David Galyean Journal Article Critique April 12, 2011 A. Purposes of the studies 1. What were the purposes of the studies? The purpose of the primary study was to determine whether student anxiety and depression increases after college entry, the extent to which adverse life experiences contribute to any increases, and the impact of adversity, anxiety and depression on exam performance (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004). The purpose of the secondary study was to investigate the relationship between stress factors, perceived stress and academic performance among students in a public institution of higher learning (Rafidah, et al, 2009).
B. Research questions 1. What were the research questions? The research questions of the primary study were: a) Does college life affect the emotional wellbeing of undergraduate students? b) Do different types of adverse life experiences contribute to the onset of clinically significant anxiety and depression in students? c) Does student anxiety, depression and adverse life experiences contribute to the prediction of exam performance (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004, p511) The research questions of the secondary study were: ) Are there any statistical significant differences in the level of perceived stress among students at the beginning, middle and at the end of the semester? b) Is there a statistical significant correlation between the level of perceived stress at the beginning, middle and the end of the semester and academic performance of students? c) What are the stress factors that statistical significantly influence the academic performance of students (Rafidah, et al, 2009, p38)? C.
Participants 1. Who were the participants in the study (describe them in details)?
Participants in the primary study were 351 students who responded to questionnaires at both time periods, 75% were women, 97% were under age 21, and 87% were white-the rates for the 890 students in the original eligible sample in 2000 were 66% women, 97% under 21 and 89% white. Students responding at both time periods were fairly evenly divided between Arts and Science faculties, 40% and 39% respectively, and 21% were in the faculty of History and Social Science (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004). Participants in the secondary study were Pre-Diploma Science students of Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Negeri Sembilan campus of Malaysia.
The Pre-Diploma Science students for the June – November 2005 intake at UiTM Negeri Sembilan was 242, all of them were chosen as subjects for the survey. Out of the 242 students, 154 complete responses were returned, yielding a response rate of 63. 6% the majority of the students were female (77. 9%) due to the common scenario in higher institutions throughout the country whereby the percentage of female students tend to outnumber the male students (Rafidah, et al, 2009). 2. How were the participants selected to be in the study (was it randomly or not)?
Participants in the primary study were not randomly selected; all UK domiciled students who had a place confirmed on a full-time undergraduate degree course by the end of August 2000 were mailed a questionnaire and information sheet with a reply-paid envelope to their home address (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004). Participants in the secondary study were not randomly selected; the number of pre-diploma Science students for the June – November 2005 intake at UiTM Negeri Sembilan was 242, all were chosen as subjects for the survey (Rafidah, et al, 2009). D. Data collection 1. What instruments (e. . test, questionnaire, survey) were used to collect the data? In the primary study the students completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) both pre-entry and mid-course. Areas of adversity were assessed in the mid-course survey only. From a list of 11 experiences, students were asked to indicate separately for the first and current (second) academic year whether any had happened to them. Items relevant to students were modified from the List of Threatening Experiences which is composed of experiences with a high probability of having moderate or marked long-term threat.
The study used t tests for group comparisons of continuous variables, and chi-squared tests (with Yates’ correction) for dichotomous variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relative contribution of significant variables to the prediction of depressive and anxiety conditions mid-course. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relative contribution of significant variables to 2nd year exam averages. In all the multivariate analyses, gender, age (over 21 or not) and ethnicity (white or not) were entered as control variables (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004).
In the secondary study a structured, self-administered questionnaire was developed as a mode of data collection. The questionnaire comprised of three sections, students’ profile; Perceived Stress Scale (PSS); and Stress Factors Survey (Rafidah, et al, 2009). 2. How were the participants protected? In the primary study ethical permission was obtained from the University and students were fully briefed about the research with assurance of anonymity and confidentiality (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004). There is no evidence in the secondary study that the participants were protected in any way.
The study does not reference permissions or consent of any kind (Rafidah, et al, 2009). E. What did the researchers find? Participants in the primary study indicated a significant increase in both HADS anxiety and depression means from before entry to mid-course, t(348) of 3-35, p < . 001, and 6. 1, p < . 001, respectively. Among students with no significant depression or anxiety symptoms before entry, a relatively small proportion (9%) developed a mild or clinically significant depressive condition by mid-course; onset of case anxiety without any significant depressive element was more common (20%).
Conversely it is notable that just under a third of students with mild or case depression before entry were relatively symptom free by mid-course. A similar picture is also apparent for those with prior case anxiety without depression-by mid-course over a third were relatively symptom-free. Nevertheless, such anxiety increased the risk of depression onset mid-course-26% with prior case anxiety became depressed by midcourse compared to 9% without, ? ^sup 2^(1) = 13. 04, p < . 001. Financial difficulties and personal illness or injury were the only adverse experiences to show a significant association with mild or case depression mid-course.
Students experiencing these factors were over three times as likely as others to have become depressed at a mild or case level-odds ratios were 3-2 (95% CI, 1. 5-6. 8) for financial difficulties and 3. 2 (95% CI, 1. 01-10. 1) for personal illness. Of all the variables compiled and studied only two factors, depression and financial difficulties, were significantly related to subsequent exam performance (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004). Participants in the secondary study experienced moderate stress levels throughout the semester, judging from the figures which are slightly more than half of the total score of 70 (beginning=37. 0; middle=39. 17; end=38. 40). It appears that the level of perceived stress increases as the students move from beginning to the middle of the semester, but drops slightly toward the end of the semester. Based on the report obtained from the Academic Affairs Department, the majority of students scored GPAs of more than 3. 00 (66. 2%). Only 7. 1% of the students scored GPAs of less than 2. 00. This implies that on an overall, the academic performance of the students is satisfactory. The secondary study concluded that none of the stress factors significantly affected the academic performance of the students (Rafidah, et al, 2009).
