Hotel Industry Macro Environmental And Structural Analysis Tourism

Table of Content


In my study I will analyze the hotel industry utilizing macro-environmental and structural analysis such as PEST and Porters Five Forces Model analyses. The purpose of my work is treatment of current political, economical societal and technological clime and how it affects the hotel industry. Structural analysis will assist me to measure possible competitory scheme which I can follow in this industry.

Macro Environmental PEST Analysis

I will utilize PEST analysis for tourist hotel industry debut. This analysis enables me to explicate what happens in this industry nowadays. I am traveling to explicate how different factors can impact the industry as in positive as in negative manner. Hotel industry is a sub industry of travel and touristry industry, because it influenced with touristry rather strong. Tourism today has a planetary significance and for analyzing the hotel industry I have to believe globally about it. There is assortment of factors impacting hotel industry, but they ca n’t be concentrated merely in one state, because the consumers of the hotels can be people from the full universe, non merely from the state where the hotel is situated. There is inside and outside touristry bing in each state, so there are so many possible clients, who can book a hotel. Political and economical factors of other states can act upon the hotel industry of the state where the hotel situated, this influence degree depend on how popular is a tourer finish for outside tourers. If it is popular, this means that outside touristry is really developed on this topographic point and hotels at that place merely makes their net income on foreign visitants every bit good as local travelers. Tourism is a planetary activity since its beginnings, from the minute a transition was made from travels ( reserved for people with money ) to utilizing the trim clip of the worker in order to bring forth net income.

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Political and Economic Factors

I am traveling to compose about these two factors in one subdivision merely because these factors are really closely related to each other.

Tourism industry is a fast growth industry. Hotels exist for giving the tourer a possibility to remain at the topographic point where they are non populating. Schengen understanding has given for tourers a opportunity easier to travel from one state to another. This understanding has increased the figure of possible clients of the hotels. This understanding removes border control between 25 EU states. These states are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, The Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. So, this understanding makes going procedure between these states easier and cheaper. Peoples do non necessitate to pass their clip and money for screening out the jobs with visa. They can merely easy travel straightaway from one state to another ; merely take a conveyance and travel. Of class, this fact affects the whole hotel industry in positive manner. Furthermore, harmonizing to Schengen understanding for The USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada visit of Schengen country is possible without a visa, but there is a clip limited for 90 yearss. This means that people from 4 more states can go easy. The UK and Ireland remained outside the understanding due to frights of terrorist act. & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; . But these states are members of EU, which is partially economic brotherhood. This degree of economic integrating agencies free motion of trade goods and people. If people can freely travel between EU states, it means that they are able to go, but if they are able to go it means that they may make up one’s mind to book a hotel for a short stay while sing new finishs.

16 states from EU use the same currency, which is euro ( a‚¬ ) . This fact makes touristry safer and favorable between those 16 states. Tourists, for illustration going from France to Spain, do non lose their money on foreign currency exchange. These factors give some advantages for those states. But more advantageous are states where the currency of this state is cheaper comparable to other currency. If the touristry and hotel services are developed in this state, this might intend a large popularity of this state among tourers. And if state is popular among tourers, the hotel industry can decidedly take an advantage of this fact. But presents after fiscal crunch the currency rate has changed. For illustration 1 British lb now is 1.10914434 Euros ; this means that euro became more expensive than earlier. Due to this fact going from UK to states utilizing Euro became more expensive. This state of affairs has two sides of decoration, from one side the Euro states and their hotels might lose some tourers from UK. But from other side the UK hotels might take advantage on it, I mean if it became excessively expensive to go abroad, people might pass money to go insight the UK. I am merely looking on some state of affairss with currency and how they affect the hotel industry. Currency exchange is a really of import factor and can act upon the industry both ways really.

Economic alterations in any state can impact the hotel industry, because they will impact the touristry industry. For illustration if in some states there will be excessively high degree of unemployment and excessively low degree of income, people will non hold money for booking a hotel, they will prefer to remain at place instead than going.

Social Factors

Peoples are speculative, this is their nature. Tonss of them want to go in trim clip, to see new topographic points. If person decides to go he will anyhow necessitate to remain someplace ; that the hotel is for. In today ‘s life people are really busy, they working difficult and decidedly will necessitate a clip to rest. They will necessitate it to alter scenery, to see something new, to see some interesting topographic points and to hold some new experiences. All this affect hotel industry in positive manner, merely because people will go and utilize the hotels as adjustment to run into their wants.

