Present status and future scope of Horticultural crops: In Pakistan: The total geographical area of Pakistan is about 796,096 sq. km. Most of the areas in the Punjab and Sindh provinces are comprised of plain land, formed by the River Indus. Pakistan is known for its excellent network of canals and rich agricultural lands, with three major reservoirs — Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma, 23 barrages, 12 huge interlink canals, about 63,800 kilometers canal’s length, 106 kilometers water courses and 107,000 no. of channels spreading all over the country.
The Northern Regions of Pakistan is famous for its high mountain ranges, the Himalayas and Karakorams. The highest peak in the area is Godwin Austin (K-2), which is 8610. 60 meters above the sea level. This is the second highest peak in the world. The south western part of the country is a plateau with an average height of about 609. 6 meters above the sea level. The Province of NWFP comprises of both hilly areas and fertile valleys. Balochistan, the biggest province of Pakistan is mainly an arid region with promise of mineral wealth. Total land areas (Mha) Total cropped areas (Mha) Punjab 20. 60 11. 04 (55.
70 %) Sindh 14. 10 05. 45 (27. 50 %) NWFP 10. 20 01. 93 (09. 73 %) Balochistan 34. 70 01. 40 (07. 06 %) Pakistan 79. 60 19. 82 (07. 06 %) Of this cropped area, only 25 per cent is under cultivation, 4. 5 per cent under forest, about 57 per cent is range land. The irrigated land is 75 per cent (15. 2 mha. of the total cropped area), 19 per cent (or nearly 4. 25 mha. ) is rain-fed, while the other 4 per cent is irrigated by tube-well and other sources. CROPPING SEASONS: Rabi crops: Wheat, gram, tobacco, rape seed, mustard, pulses etc. Sowing start from October to January and harvested between April to June.
Kharif crops: Rice, cotton, maize, sugarcane. Sowing start in April to September and harvested in October to March. HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE: The importance of horticultural crops in human nutrition is well known. These crops play a important role in balancing the diet of human being by providing not only energy-rich food but also promise supply of vital protective nutrients — like minerals and vitamins, employment generation, food and financial security of the citizen. They not only adorn the table but also enrich health from the most nutritive menu and tone up energy and vigour of the people.
These crops provide supplementary and protective food. The consumption of these horticultural crops will contribute in alleviating malnutrition and other under nutritional problems like night blindness, anemia, goitre, scabies etc. of the poverty stricken people of the society. The region of Pakistan has a rich topographic and climatic endowments and variations in soil, on which a large range of horticultural crops, such as fruits, vegetables, roots and tuber crops, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plants, plantation crops, spices and other are grown.
Having independence in 1947, the major emphasis was laid on achieving selfsufficiency in food production. Development of high yielding wheat varieties and high production technologies and their adoption in areas of assured irrigation paved the way towards food security ushering in green revolution in the sixties. It, however, gradually became clear that horticultural crops for which the Pakistani topography and agroclimates are well suited is an ideal method of achieving sustainability of small holdings, increasing employment, improving environment, providing an enormous export potential and above all achieving nutritional security.
A significant increase has been observed in the export earnings from the horticultural crops during the recent years. This sector has the potential to provide opportunities to increase income and alleviation of hunger and poverty and curve down socio-economic problems of the region. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS: Fruit crops: Pakistan is blessed with many horticultural crops, which are highly important in the economy of Pakistan. They include fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants.
The fruit industry in Pakistan has made remarkable progress during the last four decades. The important fruit crops of the country are: i) Citrus – Kinno, Mandarin, Red Blood, Musambi; ii) Mango – Langra, Sindhri, Dusehri, Chaunsa, Anwar, Ratol, Begun Pali; iii) Grapefruit – Marsh seedless Shambler; iv) Lemon – Kagzi lemon; v) Date palm – Asil, Begum Jungi, Dhaki, Halini Fasli; vi) Apples – Golden delicious, Red delicious, Mashdi, Amri; vii) Pomegranate – Behi-dana; viii)
Guava – sufaida; ix) Apricots – Char Maghzi; ix) Peaches – Florida King, Early grand; x) Plums – Santa Rosa, Stanley; xi) Almond – Kaghzi, Besta; xii) Banana; xiii) Papaya; ixv) Ber; xv) Custard Apple; xvi) Coconut; xvii) Jamun; xviii) Sweet Orange; ixx) Pear; xx) Custard apple; xxi) Phalsa; xxii) Tamarind; xxiii) Groundnut; ixxv) Walnut. The total number. of orchards in Pakistan is about 328,400. The statistics are as: i) The number of orchards within l acre of land is 111. 5 x 103; ii) the orchards within 1 to 5 acres are 173 x 103; iii) the orchards within the size of 5 to 25 acres constitute of 40 x 103 and v) 50 and above 1.
