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Ethnomusicology 50A Notes

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Armstrong, Louis. Muskrat Ramble [CDA 10524]
Beiderbecke, Leon (Bix) & Frankie Trumbauer. Clarinet Marmalade [CDA 6566] Beiderbecke, Leon (Bix). In A Mist [CDA 6566]
Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra, Changes [CDA 3226]
King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band, prf. Dippermouth blues [LP9856] Lewis, Meade “Lux” Honky Tonk Train Blues
Louis Armstrong, prf. West End Blues [CDA 13024]
Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, prf. Struttin’ with some barbeque [LP 9856] Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven, prf. Potato Head Blues [CDA 13024] Morganfield, McKinley (Muddy Waters) Got My Mojo Working [CDA 100037 v.

7] Morton, Ferdinand (Jelly Roll). Trumpet: King Oliver King Porter [CDA 7483] Original Dixieland Jazz Band, prf. Livery Stable Blues [CDA 13024] Rainey, Ma, prf. See See Rider

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Smith, Bessie, prf. St. Louis Blues [CDA 15359]
Trumbauer, Frankie & Bix Beiderbecke, prf. Singin’ the Blues [CDA 13024] Joplin, Scott, 1869-1917. Maple Leaf Rag

Birth place of Jazz: New Orleans
Ethnic diversity
Close proximity
Musical background

Rag-time: (1897-1918)
Piano dominated genre.
Characteristic: syncopated/ ragged rhythm/ less improvisation 1. Origin: St. Louis & New Orleans- African American communities Most rag-time piano pieces were written down.

(unlike jazz-mostly improvised) Rag-time is almost non existence in the present days, unlike jazz and blues. Recognize rag-time music title & composer

Scott Joplin -> “King of Ragtime writer.” (piano) (maple leaf rag) The form of Rag-time: more similar to European music/ March/ American brass band. Doesn’t fall into AABA or 12-bar blues form Ernest Hogan developed the musical genre, coined the term

Ragtime was one of the main influences on the early development of jazz (along with the blues) Ragtime fell out of favor as jazz claimed the public’s imagination after 1917 Jelly Roll Morton performed both ragtime and jazz styles during overlapped years. The rag was a modification of the march made popular by John Philip Sousa

Blues: 1920-1930s

Bessie Smith-> the most influential early jazz vocalist (song from digital reserve) St. Louis blues (Bessie Smith)
Uses Improvisation (unlike rag-time)
Incorporate syncopation and other elements
Originated from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants. Characteristics: 12 bar blues/ repeating progression of chords/ last chord is the dominant turnaround

Brass Bands:
Buddy Bolden (trumpet)
Freddie Keppard 1890-1933 (trumpet)
Sydney Bechet 1897-1959 (clarinet)
Jellyroll Morten 1885 1941 (pianist and composer) –he claims that he is the mentor of jazz & first to show that jazz can be written down/ notation etc. (whereas improvisation cannot be written down) *Compose the melody of a song/ harmony/ chord changes/ harmony progression foundation of improvisation is composed ahead of time. James Reese Europe 1881-1919

(Band leader/ composer/ arranger (similar to composer-> take a existing composition and change it around)) rag-time band leader–Not considered as a jazz musician ODJB- Original Dixieland Jazz Band – a group of white New Orleans musicians. first jazz band to make a recording (recorded in New york) 1800-1900s- great segregation (influencing music)

1917- first jazz recording (made by ODJB)

Why/ When jazz emerged:
A need for musicians/ entertainment (late 1800s- peak of blues/ jazz and a bit of rag-time) Late 1800s- More work for musicians than musicians can handle Some of musicians’ native sounds influence musical ideas/ style

Storyville: red-light district in New Orleans
Combo: have 3 wing instruments: Trumpet, Trombone and the Clarinet. (saxophone was a new-comer) Rhythm section: piano
Base of some kind: (drums, guitar, banjo)
Cotton club: black artist, but audiences were only white people. In terms of the mental approach or strategies of musicians
Injecting personal ideas and melodic embellishments into the music  New ideas are becoming more important than the actual melody of the song  Musicians used the terms: embellishing, messing around, and jazz up the tune, instead of “improvisation”

What are the differences between jazz performances
Significant amount of jazz performance nowadays are improvised (not the case for ragtime and blues) Swing feeling emerge in modern jazz: coming from a more relaxed interpretation

Collective improvisation: more than one person improvising at the same time in a band creates more complex music
big three of the jazz age:

1. Jelly roll Morten (first jazz composer)

2.Joe King Oliver (trumpet player)
 more of an improviser than the other
 Mentor to Louis Armstrong, he made room in his band for Louis Armstrong.

