EDUCATION SYSTEM IN PRE INDEPENDENT INDIA ANCIENT INDIA The Hindu tradition India is the site of one of the most ancient civilizations in the world. The Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India in the 2nd millennium BCE established large-scale settlements and founded powerful kingdoms. In the course of time, a group of intellectuals, the Brahmans, became priests and men of learning; another group, of nobles and soldiers, became the Kshatriyas; the agricultural and trading class was called the Vaishyas; and artisans and labourers became the Shudra.
Such was the origin of the division of the Hindus into four varnas, or “classes. ” Religion was the mainspring of all activities in ancient India. It was of an all-absorbing interest and embraced not only prayer and worship but also philosophy, morality, law, and government as well. Religion saturated educational ideals too, and the study of Vedic literature was indispensable to higher castes. The stages of instruction were very well defined. During the first period, the child received elementary education at home.
The beginning of secondary education and formal schooling was marked by a ritual known as the upanayana, or thread ceremony, which was restricted to boys only and was more or less compulsory for boys of the three higher castes. The Brahman boys had this ceremony at the age of 8, the Kshatriya boys at the age of 11, and the Vaishya boys at the age of 12. The boy would leave his father’s house and enter his preceptor’s ashrama, a home situated amid sylvan surroundings. The acharya would treat him as his own child, give him free education, and not charge anything for his boarding and lodging.
The pupil had to tend the sacrificial fires, do the household work of his preceptor, and look after his cattle. The study at this stage consisted of the recitation of the Vedic mantras (“hymns”) and the auxiliary sciences—phonetics, the rules for the performance of the sacrifices, grammar, astronomy, prosody, and etymology. The character of education, however, differed according to the needs of the caste. For a child of the priestly class, there was a definite syllabus of studies. The trayi-vidya, or the knowledge of the three Vedas—the most ancient of Hindu scriptures—was obligatory for him.
During the whole course at school, as at college, the student had to observe brahmacharya—that is, wearing simple dress, living on plain food, using a hard bed, and leading a celibate life. The period of studentship normally extended to 12 years. For those who wanted to continue their studies, there was no age limit. After finishing their education at an ashrama, they would join a higher centre of learning or a university presided over by a kulapati (a founder of a school of thought). Advanced students would also improve their knowledge by taking part in philosophical discussions at a parisad, or “academy. Education was not denied to women, but normally girls were instructed at home. The method of instruction differed according to the nature of the subject. The first duty of the student was to memorize the particular Veda of his school, with special emphasis placed on correct pronunciation. In the study of such literary subjects as law, logic, rituals, and prosody, comprehension played a very important role. A third method was the use of parables, which were employed in the personal spiritual teaching relating to the Upanishads, or conclusion of the Vedas.
In higher learning, such as in the teaching of Dharma-shastra (“Righteousness Science”), the most popular and useful method was catechism—the pupil asking questions and the teacher discoursing at length on the topics referred to him. Memorization, however, played the greatest role. The introduction of Buddhist influences By about the end of the 6th century bce, the Vedic rituals and sacrifices had gradually developed into a highly elaborate cult that profited the priests but antagonized an increasing section of the people.
Education became generally confined to the Brahmans, and the upanayana was being gradually discarded by the non-Brahmans. The formalism and exclusiveness of the Brahmanic system was largely responsible for the rise of two new religious orders, Buddhism and Jainism. Neither of them recognized the authority of the Vedas, and both challenged the exclusive claims of the Brahmans to priesthood. They taught through the common language of the people and gave education to all, irrespective of caste, creed, or sex. Buddhism also introduced the monastic system of education.
Monasteries attached to Buddhist temples served the double purpose of imparting education and of training persons for priesthood. A monastery, however, educated only those who were its members. It did not admit day scholars and thus did not cater to the needs of the entire population. Meanwhile, significant developments were taking place in the political field that had repercussions on education. The establishment of the imperialistic Nanda dynasty about 413 bce and then of the even stronger Mauryas some 40 years later shook the very foundations of the Vedic structure of life, culture, and polity.
The Brahmans in large numbers gave up their ancient occupation of teaching in their forest retreats and took to all sorts of occupations, the Kshatriyas abandoned their ancient calling as warriors, and the Shudras, in their turn, rose from their servile occupations. These forces produced revolutionary changes in education. Schools were established in growing towns, and even day scholars were admitted. Studies were chosen freely and not according to caste. Taxila had already acquired an international reputation in the 6th century bce as a centre of advanced studies and now improved upon it.
It did not possess any college or university in the modern sense of the term, but it was a great centre of learning with a number of famous teachers, each having a school of his own. In the 3rd century bce Buddhism received a great impetus under India’s most celebrated ruler, Ashoka. After his death, Buddhism evoked resistance, and a counterreformation in Hinduism began in the country. About the 1st century ce there was also a widespread lay movement among both Buddhists and Hindus.
As a result of these events, Buddhist monasteries began to undertake secular as well as religious education, and there began a large growth of popular elementary education along with secondary and higher learning. CLASSICAL INDIA The 500 years from the 4th century CE to the close of the 8th, under the Guptas and Harsha and their successors, is a remarkable period in Indian history. It was the age of the universities of Nalanda and Valabhi and of the rise of Indian sciences, mathematics, and astronomy.
The university at Nalanda housed a population of several thousand teachers and students, who were maintained out of the revenues from more than 100 villages. Because of its fame, Nalanda attracted students from abroad, but the admission test was so strict that only two or three out of 10 attained admission. More than 1,500 teachers discussed more than 100 different dissertations every day. These covered the Vedas, logic, grammar, Buddhist and Hindu philosophy (Sankhya, Nyaya, and so on), astronomy, and medicine. Other great centres of Buddhist learning of the post-Gupta era were Vikramashila, Odantapuri, and Jagaddala.
The achievements in science were no less significant. Aryabhata in the late 5th century was the greatest mathematician of his age. He introduced the concepts of zero and decimals. Varahamihira of the Gupta age was a profound scholar of all the sciences and arts, from botany to astronomy and from military science to civil engineering. There was also considerable development of the medical sciences. According to contemporaries, more than eight branches of medical science, including surgery and pediatrics, were practiced by the physicians.
