navigation Acts. It statedthat all European goods edge for the American settlements must foremost set down atan English port and so be reshipped to America in English vass ( Kurland ) . The British would profit from this act by enforcing customduties on goods, which cost would be passed to the American consumer. Theenglish merchandisers would gain from managing, insurance, and transportation fees. This Act besides provided for a naval officer in all colonial ports to insurethe upholding of the mercantile jurisprudence. From the American base point, theStaple Act meant higher monetary values and a blazing effort of the British toexploit America for the benefit of the English merchandisers. There was noneed for the Staple Act to be passed. The Act served no other purposeother than the enrichment of the British people and beef uping of thecentral authorities. Another illustration of the British seeking to exercise control over America waswith the Molasses Act of 1733. This Act imposed a responsibility of nine pence pergallon on rum, six pence per gallon on molasses, and five shillings perhundredweight of sugar imported from Gallic or Spanish settlements. The wasno revenue enhancement put on British rum, molasses, or sugar imported from BritishColonies. The British, seeking to command the American settlements, werelargely uneffective. The act was immensely ignored by the Americans. TheAmericans were non traveling to obey a jurisprudence passed by the English, when theenglish had no manner of implementing it. The English settlements were drawing off
from the alligence to Britain. The British wanted the settlements to buildthe political power of B
ritain, without getting anything in return. TheBritish wanted to use up all of the resources and raw materials of America,without the colonies resisting. After the British recognized that the Molasses Act was ineffective, theyamended it with the Suger Act (Morison and Commager). Bribing customsofficals into taking 1 and a half pence per gallon not to notice the cargobeing unloaded was how the Molasses Act failed. To do away with thisproblem, the British cut the tax by fifty percent and strickly enforced it. Now the colonies were objecting to the decreased tax. Before, the tax wasnot collected or enforced so the Americans were happy. Now that the taxwas collected the Americans were feeling the threat of British rule. TheBritish government was regarding the colonies as a source of revenue. Thecolonies also noticed how the money was being spent and objected to it. The British talked of how they needed money to support troops in America. The troops were not there to protect the colonies, but to enforce Britishrule. The troops were stationed at ports, not in the interior where thethreat of attack was the greatest. America existed for the sole purpose ofstrengthening the central government of England. Unlike the rest of the Acts passed for the improvement of the britishgovernment, the Stamp Act caused the biggest political storm. Everyonefrom small farmers to merchants were effected. The parliament wanted thecolonist to pay for some imperial expenses. To do this, parliament passedthe Stamp Act in 1765. This law made it illigal to puchase any paper,newspapers, customs documents, various licenses, college diplomas, andnumerous legal forms for recovering debts, buying land, and making willswithout a stamp bought buy the British. The law enabled the British notonly to generate revenues, but censor all materials going into the public. The British would simply not stamp any material, such as a newspaper, thatwere putting any comments about the British that were bad. The Americancolonies did not reciate this law at all. They protested it with avengance claiming, “Taxation without representation is slavery.” Theworking-class’s approach to this problem is to riot, gather great mobs andburn things, and beat up the tax collectors. The upper-class’s way ofhandling this was to make reforms and go about changing this in a civilizedmanner. Everyone in the colonies could agree that the Stamp Act was aselfish law made by the British to control the media and aquire revenues atthe expense of the colonies. During 1790 to 1795, mercantilism helped spark the economy of America underHamiltons authority. Hamilton wanted all foreign debts, amounting to 11.7million, to be payed off in full (Kurland). This would establish a veryhigh credit rating with other nations and help the government createpolitical power. Other debts the Hamilton required to be payed off orassumed were the 40 million in Confederation war bonds and 28 million indebts of individual states (kurland). For the good of the creating a casheconomy and strengthing the U.S. credit rating, Hamilton wanted to induce aBank of the United States under the “implied powers” clause. The system ofbanking he purposed was very similar to that of Englands. Founded in 1791,the Bank of the United States had the duties of financing the federalgovernment during war, regulating credit, and producing sound currency. Hamilton also had the idea of making the bank privately owned, so it wouldrun proficiently. This would give the federal government a backbone duringtimes of war or emergencies and make it much more powerful. Hamilton alsocalled for American self-sufficiency. The report on Manufactures of 1791,written by Hamilton, promoted tariffs on imports to protect manufacturingand create national wealth. America was building its political power bymanipulating its economy. What the British were once doing to thecolonies, the colonies were now doing to themselves. America was using theidea of mercantilism to run the country and build political power. In conclusion, the whole purpose for England to develope and carry out theActs they passed were to stay in control of the colony’s economy and bettertheir central government. The British troops were not there to protect,but to carry out english laws. The Stamp Act was developed to control themedia and legal documents so the colonies wouldn’t stray away and acquiretheir own system. The Navigation Act was to stop the dominating Dutch fromtaking over the commercial vessel industry and build up Englands merchantmarine. The Molasses and Sugar Acts were to make America pay for its socalled troops and help British merchants. Britains mercantilistic ideas inthese Acts show their disregard for the new colonies and the exploitationof their resources. After the War for Independence, America took somemercantilistic ideas to begin building their political power and economy.