5 x 103. Vegetable crops: Vegetables rank next to cereals as a source of carbohydrates. Vegetable plants store reserve food in roots, stems, leaves and fruits, which are eaten fresh and or cooked, picked and used along with the staple food like wheat and rice. The nutritive value of vegetables is tremendous, because of the presence of nutrient packed food containing mineral salts and vitamins. Pakistan grows a large variety of vegetables of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate groups on 15 x 104 hectares producing about 1. 8 million tons.
According to experts dealing with human nutrition, a balanced diet requires 100 g of vegetable per person day. The vegetable crops could thus be used to substantiate the cereal crops. The some of the important vegetables grown in the country are: Potato, Onion, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Turnip, Radish, Carrot, Pea, Bean, Soybean, Sweet gourd, Bitter gourd, Lady’s finger, Pumpkin, Cucumber, Snake melon, Bitter gourd, Squash, Bringal, Tomato, Sweet pepper, Chilli, Spinach, Sugar- beet, Sweet potato, Drumstick, Bathua, Lettuce, Mint, Garlic, Ginger, Fenugreek.
Flowers and ornamental plants: The availability of flowers and ornamental plants has recently increased with change in crop production priorities and rise in living standards. The availability of pick flowers of Red Rose and Marigold in use since ages for garlands has increased manifold. Additionally, cut flowers for flowers arrangements have sprung up in market due to demand pull by the local consumers. The demand for long stem roses, tube roses, gladioli has tremendously increased.
In order to explain the cultivation of these plants, import of quality hybrid flower seeds and planting material may be allowed free of duty to promote production of quality leading to export. The small items of machinery and shading nets to be used by the flowers and ornamental plant nurseries should be exempted from the levy of duty. Exports: 1997 – 98 (Fruits and Vegetables) Quantity (tons). Value (Rs. millions) Potato 38916 211 Onion 64997 385 Mushroom 68 216 Kinno 58593 310 Bananas 4252 20 Dates (Fresh) 10233 200 Dates (Dry)
55491 973 Mangoes 35834 302 All Fruits 204354 2792 Vegetables 105620 832 Post harvest technology: The post harvest losses in fruits are of about Rs. 30 billion and in vegetables about Rs. 20 billion. The high rate of post harvest losses in fruits and vegetables and rising consumer prices are resulting in low returns to the growers and traders, besides limiting the national exports. To minimize post harvest losses in vegetables and fruits to safeguard the interest of growers, processors, traders and as well as consumers.
In addition to this, the standardization of pre and post harvest management technologies aimed at minimizing post harvest losses and standardizing market practices are inevitable to promote horticulture as an industry in Pakistan. We must improve our quality standards to capture the international market, keeping in view of the WTO standards. The following active measures are being taken to reduce these substantial losses: Quick and efficient disposal by airplane from one city to another city of high value commodities like perishable fruits and flowers. Post harvest management particularly hydro-cooling, grading, packing and transport.
Packing technologies to popularize among the farming communities through introduction of card board packs and high quality lining materials. MAJOR CONSTRAINTS OF HORTICULTURAL SECTOR: The production of fruits, vegetables and root and tubers at present, is constrained by several factors. Some of these are listed below: It is difficult for a farmer to obtain the plants of the desired variety and of sound health when he plans to put up an orchard. A major constraint in the horticultural sub sector is the availability of appropriate facilities for harvest and post-harvest management.