These were the main developments in education prior to the Muslim invasions, beginning in the 10th century. Nearly every village had its schoolmaster, who was supported from local contributions. The Hindu schools of learning, known as pathasalas in western India and tol in Bengal, were conducted by Brahman acharyas at their residence. Each imparted instruction in an advanced branch of learning and had a student enrollment of not more than 30. Larger or smaller establishments, specially endowed by rajas and other donors for the promotion of learning, also grew in number.
The usual centres of learning were either the king’s capital, such as Kanauj, Dhar, Mithila, or Ujjayini, or a holy place, such as Varanasi, Ayodhya, Kanchi, or Nasik. In addition to Buddhist viharas (monasteries), there sprang up Hindu mathas (monks’ residences) and temple colleges in different parts of the country. There were also agrahara villages, which were given in charity to the colonies of learned Brahmans in order to enable them to discharge their scriptural duties, including teaching.
Girls were usually educated at home, and vocational education was imparted through a system of apprenticeship. Indian influences on Asia An account of Indian education during the ancient period would be incomplete without a discussion of the influence of Indian culture on Sri Lanka and Central and Southeast Asia. It was achieved partly through cultural or trade relations and partly through political influence. Khotan, in Central Asia, had a famous Buddhist vihara as early as the 1st century CE. A number of Indian scholars lived there, and many Chinese pilgrims remained there instead of going to India.
Indian pandits (scholars) were also invited to China and Tibet, and many Chinese and Tibetan monks studied in Buddhist viharas in India. The process of Indianization was at its highest in Southeast Asia. Beginning in the 2nd century ce, Hindu rulers reigned in Indochina and in the numerous islands of the East Indian archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea for a period of 1,500 years. A greater India was thus established by a general fusion of cultures. Some of the inscriptions of these countries, written in flawless Sanskrit, show the influence of Indian culture.
There are references to Indian philosophical ideas, legends, and myths and to Indian astronomical systems and measurements. Hinduism continued to wield its influence on these lands so long as the Hindus ruled in India. This influence ceased by the 15th century CE. MEDIEVAL ERA AND DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION SECTOR During its medieval period, India was ruled by dynasties of Muslim culture and religion. Muslims from Arabia first appeared in the country in the 8th century, but the foundation of their rule was laid much later by Mu? ammad Ghuri, who established his power at Delhi in 1192.
The original Muslim rule was replaced successively by that of the Muslim Pashtuns and Mughals. The foundations of Muslim education Muslim educational institutions were of two types—a maktab, or elementary school, and a madrasa, or institution of higher learning. The content of education imparted in these schools was not the same throughout the country. It was, however, necessary for every Muslim boy at least to attend a maktab and to learn the necessary portions of the Qur? an required for daily prayers. The curriculum in the madrasa comprised ? dith (the study of Muslim traditions), jurisprudence, literature, logic and philosophy, and prosody. Later on, the scope of the curriculum was widened, and such subjects as history, economics, mathematics, astronomy, and even medicine and agriculture were added. Generally, not all the subjects were taught in every institution. Selected madrasas imparted postgraduate instruction, and a number of towns—Agra, Badaun, Bidar, Gulbarga, Delhi, Jaunpur, and a few others—developed into university centres to which students flocked for study under renowned scholars.
The sultans and amirs of Delhi and the Muslim rulers and nobles in the provinces also extended patronage to Persian scholars who came from other parts of Asia under the pressure of Mongol inroads. Delhi vied with Baghdad and Cordoba as an important centre of Islamic culture. Indian languages also received some attention. The Muslim rulers of Bengal, for example, engaged scholars to translate the Hindu classics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata into Bengali. Under the Pathan Lodis, a dynasty of Afghan foreigners (1451–1526), the education of the Hindus was not only neglected but was often adversely affected in newly conquered territories.
The rulers generally tolerated Sanskrit and vernacular schools already in existence but neither helped the existing ones financially nor built new ones. At early stages, the maktabs and madrasas were attended by Muslims only. Later, when Hindus were allowed into high administrative positions, Hindu children began to receive Persian education in Muslim schools. The Mughal period The credit for organizing education on a systematic basis goes to Akbar (1542–1605), a contemporary of Queen Elizabeth I of England and undoubtedly the greatest of Mughal emperors.
He treated all his subjects alike and opened a large number of schools and colleges for Muslims as well as for Hindus throughout his empire. He also introduced a few curricular changes, based on students’ individual needs and the practical necessities of life. The scope of the curriculum was so widened as to enable every student to receive education according to his religion and views of life. The adoption of Persian as the court language gave further encouragement to the Hindus and the Muslims to study Persian. Akbar’s policy was continued by his successors Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
But his great-grandson Aurangzeb (1618–1707) changed his policy with regard to the education of the Hindus. In April 1669, for instance, he ordered the provincial governors to destroy Hindu schools and temples within their jurisdiction; and, at the same time, he supported Muslim education with a certain religious fanaticism. After his death, the glory of the Mughal empire began gradually to vanish, and the whole country was overrun by warlords. During the Mughal period, girls received their education at home or in the house of some teacher living in close proximity.
There were special arrangements for the education of the ladies of the royal household, and some of the princesses were distinguished scholars. Vocational education was imparted through a system of apprenticeship either in the house of ustads (teachers) or in karkhanahs (manufacturing centres). Muslim rulers of India were also great patrons of literature and gave considerable impetus to its development. Akbar ordered various Hindu classics and histories translated into Persian. In addition, a number of Greek and Arabic works were translated into Persian.
Literary activities did not entirely cease even in the troubled days of later rulers. Men of letters were patronized by such emperors as Bahadur Shah and Mu? ammad Shah and by various regional officials and landlords. Such is the history of Muslim education in India. It resembles ancient Indian education to a great extent: instruction was free; the relation between the teachers and the taught was cordial; there were great centres of learning; the monitorial system was used; and people were preoccupied with theology and the conduct of life.
There were, however, several distinctive features of Muslim education. First, education was democratized. As in mosques, so in a maktab or madrasa all were equal, and the principle was established that the poor should also be educated. Second, Muslim rule influenced the system of elementary education of the Hindus, which had to accommodate itself to changed circumstances by adopting a new method of teaching and by using textbooks full of Persian terms and references to Muslim usages. Third, the Muslim period brought in many cultural influences from abroad.
