SCM-VariationGravity-Centrifugal-Power-MotorObjectivesAt chapter Swing-Circuit-Motor (SCM) above, a design was worked out corresponding to build-up of a loop-swing. There, two axis were demanded (system- and excenter-axis) and two ‘wheels’ did turn within each other. So this will be a rather difficult technical construction. By this chapter now shall be examined, how effect of building-up mechancal oscillations could be realized easier. So only one axis should be neccessary, nevertheless masses should move like at uneven ‘movement of pendulum’, above this phase shifting by intermediate storage of forces must be guaranteed. Pendulum with radial suspensionAt previous chapter Mechanical Oscillating Circuit Harald Chmela did mention example of a pendulum with radially working spring, like schematically shown once more at picture EV SKM 31 upside. Around system axis (SA) a pendulum, here called rotor arm (RT, German Rotortrager), can swing. At the rotor arm effective mass (MP) can glide inside and outside. That radial movements are limited resp. controlled by a spring element (FE, German Federelement). Potential energy of level is transformed into kinetic energy at downward-phase, opposite energy of movement is re-transformed into energy of high level at upward-phase. In addition, power is stored into spring intermediately, so some later power is restored into pendulums oscillation. Mass will move at an U-shaped track. Mass will show maximum speed at its lowest point of track (A) and there will press down spring at its maximum. Following relaxation of spring will show analog relations of forces, based at symmetry, so this mechanical oscillation will be stable (no friction assumed). Effect of building-up oscillations can only be achieved, if symmetry is broken. This could be done e.g. as shown at picture EV SKM 31 downside. Asymmetric trackTension of spring downside should have to be stored for a short time, e.g. any mechanicsm could allow relaxation of spring some later (B). Counter stored energy then would exist less forces (resulting force of gravity power and centrifugal power), showing upward more and more. Power of spring afterward could move mass easier and faster towards upward-inside (C). Angles speed thus will be accelerated and mass will be brought to higher level (D) than starting level. This mechanical oscillating circuit thus will be build-up without input of energy from outside. Progressive suspensionBy this concept an asymmetric track is achieved. However, this pendulum swinging resp. effect of build-up oscillations is technically usable only if a momentum is achieved at a constant turning shaft. That’s why at picture EV SKM 32 again is shown a round turning (counter clockwise) loop-swing. Schematically there are drawn multistage spring elements, by which demanded delay of spring’s relaxation can be achieved. Around system axis (SA) is constantly turning the rotor arm (RT), here for example represented by twelve spokes. On these rotor arms effective masses (MP) can glide inwards and outwards. Inside and outside spring elements (FE) are installed, working in radial directions. These springs are doubled, each element existing of a long spring arranged within a shorter spring. Distances of movements of springs are marked by dotted resp. red circles. At 12-o’clock-position speed is low, so practically only gravity weights onto inner both springs, pressing these downward. At 11 o’clock reduced resulting force (of gravity power and centrifugal power) does allow some relaxation, nearby 10 o’clock inner-short spring will be relaxed. Until 9 o’clock inner-long spring will have moved mass to larger lever arm. There, mass will fall downward nearby vertically. Falling-curve however will be bended to right side by outer-long spring nearby 7 o’clock. Nearby 6 o’clock that outer-long spring will dip into outer-short spring, so now resulting force will weight on both springs. Finally at 5 o’clock a fix support will be reached resp. here resulting forces will show less amount (and showing more and more upwards), so springs can sling mass inside-upward. Nearby 4 o’clock outer-short spring, nearby 3 o’clock outer-long spring will be relaxed again. Via 2- and 1-o’clock-position gravity will increasingly weigth at inner springs, pressing together first that inner-long spring, lastly also inner-short spring (as mentioned above as starting point). So as a whole, well known track of previous chapters will be achieved. OptimumBy this principle of radially working springs is documented, building-up of machanical oscillation can be done also at a constantly turning wheel. This principle here is shown only schematically, track of mass drawn here won’t be optimum at all. Properties of spings, distances and radius naturally must be optimized, so demanded tracks are achieved (analog free swinging pendulum inclusive phase shifting). Even rotor arms show constant angles speed, masses at different sections must show different speeds. Elasticity and lengths of inner and outer springs will have to be rather different (opposite to sketch shown here). By simulation program must be calculated degree by degree, by well known formulas, when which spring suitably will take resp. give which amout of power. Naturally instead of springs marked here, elastic elements of diverse kind can be used. Above this, it would also be possible e.g., mass won’t glide on rotor arms but each mass to keep within a net of several springs. Essential fact will be, outer-short spring element will start to work finally at 6-o’clock-position and by its reaction demanded delay of phase-shifting will be achieved. If this can’t be achieved by this concept of double-stage