Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction in Working Place

Table of Content

Employee satisfaction, which encompasses happiness, contentment, and fulfillment of desires and needs in the workplace, has various indicators that show its positive impact on motivation, goal attainment, and morale within the organization. However, it can be detrimental if average employees choose to stay solely because they are satisfied with the work environment. Job satisfaction is linked to an individual’s emotions and their perception of their job.

Job satisfaction can be influenced by various factors, such as the quality of the relationship with a supervisor, the physical work environment, and fulfillment in one’s job. It is important to note that researchers and consultants have differing opinions on whether increased job satisfaction leads to improved job performance. In fact, it is possible for improved job satisfaction to actually result in decreased job performance. For example, if someone has no productive tasks and is allowed to idle throughout the day, their short-term satisfaction may increase but their performance will not improve.

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Common statements related to job satisfaction include optimism about the future of the company and personal success within it, pride in working for the company, increased commitment to a career with the company compared to previous years, belief in the company’s care for its employees, belief that working for the company will lead to desired future outcomes, conviction that career advancement is based on merit, equal career opportunities for men and women within the company, and satisfaction with understanding of the company’s direction and goals.

I fully comprehend how the company’s strategy sets us apart from our rivals, and I am content with my comprehension of how my objectives are connected to the company’s goals. The company stands out as a frontrunner in the industry due to various significant factors, and it also excels as a formidable contender in crucial areas of growth. The leadership team possesses a clear vision for the future, and they have implemented changes that have had a positive impact on both the company and myself. Additionally, the leadership is actively addressing both important external and internal matters.

Common Satisfaction Items:

How satisfied are you with the following aspects of your job?

  • Your job
  • The leaders in your work environment as positive role models
  • Your direct supervisor
  • Your supervisor keeping you well informed about what’s going on in the company
  • Your views and participation being valued
  • Your supervisor caring and responding to the issues of most importance to you
  • The professionalism of the people you work with
  • The team spirit in your work environment
  • The morale of the people you work with
  • Your own morale/li>

Additionally, please indicate how satisfied you are with:

    Job satisfaction, which refers to an individual’s level of contentment with their job, is closely related to happiness. It is separate from motivation but still intertwined with it. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance by utilizing techniques like job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment. Additionally, factors such as management style, workplace culture, employee involvement and empowerment, as well as the existence of autonomous work groups can also impact job satisfaction.

    Job satisfaction, a crucial quality for organizations, is often evaluated through rating scales. These scales measure employees’ responses on various aspects of their jobs, such as pay rate, work responsibilities, task variety, opportunities for advancement, the work itself, and colleagues. The questions can be binary (yes or no) or require a satisfaction rating from 1 to 5. A rating of 1 indicates “not at all satisfied,” while a rating of 5 indicates “extremely satisfied.” Job satisfaction definitions encompass it being a pleasurable emotional state resulting from job evaluation and an emotional response to one’s job. Additionally, it refers to an attitude toward one’s job. To fully understand this concept, researchers must differentiate between cognitive evaluation objects like emotions, beliefs, and behaviors. This definition implies that our attitudes towards our jobs are influenced by considering our emotions, beliefs, and actions. The topic also touches upon history.

    The Hawthorne studies, conducted from 1924 to 1933 and mainly led by Elton Mayo from Harvard Business School, aimed to examine how different conditions, particularly illumination, affected workers’ productivity. The studies demonstrated that introducing new work conditions temporarily boosted productivity, a phenomenon known as the Hawthorne Effect. However, further investigations revealed that this increase was not due to the changes themselves but rather to the awareness of being observed. This discovery provided compelling evidence that individuals are motivated by factors beyond monetary compensation and subsequently encouraged researchers to explore other aspects of job satisfaction.

    Scientific management, also known as Taylorism, had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book caused a change in industrial production philosophies, leading to a shift from skilled labor and piecework to the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial implementation of scientific management in industries resulted in a substantial increase in productivity as workers were compelled to work at a faster pace. However, this led to exhaustion and dissatisfaction among workers, presenting researchers with new inquiries concerning job satisfaction.