The courses of studies were both widened and brought under a humanistic influence. Finally, Muslim rule produced a cross-cultural influence in the country through the establishment of an educational system in which Hindus and Muslims could study side by side and in which there would be compulsory education in Persian, cultivation of Sanskrit and Hindi, and translation of great classics of literature into different languages. Ultimately, it led to the development of a common medium of expression, Urdu. Education in the Muslim era was not a concerted and planned activity but a voluntary and spontaneous growth.
There was no separate administration of education, and state aid was sporadic and unsteady. Education was supported by charitable endowments and by lavish provision for the students in a madrasa or in a monastery. The Muslim system, however, proved ultimately harmful. In the early stages genuine love of learning attracted students to the cultural centres, but later on “the bees that flocked there were preeminently drones. ” The whole system became stagnant and stereotyped as soon as cultural communication was cut off from the outside world because of olitical disturbances and internecine wars. The Indian teachers were reduced to dependence on their own resources, and a hardening tradition that became increasingly unreceptive to new ideas reduced the whole process to mere routine. Struggle for independence and education A mid the rising nationalism of the latter part of the 19th century, Indians became more and more critical of the domination of Western learning as imposed by the British rulers and demanded, instead, more attention to Indian languages and culture.
The Indian National Congress, several Muslim associations, and other groups raised their voices against the British system of education. British authorities were not, however, altogether blind to the needs of the country. When Baron Curzon of Kedleston arrived as viceroy in 1898, his determination to improve education was immediately translated into an order for a close survey of the entire field of education. It revealed: “Four out of five villages are without a school.
Three boys out of four grow up without any education and only one girl out of forty attends any kind of school. ” Education had advanced, but it had not penetrated the country as the British had earlier expected. Curzon applied himself to the task of putting matters in order. He disapproved of the doctrine of state withdrawal and instead considered it necessary for the government to maintain a few institutions of every type as models for private enterprise to imitate.
He also abandoned the existing policy of educational laissez-faire and introduced a stricter control over private schools through a vigilant policy of inspection and control. Such a policy aroused bitter feelings among some educated Indians, since it was believed that Curzon was bent on bringing the entire system of education under government control. The main battle, however, was fought over the universities. With Eton and Balliol in mind, Baron Curzon set up the Indian Universities Commission of 1902 to bring about a better order in higher education.
The commission made a number of important recommendations—namely, to limit the size of the university senates, to entrust teaching in addition to examining powers to universities, to insist on a high educational standard from affiliated colleges, to grant additional state aids to universities, to improve courses of studies, to abolish second-grade colleges, and to fix a minimum rate of fees in the affiliated colleges. The report was severely criticized, and the last two recommendations had to be dropped. Legislation in regard to the other proposals was passed despite bitter opposition in the legislature and the press.
The conflict resulted less from educational differences than from political opinions on centralization. In one part of the country, violent agitation had already started on the question of the partition of Bengal. In another, the patriot Bal Gangadhar Tilak declared: “Swaraj [self-rule] is our birthright. ” Thus, Baron Curzon’s educational reforms were considered sinister in their intentions, and his alleged bureaucratic attitude was resented. The administrative policy of Baron Curzon also gave rise to the first organized movement for national education.
This effort was part of the Swadeshi movement, which called for national independence and the boycotting of foreign goods. A body known as the National Council of Education established a national college and a technical institution (the present Jadavpur University) in Calcutta (Kolkata) and 51 national schools in Bengal. These schools sought to teach a trade in addition to ordinary subjects of the matriculation syllabus. The movement received a great impetus, because the Calcutta Congress (1906) resolved that the time had arrived for organizing a national system of education.
With the slackening of the swadeshi movement, however, most of the national schools were eventually closed. The effect of the movement was nevertheless noticeable elsewhere: Rabindranath Tagore started his famous school in West Bengal near Bolpur in 1901; the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha established gurukulas at Vrindaban and Haridwar; and the Indian National Congress and the All-India Muslim League at their sessions in Allahabad and Nagpur, respectively, passed resolutions in favour of free and compulsory primary education.
In 1905 Baron Curzon left India. In order to pacify the general public, his successors modified his policy to some extent, but the main program was resolutely enforced. Although Indian public opinion continued its opposition, the reforms of Baron Curzon brought order into education. Universities were reconstituted and organized, and they undertook teaching instead of merely conducting examinations for degrees. Colleges were no longer left to their own devices but were regularly visited by inspectors appointed by the universities.
The government also became vigilant and introduced a better system for inspecting and granting recognition to private schools; the slipshod system of elementary education was also improved. The number of colleges and secondary schools continued to increase as the demand for higher education developed. In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope.
Covering a wide field, the commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work. The government of India issued a resolution in January 1920 summarizing the report of the commission.
Since then all legislation of any importance on higher education in any part of India has embodied some of the recommendations of the commission. Meanwhile, World War I had ended, and the new Indian constitution in 1921 made education a “transferred” subject (that is, transferred from British to Indian control), entrusting it almost entirely to the care of the provinces. In each province, educational policy and administration passed into the hands of a minister of education, responsible to the provincial legislature and ultimately to the people.
Although European-style education was still maintained as a “reserved” subject and was not placed under the control of the Indian minister of education, this anomaly was corrected by the Government of India Act of 1935, which removed the distinction between transferred and reserved subjects and introduced a complete provincial autonomy over education. Generally, the new constitution of 1921 was considered inadequate by the Indian National Congress. In protest, Mahatma Gandhi launched the noncooperation movement, the campaign to boycott English institutions and products.
National schools were established throughout the country, and vidyapeeths (“national universities”) were set up at selected centres. The courses of study in these institutions did not differ much from those in recognized schools, but Hindi was studied as an all-India language in place of English, and the mother tongue was used as the medium of instruction. These institutions functioned for a short time only and disappeared with the suppression of the noncooperation movement.
