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English Versus Japanese Female Mill Workers

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Throughout the invention of the mill. the most of import feature was efficiency ; bring forthing every bit much as possible. every bit fast as possible. Because of the demand for employees in the mills. proprietors began using adult females. two illustrations being in England and Japan. Men in control. low rewards. duties for households. ages of employees. long on the job hours. and the hideous on the job conditions. were common in both societies. Despite being on opposite sides of the hemisphere.

both groups of adult females were segregated in unjust experiences.

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Prior to replying a research inquiry. one must oppugn different facets of the subject. The original papers based inquiry was: How were the experiences of Female Mill Workers in England and Japan similar? In order to get down believing about the subject. subconsciously. one asks themselves deeper inquiries. Who ruled over these adult females? What kept these adult females from contending for their rights? How did the adult females differ in age? Asking these inquiries helped me to truly understand the subject of the papers based inquiry.

and in more deepness. The chief beginnings I looked at were statistical beginnings from both England and Japan. In add-on. some beginnings I found were original paperss of immature adult females in the clip period. Asking myself these inquiries and happening accurate beginnings helped me to develop my paper in a important manner.

Significance can be measured on both the singularity and the similarities of the groups of adult females in England and Japan. The chief mills in England were in Norfolk. Suffolk. Essex. Somerset. and Derbyshire. Around the 1800s. on norm. 79. 7 % of the English factory workers were adult females. 57 % of these adult females were over the age of 20. In Japan. 92 % of the factory workers were adult females. Yet merely 34 % of the adult females were over 20. significance that younger adult females were employed instead than acquiring an instruction. Regardless of the ages. all the mills chose to use adult females. but why. and how did their experiences associate?

In both England and Japan. adult females were ever controlled by work forces. particularly in the factory working mills. Work force were the proprietors. the large determination shapers. and were privileged among the many employees. the bulk being adult females. Whether the merchandise created was silk. lacing. wool. or cotton. the work forces were in charge of the adult females. Typically. the work forces were extremely respected employees. who could be appointed director. Because the work forces had well subjective power of the adult females. the adult females were defenceless and vulnerable. Many adult females in the mills were violently raped and harassed while working in the mills. With the fright of losing their occupation. the adult females were left with no possibilities of acquiring aid. Some colzas even resulted in gestation. yet the adult females were ever blamed.

Men normally paid adult females off in order to take the job from his life. Several adult females chose to perpetrate self-destruction because of changeless fright of sexual torment. In England and Japan. the female factory workers were invariably treated below the belt and unevenly when among work forces. who unrelentingly had more power. Throughout the lives of the adult females working in the mills. in both England and Japan. the work forces invariably had power over the adult females. Not merely did the work forces have control. but they besides were paid well more than the adult females. Even when working the same occupation. and hours. adult females were paid significantly less than work forces. In England. the mean day-to-day pay for a male loom operator was 40 pence. or 40 pennies. The mean day-to-day pay for a female loom operator was 26 pence. or 26 pennies. In Japan. the mean day-to-day pay for a male cotton factory worker was 17 sen. approximately 0. 0021 American Dollars. The mean day-to-day pay for a female cotton factory worker was 9 sen. approximately 0. 0011 American Dollars. The difference was critical. as adult females were paid about half what work forces were paid. Although skilled adult females were paid more than unskilled adult females. all adult females received less money than work forces.

In all mills in both England and Japan. work forces non merely had more power. but were besides paid well higher than adult females. The female factory workers in England and Japan besides shared the duty for their households. Normally. the adult females started working in the mills in order to back up the household with money for nutrient. H2O. and shelter. In England. one lb of oatmeal cost 1 pence. or 1 penny. and made about 12 helpings. or adequate to feed an full household. In Japan. one quart of rice cost 1 sen. approximately 0. 0001 American Dollars. In order to feed the household three times a twenty-four hours. every individual old plenty to work had to lend to the household. Because it took so much attempt to afford so small nutrient. many adult females had to go forth their households to supply for them. In add-on. in Japan. 29 % of adult females were forced to go forth their occupations for household grounds.

In both England and Japan. many female factory workers united in duty for their households. While awful on the job conditions and long working hours were large similarities between the experiences of female English and Nipponese factory workers. another similarity were the ages of adult females working. Most adult females began working in the mills around the age of 7. Until the 1833 Factory Act in England that prohibited kids under the age of 10 to work over 8 hours per twenty-four hours. most adult females were treated the same. no affair the age.