springs, again a second axis will be neccessary, based at following conciderations. Diagonal U-shaped trackAt picture EV SKM 34 upside (A) U-shaped track above is shown once more. This track will exist, if a mass (MP) can move at a rotor arm (RT), can swing free around a system axis (SA) and thereby will be guided by a radially working spring element (FE). Here, that spring element is marked only one time, rotor arms and mass is shown several times in diverse positions, green curve shows track of mass. Phase shifting would exist, if the U-shaped track would be inclined a little bit, e.g. like this picture shows at the middle (B). In that case however, track left side would be pressed down some more (based on gravity) and also right side. Instead of symmetric U-shape, now an uneven track will result, e.g. like shown at this picture downside (C). Ideal LoopingIn order to get a technically usable solution, instead of ahead and back swinging pendulum a ‘looping swing’ should be used. Thus at picture EV SKM 35 track above is completed upside by an almost circled section of track. At a whole thus will result an egg-shaped track with longitudinal axis inclined. However, track won’t be symmetric to this longitudinal axis, cause gravity will deform that diagonal track downwards. At picture above were shown positions of mass after each same section of angles. Here now positions are marked, mass will take after each same time unit. Distances between two mass positions thus will show speed of mass within that section. At upside positions mass will move slowly, then will be accelerated increasingly into falling curve. Maximum speed however will be achieved finally after 6-o’clock-position. Afterwards mass will be slinged inward-upward back again towards upside. This process of movements were described by viewers of Remote Viewing sessions, demand of phase shifting is covered, intermediately stored energies will bring momentum wanted. So a track similar to this one will be ideal track for building-up of a mechanical oscillating circuit. Bended spokesAt Remote Viewing sessions also was noticed, some parts of Bessler-Wheel ‘had to be in water before’. Why this – for bending wooden spokes? Cause ideal process of movements above will demand a wheel with bended spokes, as schematically shown at picture EV SKM 36. A wheel has to turn around system axis (SA). Essential parts of that wheel are spokes, which outside must be bended ahead (in turning sense). At these rotor arms (RT) effective mass (MP) will glide inward-outward. Movements are controlled by a spring element (FE), which will be anchored at the one side at the mass, at the other side around excenter axis (EA). Here, spring element and mass is drawn only one time, spokes are drawn at diverse positions while turning constantly. Track of mass is marked by green curve, corresponding to ideal track of picture above. Effect of forcesNormal lengths of spring element is marked by dotted circle around excenter axis. At upside positions spring will be pressed down some kind by weight, at downside positions spring will be tensioned by weight and centrifugal forces. As excenter axis is shifted a litte bit aside of system axis, increasing tension of spring will draw to right side, so at downward phase will accelerate turning. Spoke bended into turning sense will allow mass to follow that pulling and bending movement into spiral track. At 6-o’clock-position spring in not already tensioned to maximum. Finally about 5 o’clock (nearby line of system- to excenter-axis) mass will show maximum distance to system axis. Afterward, mass will be pulled up inwards again (as descirbed several times at previous chapters). Harmonic movementsAt this animation a wheel is show with six spokes resp. masses as an example. Compared with versions with straight spokes at previous chapters, here obviously a process of movements more harmonic and soft is achieved. Naturally also by this concept will be decisive, all realtions are coordinated well. Again by simulation program must be calculated optimum bending of spokes, optimum inmost and outmost positions of masses, optimum position of excenter axis in relation to system axis and characteristics and distances of spring elements. Nevertheless, already by that simple animation one may expect, by this concept demanded prerequisits for building-up mechanical oscillating circuits are fulfilled, so by these priciples a motor is to construct. Constructional sketchAt picture EV SKM 38 is shown schematically and partly a possibility of realization, upside by cross sectional view, below by longitudinal sectional view. Line between system- and excenter-axis is drawn horizontally, so this picture does show a diagonal sectional view of pictures above. In general, machines for using gravity must be constructed rather large, e.g. Bessler’s wheel had a diameter of some 360 cm (but only some 35 cm width). In relation to other constructional elements of this sketch, thus spokes should be constructed much longer. Around system axis (SA) will turn a wheel, of which central part can look like a disc (RO), at which bended spokes (RT) are installed, which outside could be connected by a ring. This wheel must be mounted at a shaft, turnable beared within a housing (GE, Geman Gehause). At the rotor arms effective masses (M) will have to glide inward and outward. Here e.g. are drawn two masses, left side at its innermost position, right side at its outmost position. At effective masse each a spring element (FE) has to be anchored, here marked like spiral springs. Function of these springs naturally could technically be realized other or better kind. Spring elements at the other hand must be anchored