3. Edward Kid Ory (Trombone)
composer and band leader

collective improvisation
Musicians develop specific roles for different instruments to avoid conflicts during a performance Trumpet: melody
Trombone: filling in the gaps
 Clarinet: counter melodies (play a higher melody than the trumpet player)

As jazz evolved, it allows more and more improvisation to take place. ODJB: a group of white New Orleans musicians
1917 first jazz(ODJB) recording
Segregation between bands. Integration happened eventually, but what slowed that is the society outside of the music world. Joe King Oliver’s Creole jazz band: first recording 1923. At that time Louis Armstrong was part of the band Chicago scene: People from New Orleans went to Chicago to perform jazz. Chicago school: different groups of musicians that helped from Chicago’s style of jazz 2 groups: black jazz musicians and white jazz musicians from New Orleans. 3rd group: indigenous people (local Chicago people) learning from New Orleans people Austin High gang

Jazz age (=early jazz) includes: new Orleans jazz + Chicago jazz Rag time jazz/ Traditional jazz/ Dixieland jazz/ gut bucket and barrel house music all describe the jazz age music.

Jazz piano: Many of the great jazz pianists were in the eastern cities: New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia. Jazz piano was unaccompanied when it was first involved.
Early jazz piano styles evolved almost directly from ragtime. Did not require a lot of music reading/ heavy memorization (which was the case in ragtime music) because musicians focused on improvisation Musicians at that time did have to memorize the melody and chord changes. Didn’t have to memorize page after page of ragtime compositions. The most common style of jazz piano: stride  very demanding type of piano playing. (physically demanding) The term “stride” came from left hand operation left hand
strides is said to takes the place of bass and guitar.

Important jazz pianist:

1. Jelly Roll Morten (1890 1941)
 First recognized and important jazz composer.
Capable of playing both ragtime styles and jazz styles. (Incorporate improvisation in his music.) Pioneer of swing 8th note technique.
Engaging/ energizing performer. (Coming from improvisation. In the moment. Lack in recordings)

2. Earl Father Hines (1903-1983)
 pianist and band leader
 born Pittsburg, moved to Chicago in 1924
Significantly influential on the piano styles in the 1930s and 1940s  Not known as one of the great stride piano player. But known for his improvisation styles.  2 styles: Trumpet styles and Horn like improvisation (musical phrasing)  Hinds would take a short break during trumpet improvisation.

3. Thomas Fats Waller
 best known stride player from New York
 Excellent technique: bouncing type of feeling on the piano.  known as a song writer/ composer

4.James P. Johnson (1894-1955) the father of stride
 Having had the most influence in Spreading stride music around the area  first pianist to be broadcasted on the radio
 A composer and conductor did some conducting in pit orchestras.

5.Willy the Lion Smith (1897-1973)
 Rivals with James P. Jonson
 Cutting sessions (battle with other musicians)

Boogie Woogie.( southern 1912 off shoot of stride)
Another jazz age style of piano.
Mead Lux Louis: Honky Tonk trained blues

*title, performer, genre->jazz age, sub-genre (blues/ragtime) Important Trumpet Players: (still in the jazz age) move to swing era after midterm

1. Louis Armstrong (1901-1971)
 trumpet player/ vocalist/ band leader/ sometimes composer/ all-around entertainer  Didn’t have valid birth records. (stated that his birthday was July 4th 1900)  nicknames: The father of jazz/ pops/ satchmo/ Dippermouth innovative recordings: mid-late 1920s,

Melodic phrasing influenced swing era.
leading two relatively similar groups: Louis Armstrong and his hot five/ Louis Armstrong and his hot seven (relocated to Chicago, band includes his musician friends from New Orleans Trombone: Kid Ory/ Clarinet: Johnny Dodds/ Piano: lil’ Armstrong/ Banjo: Johnny St. Cyr)  most imitated improviser after 1930s (First greatest solo improviser in Jazz history)  Multiple improvisers were needed to keep the audience engaged, but Louis Armstrong’s melodies were enough to captivate his audience: He proved that a single improviser can be enough in a band.  help developed the 8th note swing pattern

 extended the expected range (lowest to highest note) of the trumpet  Often improvise a melody-like line that was so compatible to chord changes that you think it’s the original melody of the song. As a vocalist, he was one of the first musicians who wouldn’t sing a melody straight, he also influenced many vocalists later on. pioneer of Scat singing: use unusual syllables instead of lyrics, improvised melodies and rhythms

2. Bix Beiderbecke (1903-1931)
trumpet player/composer
 emerged and developed around the same time as Louis Armstrong First recording: 1924 with the wolverine orchestra
few years later, Bix became a featured soloist in the band leaded by Paul
Whiteman  Blended jazz with ragtime concept
 Incorporate French classical music (sub genre: impressionism)  Bix Vs. Louis tone: Bix, cooler (less brassy sound) Louis, more reflective less virtuosic * Frankie Trumbauer: played c melody saxophone (not intended to be played professionally, more like a hobby) From davenport Iowa