F. College Analysis and Synthesis 1. Compare and contrast the two journal articles The purpose of both studies were similar, to determine the effects of stress on academic performance and achievement of university students. The primary study used surveys to obtain data points form participants at the beginning of their first term of school and again at the beginning of their second term in their second year of school (Andrews, & Wilding, 2004). The secondary study use a compiled questionnaire administered at the beginning, middle and end of a semester to obtain their data (Rafidah, et al, 2009).
The primary study covers a much wider range of time and affords a more longitudinal study of the group. The secondary study only covers one semester which does not give a very accurate accounting of the problems and obstacles which face students today. The secondary study would seem to be somewhat biased due to the ratio of (10:1) students to lecturers (Rafidah, et al, 2009). 2. What recommendations do you have? I would recommend that the primary study be expanded to cover a more diverse group of participants such as a university system not just one university.
It is my opinion that having participants from multiple universities would give a wider range of socio-economic diversity and provide more accurate results. Both studies were longitudinal and were using a biopsychological perspective to determine the effects of stressors on academic performance. The secondary study needs to cover a longer period of time and possibly a larger group of participants. Both groups of researchers applied the scientific method in developing their theories and conducting their studies with the possible exception of the conclusions of the secondary study.
The researchers of the primary study appear to have followed ethical guidelines by obtaining permission from the university and briefing the students. Based on the text of the article, the secondary study researchers did not follow the ethical guidelines as they did not indicate that they obtained informed consent (Ciccarelli, & White, 2009). References Bernice Andrews, & John M Wilding. (2004). The relation of depression and anxiety to life-stress and achievement in students. British Journal of Psychology,4 95, 509-21. Retrieved April 12, 2011, from Research Library. Document ID: 761494491). Rafidah, K. , Azizah, A. , Norzaidi, M. , Chong, S. , Salwani, M. , & Noraini, I.. (2009). Stress and academic performance: Empirical evidence from university students. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 13(1), 37-51. Retrieved April 12, 2011, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1869944471). Ciccarelli, S. K. & White, J. N.. (2009). Psychology (2nd ed. ) Upper Saddle River; Pearson Education Primary StudyThe relation of depression and anxiety to life-stress and achievement in students Bernice Andrews, John M Wilding.
British Journal of Psychology. London:Nov 2004. Vol. 95, Part 4 p. 509-21 (13 pp. )| Abstract (Summary)Andrews and Wilding discuss whether student anxiety and depression increases after college entry, the extent to which adverse life experiences contribute to any increase, and the impact of adversity, anxiety and depression on exam performance. Results shows that by mid course 9% of previously symptom-free students became depressed and 20% became anxious at a clinically significant level. Of those previously anxious or depressed 36% had recovered.
Indexing (document details) Subjects:| Mental depression, Anxieties, Stress, Students, Academic achievement, Mental health| MeSH subjects:| Achievement, Adult, Anxiety — etiology, Depression — etiology, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Research Support, Non-U. S. Gov’t, Stress, Psychological — psychology, Students — psychology| Author(s):| Bernice Andrews, John M Wilding| Document types:| Feature, Journal Article| Document features:| Tables, References| Publication title:| British Journal of Psychology. London: Nov 2004. Vol. 95 Part 4. pg. 09, 13 pgs| Part| 4| Source type:| Periodical| ISSN:| 00071269| ProQuest document ID:| 761494491| Text Word Count| 5473| Document URL:| http://proxygsu-bru1. galileo. usg. edu/login? url=http://proquest. umi. com/pqdweb/? did=761494491&Fmt=4&clientId=30341&RQT=309&VName=PQD| Secondary StudySTRESS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Kamarudin Rafidah, Aris Azizah, Mohd Daud Norzaidi, Siong Choy Chong, Mohamed Intan Salwani, Ibrahim Noraini. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. Cullowhee:2009. Vol. 13, Iss. 1, p. 37-51 (15 pp. | Abstract (Summary) This study investigates the relationship between stress factors, perceived stress and academic performance among 154 Pre-Diploma Science students in a Malaysian public institution of higher learning which to date has received very little research attention. The results indicate that the students experienced stress but at a moderate level. There is a statistical significant difference between the level of perceived stress at the beginning and middle of the semester but not statistical significant between the beginning and middle with the end of the semester.
The correlation was not statistical significant between the level of perceived stress at the beginning and middle of the semester but statistical significant between the end of semester with academic performance of students. The practical implications of the results are discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] References * References (67) Indexing (document details) Subjects:| Studies, Stress, University students, Performance evaluation, Perceptions, Academic achievement| Classification Codes| 9179, 8306, 9130| Locations:| Malaysia|
Author(s):| Kamarudin Rafidah, Aris Azizah, Mohd Daud Norzaidi, Siong Choy Chong, Mohamed Intan Salwani, Ibrahim Noraini| Document types:| Feature| Document features:| Tables, References| Publication title:| Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. Cullowhee: 2009. Vol. 13, Iss. 1; pg. 37, 15 pgs| Source type:| Periodical| ISSN:| 10956328| ProQuest document ID:| 1869944471| Text Word Count| 6067| Document URL:| http://proxygsu-bru1. galileo. usg. edu/login? url=http://proquest. umi. com/pqdweb/? did=1869944471&Fmt=3&clientId=30341&RQT=309&VName=PQD|
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