I once thought that only male undergoes circumcision but I was wrong with my notion because women also undergo such thing. The term “female genital cutting” as explained by Wikipedia, denotes to “the operation of cutting off a limb or any part of the female genitalia for cultural rather than medical reasons which not include genital amputation of gender reassignment surgery or intersexuals. In other countries, various several human rights associations from Africa, Asia and West think through such act, female genital cutting rituals, as an infringement, disrespect and defilement of women’s human rights.
Along with these governments and groups, they are looked upon as offensive, intolerable and unlawful forms of body mutilation and modification of those have confidence to be excessively undeveloped. People who oppose such practices give a terminology for this act. They called it as “female genital mutilation” or FGM. The term “female circumcision” is also conventional and ordinary usage even though promoter of male circumcision dispute that this will result in discarded and unsolicited organizations flanked by two practices even though genital integrity promoters may denote to altogether child genital as “mutilation”.
In a report made by BBC News, it declared that “female mutilation or circumcision of the genitals is considered as one of the extreme political areas of the health of the women. It is reported that there is over 100 million women who have been subjected to it worldwide. Advocates of the said practice explain that it is prepared and completed for religious and cultural
1he purpose of this study is to:
- know the different forms of female genital mutilation;
- comprehend the medical consequences;
- understand the indications for circumcision and;
- advocates the two common abnormalities.
There are types of female circumcision. These are Clitoridotomy, Clitoridectomy, Infibulation and other types of female circumcision.
As explained by Wikipedia, clitoridotomy which is also known as “hoodectomy” in a slang term implicates the splitting or removal of the clitorical hood. According to the United Nations Population Funds explains that this practice is equivalent to male circumcision. In other Western countries and in the United States of America, a clitoridotomy is typically executing the operation on adult women rather than on children. This practice is also popularly known as Sunna circumcision which is named after the Arabic word for whatsoever accepted and permitted by the Islamic law and midpoint in Islamic tradition and belief. But still, there are Muslim priesthoods who go against such practice.
The type l circumcision is denoted by the World Health Organization as clitoridotomy and possible cutting out of the part or the all of the clitoris. Moreover, various authors denote type 1 as fractional removal of the clitoris.3 In the late part of 19th century up to 1950s; it was more aggressive processes which include cutting out of the part of the clitoris and infibulation were observed and exercised in Western nations to constraint female sexuality and were promoted in the United States of America by organizations like the Orificial Surgery Society up to 1925. Some doctors and others encourage clitoridotomy of adults which promote as a way of intensifying sexual pleasure and sensitivity.
Clitoridectomy is a fractional or entire removal of the external part of the clitoris. It was occasionally exercised in English-speaking countries subsequently the first half of the 20th century which apparently to halt masturbation. The things which occasionally occurred to women and girls were recorded by Alex Comfort’s book entitled “The Anxiety Makers”, Panther edition, London, 1968:
“About 1858, Dr Isaac Baker Brown, later president of the Medical Society of London, introduced the operation of clitoridectomy for the consequences of what he coyly calls ‘peripheral excitement’. These, in his view, included epilepsy, hysteria and the convulsive disorders generally (page 109). In 1866 Brown published a series of 48 of such cases. This caused what Comfort called an ‘almighty row’. Dr Baker Brown was ejected from the Obstetrical Society. Comfort says (page 111) that ‘clitoridectomy fortunately disappeared from England’. However, it was taken up in the United States:
In 1894, we find Dr. Eyer of the St. John’s Hospital, Ohio, and dealing with nervousness and masturbation in a little girl by cauterizing the clitoris; this failing, a surgeon was called in to bury it with silver wire sutures – which the child tore and resumed the habit. The entire organ was then excised, with the crura. Six weeks after the operation the patient is reported as saying, ‘You know there is nothing there now, so I could do nothing.’ (Comfort, ibid, page 111)”
Type 111 of the female circumcision is considered and noted as the most serious and critical which is similarly to as pharaonic circumcision or infibulation. This is typically performed by a “gedda” -or a matron of the village which is lacking of anesthetic- on young girls between the ages of two and six. The infubulation substitutes the vulva with a wall of flesh from the pubis to the anus-with the exception of a pencil-size opening at the inferior part of the vulva to permit menstrual blood and urine to slip away. A reverse infibulation is where the entrance is left in the anterior portion of the vulva in front of the uretha. Below is an illustration of infibulated vagina just after the operation and was taken from Wikipedia. 7
Other Types of Female Circumcision
The other types are jointly called as Type lV, including a varied span of practices, which include scarring or burning the genitals as well as tearing or ripping of the vagina and pricking the clitoris with a number of needles. Type four can be found mainly amongst secluded ethnic groups.
Amongst the practicing cultures, female genital circumcision is most frequently carried out amid the ages of four and eight. Most of the plastic surgery, encourages of it perceive that it should be executed under the hygienic circumstances and with the remedy of a suitable application of anesthesia. Female genital circumcision can be intensely excruciating and risky to health when it neither is nor executed hygienically.
Indications for Circumcision
According to W.G. Rathmann in his article. It stated that there are two indications for female circumcision. These major indications for circumcision are functional need and an anatomic or mechanical factor. When we say functional need, it denotes to deficient capacity to have a climax or capacity to have solely with substantial difficulty while an anatomic or mechanical factor refers to a need of correction.9
Two Common Abnormalities
Rathmann continued that “two conventional dilemmas which make the extremely sensitive clitoris’ area incapable to be stirred are the “phimosis and redundancy”. The sebaceous glands about the clitoris try to stop unions of the prepuce to it. It is usually fails and the clitoris is firmly stuck on to the prepuce. This flaw is documented as 1 plus or 25 percent of the usual surface adherent, to 4 and up or comprehensive coverage. The figures below are taken from W.G. Rathmann’s study.
- “Female Genital Cutting”. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. July 25, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_circumcision
- “Female Circumcision”. BBC News, December 23, 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/241221.stm
- W.G. Rathmann, “Female Circumcision: Indications and a New Technique.” GP, vol. XX, no. 3, pp. 115-120, September 1959. http://www.noharmm.org/femcirctech.htm
Cite this Female Circumcision
Female Circumcision. (2017, Jan 16). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/female-circumcision/