Our present production system is not organized to commercially exploit these perishables. Fruits and vegetable production calls for an expensive investment. Inadequate availability of good quality seed and planting materials Imbalanced fertilizer application Low productivity and high cost of production High percentage of post-harvest losses Inadequate storage facilities and outdated methods used in processing / packaging Inadequate market information and difficulties in marketing Difficulties in obtaining suitable land for expansion and in obtaining financial assistance Lack of irrigation facilities
Non -availability of cold storage facilities to store perishables prior to shipment Insufficient air cargo space and non-priority to perishable floriculture produce at air ports Lack of appropriate packaging for floricultural produce Lack of a well established information database Lack of infrastructure to support technology development, education and training RECOMMENDATION: Land for the establishment and expansion of nurseries Infrastructure development and equipment Incentive schemes and financial assistance Cold storage facilities Air cargo space / subsidy on air and sea freights
Packaging and other associated facilities Institutional support research and development Exchange of new germ plasm in developing new crop varieties Seed policies to facilitate the importation of hybrid seeds of horticultural crops Exchange of experts in different fields Joint ventures in seeds and planting material production Joint ventures in storage and processing industry Exchange of technologies in production of small farm machinery and equipment Training programmes on hybrid seed production, post-harvest handling, processing, socio-economic data collection and analysis Setting up of a regional information network.
Appropriate handling of horticultural items at airport and seaport Establishment of modern wholesale markets for fruits, vegetables and flowers. Executive Summary Horticultural sector contributes about 12% to the national agricultural GDP of Pakistan, and holds great potential for increasing export of premium quality horticultural produce, and offering multiple employment opportunities throughout the supply chain, particularly in rural areas.
However, its growth and profitability is restrained mainly by the lack of proper postharvest management and transport infrastructure. Out of 13. 67 million tonnes of fruits and vegetables produced annually, about 25% goes waste, between farms to consumers, while only 4% is exported at far lower price (41%) compared to world average price, owing to poor produce quality and relying on traditional low end markets.
Improving the postharvest management infrastructure (grading, packing, storage and transport/cold-chain) will help reduce high postharvest losses, increase production surplus along with improving shelf life and quality of fresh produce, which will help to stabilize prices in domestic markets as well as to substantially boost export to highly lucrative and competitive international markets. Keeping in view the importance of the cold chain, Ministry of Commerce, Government of Pakistan, initiated to carryout a Prefeasibility study on “Establishment of Cold Chain System” under “National Trade Corridor Improvement Project”.
M/s Arch Vision, was assigned to conduct the studies, while, Pakistan Horticulture Development & Export Board (PHDEB) was responsible for overseeing the project. The pre-feasibility study consists of two aspects: background studies of the horticulture sector including production, exports, imports, commodity losses etc (Vol. -I); and technical and financial details for the components of the cold chain system including Pack houses (Vol. -II), Cold stores (Vol. -III) and Reefer containers (Vol.
-IV), with overall objective of establishing an interconnected series of export/pack houses, cold stores, and credit pool for refrigerated containers. FRESH PRODUCE INDUSTRY: During the last decade, horticultural crop production has increased from 11. 3 million tonnes to 13. 7 million tonnes, which is expected to reach 19. 4 million tonnes by the year 2009-10. The production analysis shows that share of fruits and vegetable is 48. 6% and 51. 4% respectively. Among the major fruit crops, citrus, mango, dates, guava and apple contribute 30, 25, 9, 9, and 5%, respectively in production.
While in vegetable production potato, onion, and tomato share 29, 25 and 6 % respectively. The production mapping shows that huge potential in citrus processing, storage and exports exists in Sargodha. However, Toba Tek Singh and Mandi Bahauddin (Punjab) are also potential areas for establishing new grading, packaging and cold storage facilities. Mango is predominantly grown in Punjab, with Multan, Rahim Yar Khan and Muzaffar Garh districts sharing 54. 9% of total production. However, the importance of Hyderabad and Mir Pur Khas remains obvious for domestic and export markets, due to one-month advance season.