The Congress’ struggle for self-rule, however, became more vigorous, and with it spread the national movement toward education to suit national needs. The Government of India Act of 1935 further strengthened the position of the provincial ministers of education, since the Congress was in power in major provinces. The developmental program of provincial governments included the spread of primary education, the introduction of adult education, a stress on vocational education, and an emphasis on the education of girls and underprivileged people.
The importance of English was reduced, and Indian languages, both as subjects of study and as media of instruction, began to receive greater attention. On this general background, educational developments from the inauguration of reforms in 1921 until independence in 1947 can be viewed. In the field of elementary education, the most important event was the passing of compulsory-education acts by provincial governments—acts empowering local authorities to make primary education free and compulsory in the areas under their jurisdiction.
Another noteworthy feature was the introduction of Gandhi’s “basic education,” which was designed to rescue education from its bookish and almost purely verbal content by emphasizing the teaching of all school subjects in correlation with some manual productive craft. A general demand for secondary education developed with the political awakening among the masses. Schools in rural, semi-urban, and less-advanced communities were established, as were schools for girls.
Some provision was made for alternative or vocational courses when the provincial governments started technical, commercial, and agricultural high schools and gave larger grants to private schools providing nonliterary courses. But the expected results were not achieved because of a lack of funds and of trained teachers. Secondary schools still concentrated on preparing students for admission to colleges of arts and sciences. The period was also marked by a diminishing of the prejudices against the education of girls.
The impetus came from the national movement launched by Gandhi, which led thousands of women to come out of the purdah for the cause of national emancipation. It was also realized that the education of the girl was the education of the mother and, through her, of her children. Between 1921–22 and 1946–47, the number of educational institutions for girls was nearly doubled. In the field of university education, outstanding developments included (1) the stablishment of 14 new universities, unitary as well as affiliating, (2) the democratization of the administrative bodies of older universities by a substantial increase in the number of elected members, (3) the expansion of academic activities through the opening of several new faculties, courses of studies, and research, (4) a substantial increase in the number of colleges and student enrollments, (5) the provision of military training and greater attention to physical education and recreational activities of students, and (6) the constitution of the Inter-University Board and the development of intercollegiate and interuniversity activities. With these improvements, however, the educational system of the country had become top-heavy. EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA POST INDEPENDENCE A t the dawn of Independence, India though relieved from the clutches of colonial rule, was not liberated from the bagasse left by the British in many areas. The education sector was a prime one among the various sectors which needed reforms and proactive Government support. The constitution envisaged a welfare state from which could ensue in a social democracy and as aptly indicated in the Directive Principles of State Policy, it aimed at imparting education for the destitute and rich alike.
Apart from that the Fundamental duties laid out by the drafting committee exhorted the people to develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry and reforms. In fact reforms were started prior to independence though they lacked the pace to form the foundation for a rising sovereign. To mark a fresh beginning, a fully fledged Department of Education, under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was established on 29th August 1947. Education of masses later became the motto of many political and civil movements and today we see ourselves at a time when Education has become a fundamental right through the landmark legislation of RTE, 2009. The compilation briefly outlines the developments in the education sector after the eve of independence. History of Education in post Independence
A mild retrospection reveals that the new constitution adopted by India did not change the overall administrative policy of the country and Education continued to be prime responsibility of the states and the union government continued to assume responsibility for the coordination of educational facilities and the maintenance of appropriate standards in higher education and research and in scientific and technical education. Meanwhile the Planning Commission was set up to plan the goals for every five year which would elevate the standards of living. The main goals of these plans with relevance to education sector were, 1. To achieve universal elementary education 2. To eradicate illiteracy 3. To establish vocational and skill training programs 4.
To upgrade standards and modernize all stages of education, with special emphasis on technical education, science, and environmental education, on morality, and on the relationship between school and work, and 5. To provide facilities for high-quality education in every district of the country. But the major developments came with appointment of three important commissions by the Government though over a span of a couple of decades, for suggesting educational reforms. The University Education Commission of 1949 made valuable recommendations regarding the reorganization of courses, techniques of evaluation, media of instruction, student services, and the recruitment of teachers.
The Secondary Education Commission of 1952–53 focused mainly on secondary and teacher education. The Education Commission of 1964–66 made a comprehensive review of the entire field of education. It developed a national pattern for all stages of education. The commission’s report led to a resolution on a national policy for education, formally issued by the government of India in July 1968. This policy was revised in 1986. The new policy emphasized educational technology, ethics, and national integration. A core curriculum was introduced to provide a common scheme of studies throughout the country. The national department of education was a part of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, headed by a cabinet minister.
A Central Advisory Board of Education counseled the national and state governments. There were several autonomous organizations attached to the Department of Education. The most important bodies were the All-India Council of Technical Education (1945), the University Grants Commission (1953), and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (1961). The first body advised the government on technical education and maintained standards for the development of technical education. The second body promoted and coordinated university education and determined and maintained standards of teaching, examination, and research in the universities.
It had the authority to enquire into the financial methods of the universities and to allocate grants. The third body worked to upgrade the quality of school education and assisted and advised the Ministry of Human Resource Development in the implementation of its policies and major programs in the field of education. The central government ran and maintained about 1,000 central schools for children of central government employees. It also developed schools offering quality education to qualified high achievers, irrespective of ability to pay or socioeconomic background. The seventh five-year plan (1985–90) specified that one such vidyalaya would be set up in each district.
The state governments were responsible for all other elementary and secondary education. Conditions, in general, were not satisfactory, although they varied from state to state. Higher education was provided in universities and colleges. From the 1950s to the ’80s, the number of educational institutions in India tripled. The primary schools, especially, experienced rapid growth because the states gave highest priority to the universalisation of elementary education in order to fulfill the constitutional directive of providing universal, free, and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. Most, but not all, children had a primary school within 1 km of their homes.