Another factor is people ‘s life style. Some people travel because they have to, this might be one of their duties at work. If this concern travels takes more than a twenty-four hours, the employer will book a hotel for individual going with purpose to screen out the concern issues.

Some people find remaining in hotel excessively expensive or merely happen it more comfy and interesting to remain in bivouacing or train Parkss for their vacation. These people ‘s wonts affect the hotel industry as a whole. Caravan Parkss and bivouacing became rather strong rivals of hotels. The hotels are non the lone bing topographic point to remain on vacations.

Technological Factors

The hotels offer a good service to their clients. Service is really the merchandise which they sell. Hotels are a composite of assortment of services. They are non merely a bed infinite and breakfast. Lots of hotels have athletics installations, swimming pools, GYM, beauty Centres, golf nines, massage suites and so on. All this installations are working to pull the clients. Furthermore, there is the information about tourer finishs, attractive forces and amusement available in tourer hotels. Some hotels, particularly situated in tourer resort finishs, have a dark plan of invitees ‘ amusement. All of these factors favorably influence the hotel industry. This greatly facilitates the life of tourers. They do non hold to believe and worry about anything ; if they pay money they can besides pass a great clip but non merely sleep and eat. The staff of the hotel will be able to reply all of your inquiries. It is really good when you can happen everything in one topographic point.

The globalisation has taken a topographic point in our modern life. Now it is possible to book about any state ‘s hotel on cyberspace. Making like this, people ever have a opportunity to compare hotel monetary values and installations because there is a batch of information available on cyberspace. Hotels normally cooperate with circuit operators. Normally, when people book a vacation, they book a hotel every bit good as airplane tickets and hotel transportations. Cooperation with circuit operators is utile for both sides, for people and for hotels. Tour operators find the clients for the hotel so, of class, this technological factor is of import in hotel industry.

Porters Five Forces Model – The Way of Structural Analysis of the Industry

To choose the desirable competitory place in the concern, I need to get down with rating and analyzing the industry to which your concern belongs, utilizing Porters Five Forces Model. This theoretical account can be used for placing and analyzing the chances and hazard that the company can run into in the industry. Harmonizing to Michael E. Porter theoretical account, there are 5 competitory forces bing and he created a diagram demoing how these forces driving the industry competition. These 5 forces are:

The competition among existing houses.

This force is a nucleus of the Porters ‘ diagram. The strength of competition between houses will be high if there is a presence of the undermentioned factors in the industry:

Large figure of companies

Small grade of distinction

Low growing of industry

High fixed costs

Possibility of increasing production capacity merely through the big capacity

High strategic bets

High barriers to go out because of economic, strategic or emotional grounds

The hazard of entry of possible rivals.

A new rival maintains a menace for the market portion of bing rivals. The higher is a barrier to entry into the industry, the lower is hazard of possible rival ‘s entry. Harmonizing to M. Porter, there are 6 major beginnings of barriers to entry:

Economies of the graduated table

This is decrease in cost per unit ensuing from increased production, realized through operational efficiencies. & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Merchandise distinction

This happens when bing houses have good known trade name and clients trueness.

Capital demands

The barrier is high if the house ‘s entry disbursals of investings demands are excessively heavy.

Switch overing Costss

Access do distribution channels

The company have to convert the distribution channels to collaborate.

Government policy

Government can restrict or prevent the entree to the industry with such controls as licensing or bounds to entree natural stuffs. ( Porter M. , ( 2004 ) , p.13 )

The menace of replacement merchandises.

Handiness of replacements determines the upper bound of the monetary value for the merchandise in the industry. The purchaser can exchange to replacements when the monetary values of the bing goods rise above this boundary. The being of wholly replacing merchandises will restrict the company ‘s net income, because it may do the serious competition.

Dickering power of purchasers.

The market power of purchasers is reflected in their ability to cut down monetary values in the industry, by cut downing the figure of purchased goods, or to demand better quality merchandise for the same monetary value. Factors taking to greater dickering power of purchasers are:

The concentration of purchasers is higher than concentration of makers in the industry

Large volume of purchases

Undifferentiated or standardized merchandises or services

Existing the menace of backward integrating of purchaser with maker

Openness of information about maker ‘s costs

High monetary value snap of demand in the industry. If purchasers are sensitive to alterations in market monetary values, this mean that market power of maker is low.

Dickering power of providers.