Khairpur (Sindh), Turbat and Punjgur (Balochistan) and D. I. Khan (NWFP) produce dates of remarkable quality. Grapes are mostly cultivated in Balochistan (Pishin 68%, Quetta 9%). Major apple producing districts include South Waziristan (16. 9%) and Swat (13. 9%) in NWFP and Zhob and Mustang in Balochistan together share 22. 5%. In apricot, Killa Saifullah and Loralai (Balochistan) are main areas with 50 and 13. 82% production respectively. About 57% of Peaches are produced in Swat (NWFP), while premium quality plums are produced in Kalat (Balochistan), Mardan and Swat (NWFP).
Among vegetables, onion is the leading vegetable crop; Chagi (Balochistan), Hyderabad and Sanghar (Sindh) are the leading production districts. Potato is mainly grown in Okara and Sahiwal in Punjab (> 43%). Top tomato producing areas include Kila Saifullah, Barkhan, Nasirabad and Jaffarabad districts in Balochistan and Swat district in NWFP. Establishment of modern packing grading and storage facilities in the production areas will not only help boost export of fresh produce, but also will help in the rural development and well-being of millions associated with this sector.
Pakistan has 162. 4 million people, with 17. 6% in 10 main cities. Over the last decade, population increased by 2. 62% annually (2. 62 millions per annum). Increased urbanization has resulted in increased volumes of fresh produce transported to main consumption /trade centers. Most of fruits and vegetables are produced in distant areas across the country, and the current sate of transport (open non-refrigerated trucks) is one of the major factors contributing to the heavy postharvest losses (20-40%).
The challenge of providing enough fruits and vegetables to the growing population @2. 0% per annum, fast urbanization, and increasing exports can only be met by reducing post-harvest losses. The improvement in postharvest handling and establishment of cold chain, especially the availability of refrigerated containers will help reduce postharvest losses, improve shelf life while maintaining produce quality at destination. Although Pakistan produces large quantities of fruits and vegetables, however
its exports are negligible, with large price gap compared to international average prices. Total export of fruits and vegetables during 2005-06 was only 0. 557 million tonnes (4%) worth $168 million, @ $301. 6/t, which is almost 41% less than the average price of same commodities in international markets. Among the main reasons of lower prices include poor produce quality, export to low-end market, and limited market access on account of compliance issues (wood packing, fruit fly, pesticide residues and contaminants etc) by many of the importing countries.
The absence of modern packing, grading and refrigerated transport facilities is primary obstacle to improve quality and compliance to standards and food safety needed to enter into more lucrative but competitive markets like EU, Japan and China. Establishment of such facilities will greatly enhance competitiveness of our product, thereby increasing export. Pakistan, itself is a large market for quality fruits and vegetables. However, the marketing system lacks proper cold storage facilities and integrated cold chain, thereby has substantial postharvest losses with reduced shelf life and quality of fresh produce.
The domestic price analysis shows large fluctuation in prices of most of the commodities; with minimum at peak supply periods and maximum at short supply time. Pomology: Pomology is an important component of horticulture science which has an integral share in agriculture sector. Agro-climatic conditions of the country offer diverse opportunity for the production of large number of quality fruits. The growth rate of fruit production is encouraging, at present about 639 thousand hectares of the country is under different fruit crops having 6152 thousand tones of production.
The total export value of fruits from Pakistan is about 43 million US$ annually which is not impressive by any means and the average yield is much lower than other fruit producing countries. However, there is potential to grow and produce more using the available tools in production, protection and marketing technologies. This is the high time to realize the importance of fruit production and its marketing at home and abroad. WTO & phyto-sanitary measures further complicate the issue.
So it becomes imperative at this time to train the manpower and organize resources in perspective to the future demands. The growers have problem of less shelf life and certain other insect and disease problems with lack of proper propagation systems to get true to type plants. Tissue culture cell, a component of pomology section, provides the solution in the form of micropropagation protocols to get disease-free true-to-type plants at early stages. Moreover, biotechnological research on different fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops is also under-way. This research group has following objectives,
Learning for leadership, training and up-gradation of manpower in accordance to modern production technology for fruit crops To undertake basic and applied research for developing strategies to enhance productivity and utilization of fruit crops Collection, evaluation and standardization of indigenous and exotic germplasm of fruit species Standardization of modern nursery and orchard management practices for fruit crops High quality fruit production for export as per WTO standards To innovate and communicate for the benefit of the consumers and producers of fruit crops.