*early clarinet solos were not considered to be as dramatic as trumpet solos Important Clarinet Players:

1. Jonny Dodds (1892-1940)
one of the leading new Orleans clarinet players
moved to Chicago
started out as a side man with king Oliver
 Sounds: classic New Orleans clarinet sound, edgy rough tone, fast vibrato. (Vibrate the pitch), aggressive

2.Jimmy Noone (1895-1944)
View as one of the best New Orleans clarinet players.
More polished sound than Jonny Dodds, greater command and speed  sound: Dark, warm, clear
recorded with Earl Hynes

**3. Sidney Bechet (1897-1959)
 played both the clarinet and soprano saxophone
 clarinet sound: warmer, darker than soprano saxophone
 Great soloist: got elements of Noone and Dodds. Big warm tone with a rapid vibrato.  Known for carefully crafting his solos.

Important Trombone Players:
*Solo style more like the trumpet, but less intricate.

1. Kidd Ory (1886-1973)
first note-worthy new Orleans trombonist
 husky tone
 composer of muskrat ramble

2.Jack Tea Garden (1905-1964)
 from Texas
 Full tone, stronger louder sound, more refined tone than other trombonist.  Carefully planned solo parts.


Banjo: instrument of African origin
Produces a bit more volume than guitar

Bass instruments: (order of frequency) Tuba, bass saxophone, string bass (least common) The bass instrument played 2-beat feel: two notes in every measure (odd number beats)

Piano, sometime played chords like bass and guitar.

In the earliest days of jazz (jazz age), the drums were poorly heard due to the recording technology. 1. Baby Dodds (1898 -1959)
 Pioneer of ride rhythm. (Basic elements of jazz swing feel.) 2. Zutty singleton (1898 1975)
first to use brushes instead of sticks
first to play 4 on the floor-bass drum style

1.Eddie Lang (1902-1933)
white, from Philadelphia, in Singing the Blues
2. Lonny Johnson (1899-1970)
 blue influenced style
 invented sliding on guitar
 side man of Louis Armstrong

Blind Willy Dunn and his Gin Bottle Four featured two guitars (Lang+Johnson)  integrated band since Lang was white and Johnson was black. This fact was
mostly unknown. landmark recording: 1929

1. Bessie Smith (1894-1937) aka Empress of the Blues
participated in vaudeville circuit (circus on the stage, traveling variety show) recorded with greats like Armstrong, James P Johnson, Bennie Goodman could be heard while a band is playing
incorporated embellishments like scoops (raising the pitch), falls (lowering the pitch) 2. Ma Rainey (1886-1939) aka Mother of the Blues
one of the earliest known blues singers
3. Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield) (1913-1983) aka Father of Chicago Blues 4. Ethel Waters (1896-1977)
considered first jazz singer, not blues

No.2 pencils
Listening list first X2
Title/ Composer/ Genre
Multiple choice
Remember song form (12 bar blues, AAB(Bridge)A song form)
Play melody of the song= “head”, and then improvise

Spanish tinge: musician: Jelly Roll Morton refer to the Afro-Cuban influence present in New Orleans Jelly Roll Morton: 1. “Breaks”: give soloist a brief chance to play alone. 2. “The Spanish Tinge” 3. Delineated the difference between ragtime jazz and blues. Tailgate: (Slides glides and slurs) Kid Ory trombone

Kid ore and his Creole jazz band became first African American New Orleans group to make a record. Mildred bailey, Cab Calloway (scat improvisation, vocalist)
1917- first recording
instrument matching session: a list a musicians, select ABCD for their instrument CORRECTIONARTIST: jelly roll Morton (KING PORTER) version! Louis Armstrong/ king Oliver’s creole jazz band (who is the second trumpet
player in his band?): know sideman What is the difference between the hot five and hot seven?

Struttin with some barbeque composer (Lil Armstrong) /muskrat ramble (Kid Ory) /St. Louis blues (WC handy) composers

Composer creates a song
Arranger rearranges a song

Who moved to Chicago from New Orleans? Earl father Hines from Pittsburg to Chicago/ King Oliver: new Orleans, ODJB Chicago/ where Bix Beiderbecke is from davenport Iowa

Performers- Muskrat Ramble (Composer: Kid Ory) / Struttin with some barbeque (Lil Hardin Armstrong)/ potato head blues Trumpet: Louis Armstrong
Trombone: Kid Ory
Clarinet: Johnny Dodds
Piano: Lil Armstrong
Banjo: Cyr
(Drums): baby Dodds

Performers- Dippermouth blues
Trumpet: King Oliver, Louis Armstrong
Clarinet: Johnny Dodds
Piano: Lil Hardin
Drums: Baby Dodds