Yet up until that point in England. whether a adult female was 9. or was 21. she received the same wage. and the same hours of work. Although assisting the adult females under the age of 10. the Factory Act put more force per unit area on the older adult females. In add-on. the Factory Act encouraged instruction for immature adult females by leting them to pass more clip in school instead than in the mills. While in England. the Factory Act was created. in Japan. nil stopped the younger adult females from working more than 8 hours a twenty-four hours. The age when adult females started working is a immense ground why the experiences between the English female factory workers and the Nipponese female factory workers were similar.

One of the largest and concluding similarities between the female factory workers in England and that of in Japan is the figure of hours worked. and the horrifying conditions the adult females worked in. Most adult females worked an norm of 12 to 14 hours a twenty-four hours. Besides. adult females merely had around 90 proceedingss of interruption spread across the twenty-four hours. In add-on to the long hours each adult female worked. in both England and Japan. awful working conditions played a immense function in the unwellness rate for adult females in mills. 24 % of the adult females lost their occupations because of unwellness. Several unwellnesss caused adult females to go forth. but the chief 1 was TB from the atrocious mill conditions and the long hours of work adult females were forced to perpetrate to. In both England and Japan. female factory workers had similar experiences in the hours worked. and the awful on the job conditions.

Efficiency. significance to bring forth every bit much as possible. every bit fast as possible. standardized all mills. In order for efficiency to work. employees were necessary. which began adult females labour. two instances being in England and Japan. All powerful work forces. little incomes. duties for others. ages of adult females employees. awfully long hours. and terrorizing work environments. were similar among both societies. Although on separate parts of the universe. both groups of adult females were treated unlawfully in their mill work experiences.

Annotated Bibliography

Brady. Charles and Phil Roden. explosive detection systems. The DBQ Project. Evanston. Illinois –The DBQ Project. 2010. This beginning pointed out clear differences and similarities through the map given. It helped me understand that although on opposite sides of the universe. and in really different clip periods. the experiences between the female factory workers in England. and that of in Japan were similar with the connexions in history. Lithograph of Samuel Slater designed power-loom weaving factory. circa. 1840. in Norman Longmate. The Hungry Mills. London: Temple Smith. 1978. This beginning helped me to understand the life of an English female factory worker. In the image. the adult female is kneeling down as the adult male. most likely the leader. hovers over her. demoing how much power the work forces had over the adult females. In add-on. the adult female in the drawing is have oning large heavy vesture. which could hold been extremely unsafe for the occupations they were making.

This beginning was indispensable in assisting me see the opposite functions of work forces and adult females. Photo. circa 1910. in Andrew Gordon. A Modern History of Japan. New York: Oxford University Press. 2003. I used this beginning to compare the lives between the English female factory workers. and the Nipponese female factory workers. In this image. the adult females look staged. as if they were supposed to be perfect. In add-on. the adult females are have oning unsafe vesture. similar to the one the adult female have oning as an English female factory worker. This beginning helped me happen similarities between the two different experiences. Adapted from D. C. Coleman. Courtaulds: An Economic History. Oxford Press. 1969. This beginning was really utile to happen the per centum of females versus males in different English towns. 79. 6 % of the silk mill workers were adult females. 42. 3 % of these adult females were under 16 old ages old. E. Patricia Tsurumi. Factory Girls: Womans in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan. © 1990 Princeton University Press.

I used this beginning to show the per centum of work forces working. versus the per centum of females working in Japan. I found that 92 % of the workers were adult females. In add-on. I found that 66 % of the adult females were under 20. Because younger adult females were working. to assist supply and back up for their households. I could deduce that those adult females were non acquiring the instruction they needed. It showed me how much money a individual needed to feed their household. Besides. I found that 24 % of the grounds for loss of occupations were because of unwellness. demoing how unhealthy and awful the working environment was. Last. the beginning showed me the sexual assault issues in each of the mills. The adult females were really vulnerable and unable to fend for themselves. Douglas A. Galbi. “Through Eyess in the Storm. ” Social History. Vol. 21. No. 2. May. 1966.