A large percentage of these schools, however, were understaffed and did not have adequate facilities. The government, when it revised the national policy for education in 1986, resolved that all children who attained the age of 19 years by 1990 would have five years of formal schooling or its equivalent. Plans were also made to improve or expand adult and informal systems of education. Dissension among political parties, industrialists, businessmen, teacher politicians, student politicians, and other groups and the consequent politicization of education hampered progress at every stage, however. HIERARCHY OF EDUCATION SYSTEM ELEMENTARY LEVEL http://mhrd. gov. in/elementaryeducation1
The role of Universal Elementary Education (UEE) for strengthening the social fabric of democracy through provision of equal opportunities to all has been accepted since the inception of our Republic. With the formulation of NPE, India initiated a wide range of programmes for achieving the goal of UEE through several schematic and programme interventions, such as Operation Black Board,Shiksha Karmi Project,Lok Jumbish Programme,Mahila Samakhya,District Primary Education Programme etc. Currently, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is implemented as India’s main programme for universalising elementary education. Its overall goals include universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social category gaps in education and enhancement of learning levels of children.
SSA provides for a variety of interventions, including inter alia, opening of new schools and alternate schooling facilities,construction of schools and additional provisioning for teachers,periodic teacher training and academic resource support, textbooks and support for learning achievement. These provisions need to be aligned with the legally mandated norms and standards and free entitlements mandated by the RTE Act. The new law provides a justiciable legal framework that entitles all children between the ages of 6-14 years free and compulsory admission,attendance and completion of elementary education. It provides for children’s right to an education of equitable quality, based on principles of equity and non-discrimination. Most importantly,it provides for children’s right to an education that is free from fear,stress and anxiety.
SARVA SHIKSHA ABHAYAN SSA has been operational since 2000-2001 to provide for a variety of interventions for universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social category gaps in elementary education and improving the quality of learning. SSA interventions include inter alia, opening of new schools and alternate schooling facilities, construction of schools and additional classrooms, toilets and drinking water, provisioning for teachers, periodic teacher training and academic resource support, textbooks and support for learning achievement. With the passage of the RTE Act, changes have been incorporated into the SSA approach, strategies and norms.
The changes encompass the vision and approach to elementary education, guided by the following principles: (i) Holistic view of education, as interpreted in the National Curriculum Framework 2005, with implications for a systemic revamp of the entire content and process of education with significant implications for curriculum, teacher education, educational planning and management. (ii) Equity, to mean not only equal opportunity, but also creation of conditions in which the disadvantaged sections of the society – children of SC, ST, Muslim minority, landless agricultural workers and children with special needs, etc. – can avail of the opportunity. iii) Access, not to be confined to ensuring that a school becomes accessible to all children within specified distance but implies an understanding of the educational needs and predicament of the traditionally excluded categories – the SC, ST and others sections of the most disadvantaged groups, the Muslim minority, girls in general, and children with special needs. (iv) Gender concern, implying not only an effort to enable girls to keep pace with boys but to view education in the perspective spelt out in the National Policy on Education 1986 /92; i. e. a decisive intervention to bring about a basic change in the status of women. (v) Centrality of teacher, to motivate them to innovate and create a culture in the classroom, and beyond the classroom, that might produce an inclusive environment for children, especially for girls from oppressed and marginalised backgrounds. vi) Moral compulsion is imposed through the RTE Act on parents, teachers, educational administrators and other stakeholders, rather than shifting emphasis on punitive processes. (vii) Convergent and integrated system of educational management is pre-requisite for implementation of the RTE law. All states must move in that direction as speedily as feasible. http://ssa. nic. in/ MID DAY MEAL SCHEME With a view to enhancing enrolment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children, the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 15th August 1995.
In 2001 MDMS became a cooked Mid Day Meal Scheme under which every child in every Government and Government aided primary school was to be served a prepared Mid Day Meal with a minimum content of 300 calories of energy and 8-12 gram protein per day for a minimum of 200 days. The Scheme was further extended in 2002 to cover not only children studying in Government, Government aided and local body schools, but also children studying in Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative & Innovative Education (AIE) centres. In September 2004 the Scheme was revised to provide for Central Assistance for Cooking cost @ Re 1 per child per school day to cover cost of pulses, vegetables cooking oil, condiments, fuel and wages and remuneration payable to personnel or amount payable to agency responsible for cooking.
Transport subsidy was also raised from the earlier maximum of Rs 50 per quintal to Rs. 100 per quintal for special category states and Rs 75 per quintal for other states. Central assistance was provided for the first time for management, monitoring and evaluation of the scheme @ 2% of the cost of foodgrains, transport subsidy and cooking assistance. A provision for serving mid day meal during summer vacation in drought affected areas was also made. In July 2006 the Scheme was further revised to enhance the cooking cost to Rs 1. 80 per child/school day for States in the North Eastern Region and Rs 1. 50 per child / school day for other States and UTs. The nutritional norm was revised to 450 Calories and 12 gram of protein.
In order to facilitate construction of kitchen-cum-store and procurement of kitchen devices in schools provision for Central assistance @ Rs. 60,000 per unit and @ Rs. 5,000 per school in phased manner were made. In October 2007, the Scheme was extended to cover children of upper primary classes (i. e. class VI to VIII) studying in 3,479 Educationally Backwards Blocks (EBBs) and the name of the Scheme was changed from ‘National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education’ to ‘National Programme of Mid Day Meal in Schools’. The nutritional norm for upper primary stage was fixed at 700 Calories and 20 grams of protein. The Scheme was extended to all areas across the country from 1. 4. 2008.
The Scheme was further revised in April 2008 to extend the scheme to recognized as well as unrecognized Madarsas / Maqtabs supported under SSA . For more details, go here: http://mdm. nic. in/ SECONDARY EDUCATION While Primary Education is a basic enabling factor for participation and freedom, for trading a life with dignity and overcoming basic deprivation, secondary education is the gateway for prosperity, for transforming the economy and establishing social justice in any country. It opens the world of work to the youth of the country and contributes to socio economic development of the Community. Secondary Education is a crucial stage in the educational hierarchy as it prepares the students for higher education and also the world of work.
With the liberalization and globalization of the Indian economy, the rapid changes witnessed in scientific and technological world and the general need to improve the quality of life and to reduce poverty, it is essential that schools leavers acquire a higher level of knowledge and skills than what they are provided in the eight years of elementary education, particularly when the average earning of a secondary school certificate holder is significantly higher than that of a person who has studied only up to class VIII. The policy at present is to make secondary education of good quality available, accessible and affordable to all young persons in the age group of 14-18. At present, the following schemes targeted at secondary stage (i. e. class IX to XII) are being implemented in the form of Centrally Sponsored Schemes: 1. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) 2. Model Schools Scheme 3. Girls Hostel Scheme 4. ICT @ Schools 5. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage 6. Scheme of Vocational Education 7. National Means-cum Merit Scholarship Scheme 8. National Incentive to Girls 9.