St. Louis Blues:
Composer: W.C Handy
Singer: Bessie Smith
Trumpet: Louis Armstrong
King Porter:
Composer: Jelly Roll Morton
Trumpet: King Oliver
Piano: Jelly Roll Morton
West End Blues:
Composer: King Oliver
Trumpet: Louis Armstrong
Drums: Zutty Singleton
See See Rider:
Singer: Ma Rainey
Trumpet: Louis Armstrong
Piano: Fletcher Henderson

Ragtime: syncopated/ ragged music from preexisting pieces. A piano style with stride left hand and highly syncopated right hand; ragtime was composed music. Mostly written down Blues: 12-bar blues/AABA form. A style of music derived from West African tradition of vocal call and response/ field hollers, combined with European-style harmonies. Mostly improvised.

First jazz recording: Livery Stable Blues, Original Dixieland Jass Band (ODJB) – 1917 (Freddie Keppard: turn down first recording offer)

First recording by a black band: Kid Ory’s Jazz Band – 1921 Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith record for the first time (New York) – 1923

King Oliver’s first recording (Gennett Records) – 1923
First scat recording: Louis Armstrong– 1925

Big three of Jazz age: Jelly Roll Morton/ Kid Ory/ King Oliver King of Jazz: Paul Whiteman
Father of Jazz: Louis Armstrong
First jazz improviser: Louis Armstrong
First jazz composer: Jelly Roll Morton (played both rag and jazz) First significant jazz musician: Buddy Bolden
First center of jazz: New Orleans
Mother of blues: Ma Rainey
Empress of blues: Bessie Smith
Father of Chicago blues: McKinley Morganfield (Muddy Waters) First jazz
singer: Ethel Waters
King of Ragtime writer: Scott Joplin
Pioneer of swing 8th note technique: Jelly Roll Morton
Pioneer of Scat singing: Louis Armstrong


The best known African American neighborhood in the United States, located in Manhattan, north of Central Park. It has been a center for black business and cultural activities for more than sixty years.

Harlem Renaissance
Time in American History (1920 to late 1930s) when African American literature, art & music began to flourish in New York City.

call and response
A means whereby instruments or sections of instruments in a band or combo play a passage which is in turn responded to by another instrument or section; a musical conversation: one musician or section will play a short melodic idea and is answered by another musician or section. change

Synonym for chord (e.g., the changes of a tune = the chords of a tune). chord
Two or more notes played at the same time; the music that accompanies the melody, setting the mood (AKA “change,” i.e., the “changes” of a song are the chords that accompany the song); harmony. Creole

Cotton Club

Collective improvisation

Louisiana residents with African heritage mixed with Spanish or French ancestry. 3 instruments: Trumpet (melodies)/ Trombone (filling in gaps)/ Clarinet(counter melody, higher pitch) Black artist, but audience was only
white people.

more than one person improvising at the same time in a band creates more complex music Dixieland
Early instrumental jazz band music. The name given to New Orleans style jazz when it began to be played in Northern cities. This style of jazz is also known as New Orleans style jazz, Chicago style jazz or traditional jazz. ensemble

A group of musicians commonly known as a band or combo.

Refers to a composition’s internal structure; the repeated and contrasting sections in the design of a composition; the tune’s harmonic (chordal) “blueprint;” common jazz forms include: AABA, harmony

Two or more notes played simultaneously and compatibly; the combination of notes into chords and chord progressions.

The written melody of a tune (previously composed, not improvised), usually played as the first and last chorus in a jazz performance.

The gamut of pitches from low to high that a voice or an instrument is capable of producing. rhythm
The pulse or pattern of beats of a given piece of music; the element of music dealing with time. rhythm section
The musicians in the band whose primary function is to provide and maintain the pulse, rhythm, and feel of the music as well as its underlying chord structure; the rhythm section consists of piano, bass, guitar, and drums. scat singing


A vocalist’s improvisatory device whereby he/she sings in nonsense syllables rather than lyrics as a means of approximating an instrumental solo; vocal improvisation Red-light district in New Orleans.

(=Stride piano=Harlem style piano) Developed from ragtime. Stride leaps in left hand and syncopated figures in the right hand. Pioneered by James P. Johnson. Scoops (raising the pitch), falls (lowering the pitch)

Tailgate: style of jazz trombone: slides glides and slurs. Invented by (Kid Ory) Spanish Tinge  refer to the Afro-Cuban influence present in New Orleans

vaudeville circuit circus on the stage, traveling variety show: Bessie Smith

Jelly Roll Morton: 1. “Breaks”: give soloist a brief chance to play alone. 2. “The Spanish Tinge” 3. Delineated the difference between ragtime jazz and blues

Cite this Ethnomusicology 50A Notes

Ethnomusicology 50A Notes. (2016, Oct 28). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/ethnomusicology-50a-notes/

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