This beginning helped me to see the clip that the adult females spent working. It besides helped me understand the conditions the misss worked in. and the decreasing ages where adult females started working. It besides showed me the sum of money a individual needed to buy nutrient to function their household. Noshomusho Shokoyoku and Shokko Jijo. Condition of the Factory Workers. Tokyo: Meicho Kankokai. 1967. in Mikoso Hane. Peasant. Rebels and Outcasts. New York: Pantheon Books. 1982.

I used this beginning to assist me understand the work clip the adult females had. Each adult female worked an norm of 12 to 14 hours a twenty-four hours. I inferred that adult females wanted excess hours because they needed money for the duty they held for their households in nutrient and H2O. James L. McClain. Japan: A Modern History. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 2002.

This beginning helped me to see the rate adult females versus work forces were paid. Skilled adult females were paid more than unskilled adult females. but both were still paid less than work forces. even when working the same occupation. The functions of adult females were low in power compared to the work forces. Mikoso Hane. Peasants. Rebels and Outcasts: The bottom of Modern Japan. New York: Pantheon Books. 1982.

From this beginning. I found that all the money earned by the adult females. for the most portion. went to the households of the adult females. Nothing was kept for herself. which showed the duty the adult females had for their households. First Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners for England and Wales. 1835. in Neil McKendrick editor. Historical Positions: Surveies in English Thought and Society. London: Europa Publishers. 1974. This beginning helped me understand how much money adult females were paid to work. They were paid significantly less than work forces. which helped me turn out my point of the functions of adult females versus work forces. Parliamentary Papers. 1833. Factory Inquiry Commission. 1st Report. in Victorian Women. Stanford University Press. 1981.

From this beginning. I understood the Factory Act. which showed me that kids under 10 couldn’t work over 8 hours. which put more force per unit area on the older kids.

——————————————–[ 1 ] . Brady. Charles and Phil Roden. explosive detection systems. The DBQ Project. Evanston. Illinois –The DBQ Project. 2010. [ 2 ] . Adapted from D. C. Coleman. Courtaulds: An Economic History. Oxford Press. 1969. [ 3 ] . Ibid

[ 4 ] . Ibid[ 5 ] . E. Patricia Tsurumi. Factory Girls: Womans in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan. © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 6 ] . Ibid[ 7 ] . Lithograph of Samuel Slater designed power-loom weaving factory. circa. 1840. in Norman Longmate. The Hungry Mills. London: Temple Smith. 1978. [ 8 ] . E. Patricia Tsurumi. Factory Girls: Womans in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan. © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 9 ] . Ibid

[ 10 ] . Ibid[ 11 ] . E. Patricia Tsurumi. Factory Girls: Womans in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan. © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 12 ] . Mikoso Hane. Peasants. Rebels and Outcasts: The bottom of Modern Japan. New York: Pantheon Books. 1982. [ 13 ] . First Annual Report of the Poor LawCommissioners for England and Wales. 1835. in Neil McKendrick editor. Historical Positions: Surveies in English Thought and Society. London: Europa Publishers. 1974. [ 14 ] . James L. McClain. Japan: A Modern History. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 2002. [ 15 ] . Mikoso Hane. Peasants. Rebels and Outcasts: The bottom of Modern Japan. New York: Pantheon Books. 1982. [ 16 ] . Douglas A. Galbi. “Through Eyess in the Storm. ” Social History. Vol. 21. No. 2. May. 1966. [ 17 ] . E. Patricia Tsurumi. Factory Girls: Womans in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan. © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 18 ] . E. Patricia Tsurumi. Factory Girls: Womans in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan. © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 19 ] . Parliamentary Papers. 1833. Factory Inquiry Commission. 1st Report. in Victorian Women. Stanford University Press. 1981. [ 20 ] . Ibid

[ 21 ] . Parliamentary Papers. 1833. Factory Inquiry Commission. 1st Report. in Victorian Women. Stanford University Press. 1981. [ 22 ] . Ibid[ 23 ] . Ibid[ 24 ] . Mikoso Hane. Peasants. Rebels and Outcasts: The bottom of Modern Japan. New York: Pantheon Books. 1982. [ 25 ] . Brady. Charles and Phil Roden. explosive detection systems. The DBQ Project. Evanston. Illinois –The DBQ Project. 2010.

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English Versus Japanese Female Mill Workers. (2017, Jul 20). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/english-versus-japanese-female-mill-workers-essay/

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