Appointment of Language Teachers In addition to the above the Central Sector schemes of Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS), Navodaya Vidyalaya Sangathan (NVS), Central Tibetan Schools Administration (CTSA), Indo-Mangolian Schools are being implemented For details of Schemes REFER http://mhrd. gov. in/secondaryedu http://mhrd. gov. in/state_prog ADULT EDUCATION Adult Education aims at extending educational options to those adults, who have lost the opportunity and have crossed the age of formal education, but now feel a need for learning of any type, including, basic education (literacy), skill development (Vocational Education) and equivalency.
With the objective of promoting literacy and adult education, a series of programmes have been introduced since the First Five Year Plan period, the most prominent being the National Literacy Mission (NLM), that was launched in 1988 to impart functional literacy to non-literates in the age group of 15-35 years in a time bound manner. By the end of the 10th Plan period, NLM had made 127. 45 million persons literate, of which, 60% were females, 23% belonged to Scheduled Castes (SCs) and 12% to Scheduled Tribes (STs). 597 districts were covered under Total Literacy Campaigns of which 502 reached Post Literacy stage and 328 reached Continuing Education stage. At the end of the programme, 95 districts were under Total Literacy Campaign, 174 under Post-Literacy Programme and 328 District under Continuing Education Programme. It led to an increase of 12. 3% in literacy – during 1991-2001 the highest increase in any decade. Female literacy increased by 14. 38%, SC literacy by 17. 28% and ST literacy by 17. 50%. Despite significant accomplishments illiteracy continues to be a grave concern. 2001 Census recorded male literacy at 75. 26%, while female literacy remained at an unacceptable level of 53. 67%. Census of 2001 also revealed that gender and regional disparities in literacy continued to persist. Therefore, to bolster Adult Education and Skill Development, Government introduced two new schemes, namely Saakshar Bharat and Scheme for Support to Voluntary Agencies for Adult Education and Skill Development, during the 11th Plan.
NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION AUTHORITY Adult Education is a Concurrent Subject with both Central and State Governments being required to contribute to its promotion and strengthening. At the national level, National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA), an autonomous wing of MHRD is the nodal agency for overall planning and management and funding of Adult Education Programmes and institutions. Its inter – ministerial General Council and Executive Committee are the two policy and executive bodies. Presently, the provision of adult education is through the Saakshar Bharat Programme (SBP) which is a centrally sponsored scheme. The programme is implemented in mission mode.
The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA), is the Nodal Agency at the National level. The Joint Secretary (Adult Education) is the ex – officio Director General of NLMA. It was set up in 1988 with the approval of the Cabinet as an independent and autonomous wing of the Ministry of HRD (the then Department of Education). The Cabinet vested NLMA with full executive and financial powers in the sphere of work. NLMA is mandated with * Policy and planning; * Developmental and promotional activities; * Operational functions including assistance to voluntary agencies and other NGOs, * Technology demonstration * Leadership training * Resource development including media and materials * Research and development Monitoring and evaluation etc. General Council – Is the apex body of NLMA, headed by Minister of Human Resource Development and consists of, among others, Ministers of Panchayati Raj, Rural Development, Minority Affairs, Information and Broadcasting, Health and Family Welfare, Youth Affairs and Sports, Social Justice and Empowerment, Women and Child Development, senior level political leaders of the main political parties, three Members of Parliament, Education Ministers of six States etc. Executive Committee – The Executive Committee is responsible to carry out all the functions of the Authority in accordance with the policy and guidelines laid down by the Council.
It strives for proper implementation of policies and incorporation of latest developments in the field of adult education. It is headed by Secretary (SE&L) and comprises of Adviser (Education), Planning Commission, Additional Secretary & Financial Adviser in Ministry of HRD, Chairman of National Institute of Open Schooling, some State Directors of Adult Education, and officials of the State Governments, representatives of SRCs and JSSs as well as non-official members. Grants in Aid Committee – GIAC is a Sub – Committee of the EC The applications of the proposals submitted for seeking assistance under the Scheme of Support to Voluntary Agencies for Adult Education & Skill Development are being considered by the
Central Grants-in-Aid Committee constituted by the Ministry of Human Resource Development and chaired by Secretary (School Education & Literacy). Joint Secretary (AE) and Director General, National Literacy Mission Authority is Member Secretary (ex-officio) of these bodies. The Council, EC and GIAC were reconstituted with the approval of Competent Authority in 2010 and Copies of the notifications are annexed. HIGHER EDUCATION Higher Education sector has witnessed a tremendous increase in its institutional capacity in the years since Independence. The number of Universities/University-level institutions has increased 18 times from 27 in 1950 to 504 in 2009.
The sector boasts of 42 Central universities, 243 State universities, 53 State Private universities, 130 Deemed universities, 33 Institutions of National Importance (established under Acts of Parliament) and five Institutions (established under various State legislations). The number of colleges has also registered manifold increase with just 578 in 1950 growing to be more than 30,000 in 2011. The quantum growth in the HE sector is spear-headed by the Universities, which are the highest seat of learning. University word is derived from the Latin word “Universitas,” which means ‘specialized associations between students and teachers. ” This Latin word referred to institutions of learning, which granted degrees to its students.
The present day Universities are no different from the ancient institutions except for the fact that Universities today are much bigger in terms of both the subjects taught and the students. In India, “University” means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act and includes any such institution as may, in consultation with the University concerned, be recognised by the University Grants Commission (UGC) in accordance with the regulations made in this regard under this Act. Every year, millions of students from within the country and abroad, enter these portals mainly for their post graduate studies while millions leave these portals for the world outside. Higher Education is the shared responsibility of both the Centre and the States.
The coordination and determination of standards in institutions is the constitutional obligation of the Central Government. The Central Government provides grants to UGC and establishes Central Universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaring educational institutions as “deemed-to-be University” on the recommendation of the UGC. At present, the main constituents of University/University-level Institutions are :- Central Universities, State Universities, Deemed-to-be Universities and University-level institutions. These are described as follows: Central University: A university established or incorporated by a Central Act.