Suppliers may menace to raise monetary values, coercing the company to cut down the figure of merchandises, and as a effect of it, to cut down their net income. Bargaining power of providers is high in following conditions:

The laterality of the few providers

The concentration of industry providers is higher than concentration of industry makers

Inaccessibility of replacements

The comparative insignificance of the maker to the provider

The importance of providing merchandise to the makers

High provider distinction

If the cost to alter the provider is high for the maker

Possibility of direct integrating of provider with maker

The corporate strength of these forces determines the ultimate net income potency in the industry, where net income potency is measured in footings of long tally return on invested capital. ( Porter M. , ( 2004 ) , p. 3 ) . It is non needfully to utilize all of the five forces analysing the industry because non all of them will be of import in any one industry. Analyzing a tourist hotel industry I am traveling to utilize merely three forces from five bing, because I think these three forces are more of import in my chosen industry. I will compose about the hazard of entry of possible rivals, dickering power of purchasers and the menace of replacement merchandises. Analyzing a hotel industry in this certain manner will enable me to take the competitory scheme for my ain hotel in future.

Porters Five Forces Analysis

Hazard of Entry of Potential Rivals

The hotel industry is really alluring industry for new entrants because of their benefits from touristry development.

If the hazard of entry of new rivals is low, the company can raise monetary values and increase profitableness. As I told before, the degree of this hazard depends on barriers of entry.

To find how high hazard of entryway of new rivals is, I chose capital demands and merchandise distinction beginnings of barriers. To construct a new hotel and to purchase all the indispensable things, which helps to offer a good service, are rather expensive, so the cost of the edifice itself and cost of furniture and equipment maintain a high barrier to entry the industry. Furthermore, to use people is besides rather expensive because for normal hotel working it needs to use tonss of staff. Opening a new hotel may hold extra legal or fiscal complexnesss and company may necessitate to pay for professionals in this field to screen these complexnesss out.

Byeong Yong Kim and Haemoon Oh have the same sentiment, in their article they wrote: Although the housing industry has high entry barriers such as immense sum of investing required to construct a edifice and a demand for a national service network. & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // contentType=Article & A ; contentId=867520 & gt ; . Other ground of high barriers is that new company might non hold consequence of economic system of graduated table. The economic systems of graduated table that may supply a barrier to entry be chiefly in equipment-based, and non in people-based, service concerns. Where economic systems of graduated table can non be developed easy, two other barriers to entry can be used: proprietary engineering, and/or service distinction. & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; . I think the hotel industry ‘s service is people based so, as told in Dan R. E. Thomas article, economic systems of the graduated table can non be developed easy. Product ( service ) distinction maintain rather high degree of barrier every bit good because bing hotels or hotel ironss have good known trade names and positive repute, which is even more of import, like Holyday Inn, Premier Inn, or more luxury hotels like Marriott or Hilton. Customers have a pick, so if they need to remain in the hotel they will take hotel with already bing good repute and good service instead than new hotel, which they do n’t cognize anything about.

Dickering Power of Buyers

Buyers compete with the industry by coercing down monetary values, dickering for higher quality or more services, and playing rivals against each other – all at the disbursal of industry profitableness. ( Porter M. , ( 2004 ) , p. 24 ) Lots of possible purchasers exist in the industry and no individual purchaser is ruling, so their power is rather low. However, this power is increasing because of new engineerings that enable traveler to reserve hotel from anyplace in the universe. & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // contentType=Article & A ; contentId=867520 & gt ; .The purchaser now is good informed about the hotel even if he ne’er seen it and ne’er been in town where the hotel is situated. And if purchaser do non cognize about the new rival it may be unprofitable for rival. Brand acknowledgment attracts new clients and makes clients to reiterate the purchases. The purchasers are independent and this fact makes purchasers powerful. Hotel industry purchasers are rather sensitive to monetary value, because hotels are largely indistinguishable and because touristry every bit good as hotel service is non merchandise of first necessity. As the touristry is largely seasonal activity and the influence of touristry industry on hotels is rather high agencies that tourer hotels net income may be cyclical. Furthermore the hotels have replacements. All these facts give the purchasers some power. Taking on history all the facts determined above, I would state power of purchasers is neither excessively low nor excessively high.

Menace of Substitutes

Substitute in this peculiar instance is alternate of the hotel. The replacements represent the rivals and if the replacements will be more preferred or more accessible for clients than hotels, the hotel industry may hold jobs. I think the menace of replacements is rather high, but non the highest 1.

Staying with friends or household members can be a hotel replacement every bit good. Peoples may hold friends in town where they are traveling to go and they may prefer to remain with them. This is cheaper than remaining in hotel. However, non all the tourers have relations and friends where they can remain.