    The work of W. L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg had an influence on Taylor’s work. Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory served as the basis for job satisfaction theory. According to this theory, individuals have five specific needs – physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization – which they strive to fulfill in their lives. This theory provided a strong starting point for early researchers in formulating theories about job satisfaction. Furthermore, job satisfaction can be seen in relation to various factors that impact an individual’s work experience and the overall quality of their working life.

    Job satisfaction is linked to various factors, including general well-being, work stress, control at work, the interaction between home and work, and working conditions. There have been multiple models proposed to explain job satisfaction, with one widely accepted model being Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976). According to this theory, satisfaction arises from the disparity between an individual’s job desires and their actual experiences. Furthermore, the theory suggests that the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction is influenced by the importance given to certain aspects of work, such as autonomy when expectations are met or not met.

    The satisfaction of a person in a job is greatly influenced by their valuation of a specific aspect. This influence can be positive when expectations are met and negative when expectations are not fulfilled. Comparatively, individuals who do not value that aspect do not experience the same level of influence. For instance, if Employee A highly values autonomy in the workplace while Employee B is indifferent towards it, Employee A will have higher satisfaction in a role that offers significant autonomy and lower satisfaction in a role with limited or no autonomy compared to Employee B. The theory also suggests that an excessive amount of a particular aspect will lead to greater dissatisfaction for individuals who highly value that aspect.

    The Dispositional Theory Template:JacksonApril 2007 is a well-known job satisfaction theory. It suggests that individuals have inherent dispositions that determine their level of satisfaction, regardless of their specific job. This theory gained prominence due to evidence showing that job satisfaction remains stable over time and different careers. Studies have also shown that identical twins tend to have similar levels of job satisfaction. A more specific model that stemmed from the Dispositional Theory is the Core Self-evaluations Model, introduced by Timothy A. Judge in 1998.

    Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. [citation needed]. [edit] Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)

    Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory, also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory, explains workplace satisfaction and motivation. According to this theory, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employee’s motivation is connected to their job satisfaction. Motivation is viewed as an internal force that pushes individuals towards achieving personal and organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p.133). Motivating factors, such as job achievement, recognition, and promotion opportunities, are intrinsic to the job. On the other hand, hygiene factors include elements of the work environment like pay, company policies, supervision, and working conditions. While Hertzberg’s model has sparked much research, researchers have not been able to empirically prove the model reliably. Hackman & Oldham even suggest that Hertzberg’s original formulation of the model could have been a methodological artifact. Additionally, the theory does not account for individual differences and predicts that all employees will react in the same way to changes in motivating and hygiene factors.The Job Characteristics Model has faced criticism for not providing guidance on how to measure motivating and hygiene factors.

    The Job Characteristics Model proposed by Hackman & Oldham serves as a widely used framework to examine the impact of specific job characteristics on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. According to the model, there are five core job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. These characteristics influence three critical psychological states: experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of actual results. These psychological states, in turn, affect work outcomes such as job satisfaction, absenteeism, and work motivation. The combination of the five core job characteristics can be used to calculate a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job. This score serves as an indicator of the likelihood that a job will influence an employee’s attitudes and behaviors.

    A study has been conducted to analyze the framework of the JCM model, and the results provide some evidence supporting its validity. [7] [edit] Communication Overload and Communication Underload are crucial aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization. Managing communication demands encountered on the job is of utmost importance (Krayer, K. J., & Westbrook, L., p. 85). These demands can be categorized as a communication load, which refers to “the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame (Faraca, Monge, & Russel, 1977).” Individuals within an organization may experience either communication overload or communication underload, both of which can impact their level of job satisfaction.

    Excessive communication is when a person receives too many messages in a short time, leading to unprocessed information (Farace, Monge, & Russel, 1997). Communication overload can also occur when dealing with complex messages that are difficult to process. This overload happens when the inputs surpass an individual’s processing capacity (Krayer and Westbrook, p.86). Job satisfaction is influenced by this condition based on an individual’s work style and motivation to complete tasks. On the other hand, communication under load occurs when messages or inputs are below a person’s processing ability (Farace et al., 1997). Both communication overload and under-load impact job satisfaction negatively. If individuals don’t receive enough input or struggle to process their job-related communications effectively, they tend to experience dissatisfaction, frustration, and unhappiness at work. Consequently, their overall job satisfaction decreases. Various methods exist for measuring job satisfaction including the Likert scale developed by Rensis Likert as the most commonly used approach. Other less common methods include Yes/No or True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers.The implementation of these data collection techniques is commonly done through an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system.