State University: A university established or incorporated by a Provincial Act or by a State Act. Private University: A university established through a State/Central Act by a sponsoring body viz. A Society registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860, or any other corresponding law for the time being in force in a State or a Public Trust or a Company registered under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956. Deemed-to-be University: An Institution Deemed to be University, commonly known as Deemed University, refers to a high-performing institution, which has been so declared by Central Government under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.
Institution of National Importance: An Institution established by Act of Parliament and declared as Institution of National Importance. Institution under State Legislature Act: An Institution established or incorporated by a State Legislature Act. Technical Education Technical Education plays a vital role in human resource development of the country by creating skilled manpower, enhancing industrial productivity and improving the quality of life of its people. Technical Education covers programmes in engineering, technology, management, architecture, town planning, pharmacy, applied arts & crafts, hotel management and catering technology. Technical Education – A Historical Perspective
Engineering and Technological Education in Pre-Independence Era The impulse for creation of centres of technical training came from the British rulers of India and it arose out of the necessity for the training of overseers for construction and maintenance of public buildings, roads, canals and ports and for the training of artisans and craftsmen for the use of instruments and apparatus needed for the army, the navy and the survey department. The superintending engineers were mostly recruited from Britain from the Cooper’s Hill College and this applied as well to foremen and artificers; but this could not be done in the case of lower grades- craftsmen, artisans and sub-overseers who were recruited locally. As they were mostly illiterate, efficiency was low.
The necessity to make them more efficient by giving them elementary lessons in reading, writing, arithmetic, geometry and mechanics, led to the establishment of industrial schools attached to Ordnance Factories and other engineering establishments. While it is stated that such schools existed in Calcutta and Bombay as early as 1825, the first authentic account we have is that of an industrial school established at Guindy, Madras, in 1842, attached to the Gun Carriage Factory there. A school for the training of overseers was known to exist in Poona in 1854. Meanwhile in Europe and America, Colleges of Engineering were growing up, which drew to their men having good education and special proficiency in mathematical subjects.
This led to discussions in Government circles in India and similar institutions were sought to be established in the Presidency Towns. The first engineering college was established in the Uttar Pradesh in 1847 for the training of Civil Engineers at Roorkee, which made use of the large workshops and public buildings there that were erected for the Upper Ganges Canal. The Roorkee College (or to give it its official name, the Thomason Engineering College) was never affiliated to any university but gave diplomas considered to be equivalent to degrees. In pursuance of the Government policy, three Engineering Colleges were opened by about 1856 in the three Presidencies.
In Bengal, a College called the Calcutta College of Civil Engineering was opened at the Writers’ Buildings in November 1856; the name was changed to Bengal Engineering College in 1857, and it was affiliated to the Calcutta University. It gave a licentiate course in Civil Engineering. In 1865 it was amalgamated with the Presidency College. Later, in 1880, it was detached from the Presidency College and shifted to its present quarters at Sibpur, occupying the premises and buildings belonging to the Bishop’s College. Proposals for having an Engineering College at Bombay city having failed for some reasons, the overseers’ school at Poona eventually became the Poona College of Engineering and affiliated to the Bombay University in 1858. For a long time, this was the only College of Engineering in the Western Presidency.
In the Madras Presidency, the industrial school attached to the Gun Carriage Factory became ultimately the Guindy College of Engineering and affiliated to the Madras University (1858). The educational work in the three Colleges of Sibpur, Poona and Guindy has been more or less similar. They all had licentiate courses in civil engineering up to 1880, when they organised degree classes in this branch alone. After 1880, the demand for mechanical and electrical engineering was felt, but the three Engineering Colleges started only apprenticeship classes in these subjects. The Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute, which was started at Bombay in 1887, had as its objective the training of licentiates in Electrical, Mechanical and Textile Engineering.
In 1915, the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, opened Electrical Engineering classes under Dr. Alfred Hay and began to give certificates and associateships, the latter being regarded equivalent to a degree. In Bengal, the leaders of the Swadeshi Movement organised in 1907 a National Council of Education which tried to organise a truly National University. Out of the many institutions it started, only the College of Engineering and Technology at Jadavpur had survived. It started granting diplomas in mechanical and engineering course in 1908 and in chemical engineering in 1921. The Calcutta University Commission debated the pros and cons of the introduction of degree courses in mechanical and electrical engineering.
One of the reasons cited from the recommendations of the Indian Industrial Commission (1915), under the Chairmanship of Sir Thomas (Holland) against the introduction of electrical engineering courses, is given in the following quotation from their report: “We have not specifically referred to the training of electrical engineers, because electrical manufactures have not yet been started in India, and there is only scope for the employment of men to do simple repair work, to take charge of the running of electrical machinery, and to manage and control hydroelectric and steam-operated stations. The men required for these three classes of work will be provided by the foregoing proposals for the training of the various grades required in mechanical engineering. They will have to acquire in addition, special experience in electrical matters, but, till this branch of engineering is developed on the constructional site, and the manufacture of electrical machinery taken in hand, the managers of electrical undertakings must train their own men, making such use as they can of the special facilities offered for instruction at the engineering colleges and the Indian Institute of Science. ” The credit of first starting degree classes in echanical engineering, electrical engineering and metallurgy goes to the University of Banaras, thanks to the foresight of its great founder, Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya (1917). About fifteen years later, in 1931-32, the Bengal Engineering College at Sibpur started mechanical and electrical engineering courses in 1935-36 and courses in metallurgy in 1939-40. Courses in these subjects were also introduced at Guindy and Poona about the same time. Quite a number of engineering colleges have been started since August 15, 1947. It is due to the realisation that India has to become a great industrial country and would require a far larger number of engineers than could be supplied by the older institutions. DISTANCE EDUCATION http://mhrd. gov. in/overviewdl International Cooperation Cell
Since Independence, India’s cooperation with foreign countries in education sector used to be part of the Cultural Agreements. India has cultural agreements with 118 countries. About 75 Cultural Exchange Programmes (CEP) were signed and most of them are periodically being renewed. Education component forms a part of most of the CEPs. Department of Culture, the nodal Ministry for CEPs was also part of Ministry of HRD till recently. The Ministry earlier had an External Academic Relations Unit in the UNESCO Division to handle bilateral relations. With the expansion of education sector and internationalization of education, an International Cooperation Cell has been set up in the Ministry of HRD.