Other replacements are caravan Parkss and bivouacing. Peoples may make up one’s mind that this is better adjustment for travellers, and that being off from town is more interesting, healthier and cheaper, and encampment is the best topographic point for ideal remainder. But, despite the fact that bivouacing offers the same adjustment map, hotels can hold some extra services like GYM or massage barroom. So bivouacing is non wholly the same as hotel and many people may make up one’s mind non to alter the hotel stay for something else.

The replacement like teleconferencings utilizing video equipment or phone exists for concern travellers. They do non really necessitate to travel someplace to cover with their concern jobs face to face, they merely can utilize engineerings to screen bulk of jobs from place or workplace. This fact enables them to take if they want to travel someplace and remain in hotel or merely pealing someplace to be on contact. Substitute like this has more serious fondness and concern hotels may lose rather many of clients. However, non all the jobs can be easy sorted on the phone, so necessity of face to face conferences is still relevant.

Competitive Scheme

Hotel is a service industry and service is more abstract than a merchandise. To develop the scheme for the hotel I have to take this fact into history.

Harmonizing to Emerald article & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // contentType=Article & A ; contentId=867520 & gt ; suggested schemes are distinction and low costs.

A distinction scheme calls for the development of a merchandise or service that offers alone properties that are valued by clients and that clients perceive to be better than or different from the merchandises of the competition. & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Majority of hotels are indistinguishable ( homogeneous ) , so the best manner to enticement clients is making something unusual, which can surprise clients and do them interested in. I need to make the alone hotel which will non hold parallels in the territory about. For illustration, I can open a hotel inside an ancient palace or construct a good imitation of ancient palace, if there are no palaces in the country I want. Such hotels presents already exist ( for illustration South Cave Castle hotel in East Yorkshire, UK or Amberley Castle Hotel in West Sussex, UK ) ; however, they are non common. I merely need to take location where the palace hotels are in minority or non presented at all. The castle-hotel has unusual, cryptic ambiance every bit good as contrast between modern equipment and services and old fashioned inside. These qualities surely make the hotel unique. The chief thing is non excessively stress an old manner ; service should be of the highest current modern criterion. Although, I can do distinction in service every bit good, for illustration distinction in hotel amusement such as offering the passenger car with Equus caballuss or possibility to set up a costume mask party. In this instance my hotel will be non lone adjustment and standard service but besides amusement composite. First, this scheme can pull new section of clients market, non merely tourists. Tourists come non to pass all the clip in the hotel. Hotel is merely adjustment with extra services provided. But the palace is interesting by itself and people may take illusion of observing nuptialss and day of remembrances in this hotel as a manner to acquire unforgettable feelings and memories. I think described scheme will diminish in Numberss dependance of the hotel from international touristry, because tourers will non be the lone clients of this hotel.

But execution of such thought has some troubles ; the most of import of them is expensiveness of the whole endeavor. Singularity costs large money and low cost scheme is inappropriate in this peculiar instance. This expensiveness has one positive minute, because it maintain really high barrier of entry the industry with similar or wholly the same thought. This manner, if the house have enough investings to implement the thought of castle hotel and realized it, it will be hard for new rivals to reiterate the same scheme.


As a decision, I would wish to add, that analysing the industry is indispensable to take strategic place. Understanding of what happens in the industry is the best manner to accomplish positive consequences, make a net income and vie successfully.



Porter, E. M. Competitive Strategy. Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, ( 2004 ) , Free Press, New York

Online Resources

30 April 2001, BBC News, Schengen Agreement [ online ] Available on & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 5 December 2009 ]

Quick MBA, Knowledge to Power Your Business, Strategic Management, Porter ‘s Five Forces, A theoretical account for Industry Analysis [ online ] Available on & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 10 December 2009 ]

Quick MBA, Knowledge to Power Your Business, Strategic Management, Porter ‘s Generic Strategies [ online ] Available on & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 8 January 2010 ]

Byeong Yong Kim and Haemoon Oh, 2004, Research In Brief, How Do Hotel Firms Obtain a Competitive Advantage? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 16 ( 1 ) [ on-line ] Available on & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // contentType=Article & A ; contentId=867520 & gt ; [ Accessed 8 January 2010 ]

Economy of Scale Definition, The Biggest, Best Investing Glossary on the Web, [ online ] Available on & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 5 January 2010 ]

Dan R. E. Thomas, 1978, Strategy is Different in Service Business, Harward Business Review, [ online ] Available on & lt ; URL: hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 6 January 2010 ]

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