The purpose of this assignment is to examine the fundamental concepts of the field of industrial/organizational psychology. Using the textbook, the University Library, the Internet, and/or other resources, answers the following questions. Your responses to each question will vary but overall should be 700- to 1,050-words in length. 1. Describe the evolution of the field of industrial/organizational psychology. I/O psychology started out in the twentieth century, but continues to evolve as organization change and how employees change.
In the beginning, I/O psychology was an experiment to apply new psychology findings to organization problems. Different places in the world applied I/O psychology for different reasons. For example, the United States I/O psychology was used toward job efficiency and performance, but the United Kingdom used it to help with employee health and fatigue. Over the past half century it grew to what it has become today and covering many aspects of the organizational field. In the twenty-second century I/O psychology now covers both college professors and practicing I/O psychologists.
Professors write textbooks, mentor students, teach courses, and write research papers. Practicing I/O psychologists analyze jobs, designs employee performance systems, design training programs, and implement organizational changes (Spector, 2012). 2. Explain why industrial/organizational psychology should be considered a science. Include an explanation of how descriptive and inferential statistics are used in I/O research. I/O psychology is considered a science because when improving organizations it has to do with research and studying results. I/O is considered a science because it is the scientific study of humans in the workplace.
The scientific study includes how people behave in certain positions or how groups of people with handle different job tasks. Many I/O psychologist researches how people behave at work and the results are used in organization to improve not only the company, but also the people who work there (Spector, 2012). In I/O research there is numbers that need to be researched and information that needs to be evaluated. Statistics is used when taking the information from several training programs to see which one works the best for a certain organizations.
There are different results when psychological test are performed and using statistics will help to define what results will work for different jobs. Knowing the statistical results of different tests and training programs will help the I/O psychologist know what training programs work best. Statistics are also used to determine what are the general feelings or emotions of the employees. This day if a person goes and works for a large corporation, there is a good chance that your job was analyzed, designed, and the training was designed by an I/O psychologist.
The way a job is designed, which includes the job description, job training, and the salary/benefit package could all be done by an I/O psychologist (Spector, 2012). 3. Discuss the influence industrial/organization psychology has had on organizations. Provide examples. Industrial/organizational psychology has influenced organizations in many ways. Job recruitment is one way, the I/O psychologist will analyze the job, write out what the job requirements are and that will help with finding the right person for the job. I/O psychologists will help develop the training programs for the job.
The I/O psychologist will take the information from the training programs and evaluate the effectiveness of the training. The I/O psychologist will determine if the training programs are working effectively and will change it to optimize work quality. Coaching employees and evaluating work performances are an important task that I/O psychologists perform. I/O psychology has brought many changes to organizations by providing proper training for employees, providing reward systems for the employees who are doing their job, and provide vital information to organizations that improves that efficiency of that company (Spector, 2012).
An example of what I/O psychology does for an organization is when a company needs a job filled; the I/O psychologist will analyze the job requirements and come up with a job description, salary, and benefit package. Once a person has been hired, the psychologist will provide the proper training and coach the new employee to do the job properly. Also the psychologist will design a performance evaluation for the new employee and determine the effectiveness of the entire process.
The I/O psychologist will review the entire process from designing the job description to the new employee evaluations. Once the psychologist analysis the entire hiring process, he or she will evaluate the effectiveness and determine what works or what needs to be changed. The I/O psychologist may change the process or keep what works, so it is the most beneficial to the organization, the customers, and the employees. Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice (6th ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.