The IC Cell coordinates the work relating to bilateral and international collaboration in the Education sector and the formulation, implementation and monitoring of Educational Exchange Programmes (EEPs/MOUs) with various countries with a view to giving more focused attention to such collaboration. A separate budget provision is made for international academic exchange activities of the Ministry. Initially, the Plan Scheme “Strengthening of External Academic Relations” was intended to facilitate exchange of Ministerial level delegations with foreign countries for furthering bilateral relations in education. However, the scope of the scheme has expanded considerably in recent years with several new initiatives in bilateral cooperation. Educational Exchange Programmes Since 2002, the Ministry has entered into exclusive Educational Exchange Programmes (in some cases called MOUs) with many countries.
These include Mongolia, Armenia, Tanzania, Guyana, Israel, Australia, Myanmar, Hungary, Syria, Uzbekistan, New Zealand, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Brazil, Afghanistan, Croatia, Ecuador, Rwanda, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, China, Portugal, France, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Oman, Norway and Chile signed earlier. EEPs/MOUs with Kuwait, Botswana and Malaysia were signed during 2009-10. In addition MOUs for mutual recognition and equivalence of degrees, diplomas and other educational qualifications with many countries are also under consideration. The EEPs/MOUs provide for forming a Joint Working Group (JWG) to monitor the implementation of the programmes. The JWGs are co-chaired by representatives of the concerned Ministries in both countries and include representatives of organizations/ institutions in relevant areas. The JWGs meet annually in either country to review the progress of implementation of the exchange programmes.
The substance, scope and implementation of activities or cooperation within the terms of the EEP/MOU are determined by specific arrangements concluded between institutions in the two countries. The Universities and other higher education institutions in the country have autonomy to have collaborative arrangements with their counterparts in various countries. The Ministry facilitates such arrangements made on the basis of the provisions of EEP/MOU. The EEPs/ MOUs envisage cooperation through several initiatives like:- 1. Exchange of scholars/ students/ researchers; 2. Sharing of information/ publications; 3. Organizing joint seminars/ workshops/ conferences etc. ; 4. Working towards mutual recognition of qualifications; 5.
Developing institutional linkages; and 6. Providing scholarships to students/researchers. In addition to the meetings of JWGs, exchange of high level delegations is also facilitated. Specific sectoral agreements, where necessary, are being signed by Indian apex bodies/Universities with their foreign counterparts. Other forms of international cooperation Apart from the EEPs/MOUs, the Ministry also takes an active role in Joint Commission Meetings (JCM) and other economic/technical forums for cooperation with other countries. In addition, the Ministry has been making efforts for strengthening cooperation with foreign countries through other mechanisms too.
As part of this, a trilateral MoU between India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) is in place since 2007 for cooperation in the field of higher education. Another MoU was signed on 21st January 2008 between Ministry of Human Resource Development and British High Commission for operation of the India-UK Higher Education Leadership Development Programme. Further, a Joint Statement between India and UK for strengthening cooperation and exchange in education was issued on 26th September 2008. A Joint Declaration was signed on 12th November, 2008 on cooperation in the field of Education between India & European Union. This was followed by signing of another Joint Declaration on multilingualism between India & European Union on 7th March, 2009.
A Joint Declaration between India and Czech Republic for cooperation in education sector was signed on 28th April 2009. Relations with USA in the field of education received a major thrust following the visit of US Secretary of State in July 2009. Taking it forward, Hon’ble Minister of Human Resource Development visited USA during October 25-31, 2009 and held discussions with his counterpart US Secretary of Education as well as heads of several top Universities in USA. An important new initiative in the field of education, called the “Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative” has been launched jointly by India and USA on November 24, 2009 during the visit of Hon’ble Prime Minister to USA.
Hon’ble Minister of Human Resource Development also visited United Kingdom (UK) on January 13-16, 2010 to attend the 2nd India-UK Education Forum meeting as well as to hold discussions with UK Ministers/top government functionaries in the field of education. The Ministry of HRD has been playing a significant role in international organizations like Commonwealth, SAARC and UNESCO for promoting educational standards across the globe. Hon’ble Minister of Human Resource Development attended the 17th Commonwealth Conference of Education Ministers held in Kuala Lumpur on June 15-19, 2009. The Ministry is also playing a pivotal role in activities of multilateral bodies like ASEAN, East Asia Summit, Arab League, Indian Ocean RIM, OECD, EU etc.
The Ministry, through IC Cell and HE Bureau, is actively involved in the establishment of the world-class international higher educational institution, viz. , “South Asian University” in New Delhi under SAARC. http://mhrd. gov. in/overview_internation_coop_english Disclaimer *** This is just an edited compilation of various articles obtained on the topic “Indian Education system”. URL (Uniform Resource Locators) – Links to Reference sites are mentioned below. http://mhrd. gov. in/ http://mhrd. gov. in/elementaryeducation1 http://www. britannica. com/ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Education_in_India Minor references http://books. google. co. in/books? l=en&lr=&id=IDNeW78fedkC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=history+of+education+in+India&ots=GymnxhfAAk&sig=U9pSxyXyb0BRR-HgcQPF6V0X5i8 http://books. google. co. in/books? hl=en&lr=&id=yqtAAgS3NSEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=history+of+education+in+India&ots=K1nFrGWilI&sig=i21DHGvDcSz_zEZa0PCkHVtoano http://books. google. co. in/books? hl=en&lr=&id=TfzW-d_1d3kC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=history+of+education+in+India&ots=bQWcEF8g-5&sig=UH-4X79hpMsbXh5ST1sWD5MBMCQ http://books. google. co. in/books/about/History_Of_Education_In_India. html? id=yqtAAgS3NSEC&redir_esc=y Further references * BIPAN CHANDRA * INDIAN POLITY – M. Laxmikanth * Ancient India- NCERT Text Book