around excenter axis (EA), however turnable. So around excenter axis there must be a round part of housing, thus large to include system axis resp. shaft, serving as a bearing. Around this bearing must be free turnable a ring (FR), at which springs are fixed. Each spring element will turn different angles each time unit, as one can see at picture EV SKM 35. However, differences of angles are few, by ideal bending of spoke might even be null. Turning of spring-ring (FE) at any case will be dominated be springs of most tension. A more steady turning could also be achieved, if at each mass would be installed two springs (both sides), like marked at picture EV SKM 38 upside right side. Principles of effectsBy this concept can be produced steady-turning, self-accelerating machines, so really – word by word – Perpetuum Mobile. These motors won’t take energy of commonly used kind, nevertherless, source of energy-surplus is well known: free available gravity power in combination with centrifugal forces, also produced by no costs. No law of constance of energies or impulses nore momentums is hurt. Given energies become usable only by sensefull organisation: intermediate storage of surplus of forces (that moment unproductive for turning) and re-investment of these forces later (when effected workload will have positive effect to turning momentum of system). Opposite to normal pendulum or spoke of normal wheel, her masses will fall down much straighter, within a spiral track downside rolled in into circled track section. Down there will be a peak of power, surplus of is storaged within springs. Maximum tension of springs must come up later than 6-o’clock-position. By first example above with these straight spokes, this will be achieved by multistage suspension. By last example with its bended spokes, this will be achieved by excenter axis shifted aside of system axis. For a short time, thus mass will be guided at a circled section like any normal pendulum or wheel, thus dircetion of movement will show some upwards. By this time delay of relaxation of springs, now springs can have effect counter lower forces of masses. Energy stored within springs thus can do more work onto masses, thus springs can pull and sling up masses faster and to higher level. This surplus of work (in relation to normal pendulum or wheel) is available for free as turning momentum of the system. Sources and toolsSo it’s well known, which energies here are used: forces of gravity and inertia. However, a third kind of power is used here: forces of molecular cohesion. At a normal pendulum (or spoke of normal wheel) forces neccessary for (or effecting of) deviation of masses into circled track are brought up by tension within fix material. Function of deviation here is done by springs, so tension is brought into flexible material. Molecular cohension of that material is ‘stessed’ same kind than within fix material. When so times later, there are less counter forces of masses, fix material will keep its shape. Flexible material however, now can do work cause returning to its normal structure. So forces of molecular cohension of elastic materials are no source of energy, but are essential tool for organizing sensefull procedures of movements. CalculationsBy calculating optimum of processes, common formula of centrifugal forces at circled tracks naturally are not usable. At spiral tracks, there are no constant ‘centrifugal forces’ showing steady into radial directions. Only gravity is steady. Inertia however looks rather different at diverse sections, defined by each direction and amount of kinetic energy. Resulting force of vectorial addition of both forces does show, which way by which intensity mass wants to move next. Onto that resulting force, spring will pull resp. spring will be pressed by variing angles. On the other hand turning movement of spoke will effect forces to mass (vice versa mass will show effect towards spoke). In case of bended spokes by these conciderations also general direction and shape of spoke are to optimize (with feedback to forces from / onto springs). Lastly will result new kinetic energy by direction and amount. So, instead of using general formula of centrifugal forces, here step by step must be calculated resp. procedures be simulated. So e.g. it’s not unavoidable, highest ‘centrifugal forces’ shall be at 6-o’clock-position. On the contrary there are rather different ‘forces of deviations’. So it’s easy to design asymmetric tracks with unavoidable un-balanced forces. By an optimum of organisation and relations, these inevidably ‘excessive’ power-components are to transform into usable turning momentum. These conciderations to detailed calculations of forces are valid at concepts of previous, this and following chapters as well. Only at really circled tracks, unavoidable null-result will be achieved based on general formulas. All movements more complexe, unavoidably must result values unequal to null. At combustion motors for example, effects of unbalancy can be reduced to (some) null only with hugh constructional efforts. If however these forces are intensified systematically, without any doubts ‘positive externe effects’ are to realize. When who how firstThis principle can be constructed in hugh number of variations. It’s a callenge for every expert of theoretical mechanics to optimize this machine. This principle should engage designing engineer and hobby constructors as well to design and construct most simple or sensefull version. I am curious, who first will approve effects I claimed here, whether an amateur will first show a running model or students and experts of theoretic mechanics will first show reliable calculations.