Improvement of horticultural crops using tissue culture as a tool Biotechnological investigations for characterization and improvement of horticultural crops Development of micropropagation protocols for the elite fruit, vegetable, ornamental and other horticultural crops 2 Olericulture Section Research Team Dr. Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Professor Dr. Muhammad Amjad, Professor Dr. Muhammad Asif Ali, Associate Professor Dr. Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Associate Professor Mr. Khurram Ziaf, Lecturer Mr. Irfan Ashraf, Lecturer Research Description Vegetable production is a subject of enormous scope.
Vegetables play a vital role in human diet and economics of a country. In Pakistan the area and production of vegetable crops is very low. Similarly per capita consumption of vegetable is below than the recommended dietary standards of FAO. However, quite recently increased trend in production of high quality vegetables has been realized across the country. Some high value vegetable crops are being produced which have got great export potential. Government of Pakistan has already established Pakistan Horticultural Development & Export Board for horticultural crops.
There is a need to boost the vegetable production and to train specialized manpower in this area to explore the greater economic and export potential by providing latest technology for vegetable crops. Vegetable seed production and mushroom cultivation are other important areas of concern as Pakistan is importing 85% of total requirement of vegetable seeds from abroad. This research group has following objectives, To teach various courses on vegetable production technology at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
To undertake basic, strategic and applied research for developing technology to enhance production of vegetable crops. To collaborate with relevant national and international agencies for achieving coordinated research activities. To act as a centre of training for up gradation of scientific manpower in vegetable crops. To disseminate the scientific information to the farmers at prompt. To provide consultancy in the vegetable research and development 3 Floriculture and Landscape Plants Section Research Team Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan, Professor Dr. Muhammad Qasim, Associate Professor Dr.
Atif Riaz, Assistant Professor Dr. Adnan Younis, Assistant Professor Mr. Iftikhar Ahmad, Lecturer Mr. Shoaib-ur-Rehman, Lecturer Research Description Landscape Horticulture is the design and resource planning profession that applies in both art and science to achieve the best use of our land and plants. The origin of landscape is firmly based in the design of gardens, parks and land planning of ancient civilizations. While traditionally providing comfort and beauty in the outdoor world, landscape has expanded to meet the larger environmental concerns and human needs of today’s world.
The landscape horticulture is qualified to undertake projects as large as resource planning efforts for an entire region or as small as designing the site for a single residence. These diverse areas of work require that the landscape horticulture possess skills in design, human behavior, environmental sciences, and the use of plant and construction materials. Using these skills together with new computer aided design and information systems, the landscape horticulture can effectively address the problems of designing and managing the environment.
Likewise, Floriculture holds great export potential in this country of diverse topography and climate. Ministry of Science and technology has granted a big project of floriculture entitled “Export Quality Cut Flower Production and Essential Oil Extraction of Rosa” worth 20. 983 million rupees. Project aims to explore potential for production of export quality cut flowers and their allied products such as essential oils etc. It provides opportunities to train students with competency and learn skills needed to meet international standards.
Establishing an independent department will improve its efficiency in delivering teaching and research skills. University of Agriculture Faisalabad will offer a unique opportunity in Pakistan for graduate and post graduate level study in the diverse profession of landscape & Ornamental Horticulture. The programme has a dual focus on either professional practice or research. This research group has following objectives, To improve teaching and research facilities to acquaint students with new developments in the field of landscape and ornamental horticulture. To identify and improve ornamental crops suitable for the production under different ecological regions of Pakistan. To develop production technologies for quality floriculture crops and disseminate research information to growers. To initiate diploma and short courses in Landscape Design and Commercial Floriculture Nursery to expand the scope of research To establish a modern ornamental nursery having all requisite facilities of plant propagation in order to cater the needs of the area
Research Description of Postharvest Science and Technology Among various disciplines of Horticulture, Postharvest Science and Technology has become the key area in terms of increasing the profitability of this sector. Currently the country produces over 13. 7 million tonnes of fruits and vegetables of which almost 25-40% crop goes waste annually. Further, despite large production, the exports are