    The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is a widely used questionnaire created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969) that specifically measures job satisfaction. The JDI assesses satisfaction in five areas: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. Participants can respond with “yes,” “no,” or “can’t decide” (indicated by ‘?’) to indicate whether given statements accurately describe their job. The Job in General Index measures overall job satisfaction and is an improvement over the JDI as it places less emphasis on individual facets and more on overall work satisfaction.

    Other surveys to assess job satisfaction include the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ evaluates job satisfaction across 20 aspects and is available in both a long form (100 questions, five per aspect) and a short form (20 questions, one per aspect). The JSS consists of 36 items and measures job satisfaction in nine aspects. Additionally, the Faces Scale, one of the earliest widely used scales, gauges overall job satisfaction with a single item where participants select a face. [edit] Job Satisfaction and Superior-Subordinate Communication Superior-subordinate communication plays a crucial role in determining job satisfaction within the workplace.

    The perception of a supervisor’s behavior by subordinates can have either a positive or negative impact on job satisfaction. Communication through facial expressions, eye contact, vocal expressions, and body movements is vital in the relationship between superiors and subordinates (Teven, p. 156). Nonverbal messages are crucial in various aspects of interpersonal interactions, such as forming impressions, deception, attraction, social influence, and expressing emotions (Burgoon, Buller, & Woodall, 1996). A supervisor’s nonverbal immediacy fosters stronger interpersonal connection with their subordinates, which influences job satisfaction. The way supervisors communicate with their subordinates may be more significant than the actual words spoken (Teven, p. 156).

    Individuals who have a negative perception of their supervisor are less motivated to work and have lower willingness to communicate. Conversely, individuals who have a positive view of their supervisor are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment. The relationship between a subordinate and their supervisor is highly significant in the workplace. A supervisor who displays nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and promotes open communication lines will receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from their subordinates. On the other hand, a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and unwilling to communicate will receive negative feedback and low job satisfaction from their subordinates.

    The mood and emotions experienced while working contribute to the affective component of job satisfaction. Moods are more enduring but weaker states with uncertain origins, while emotions are typically more intense, short-lived, and triggered by specific objects or causes. Existing literature suggests that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction, and positive and negative emotions also significantly impact overall job satisfaction. The frequency of experiencing a net positive emotion is a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than the intensity of positive emotion when it occurs.[11] Job satisfaction is closely associated with emotion regulation and emotion labor. Emotion work, also known as emotion management, encompasses diverse strategies used to control emotional states and expressions.

    Emotion regulation involves both conscious and unconscious efforts to manipulate, maintain, or lessen specific aspects of an emotion. While earlier research on emotional labor highlighted its detrimental impacts on employees, studies across various professions indicate that the effects of emotional labor are not consistently negative. [12] Research suggests that suppressing negative emotions reduces job satisfaction, while amplifying positive emotions enhances job satisfaction. [13] Two models that explore the relationship between emotion regulation and job satisfaction include emotional dissonance.

    Emotional dissonance refers to the mismatch between outwardly displayed emotions and internal emotional experiences. This discrepancy is often a result of emotion regulation. This state is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low commitment to the organization, and low job satisfaction. Taking a social interaction perspective, workers’ regulation of emotions can influence how others respond during interpersonal encounters, which in turn affects their own job satisfaction. For example, receiving positive responses to displaying pleasant emotions can contribute to increased job satisfaction. The performance of emotional labor that achieves desired outcomes can also enhance job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an important indicator of employees’ feelings toward their jobs and can predict behaviors like organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover. Additionally, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship between personality variables and deviant work behaviors. It is commonly found that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. This correlation is reciprocal, meaning that individuals who are satisfied with their life tend to be satisfied with their job, and vice versa.Some studies indicate that satisfaction with one’s job does not have a significant impact on overall satisfaction in life, especially when considering other factors such as satisfaction in non-work areas and one’s core self-evaluations. It is important for organizations to recognize that job satisfaction has a weak correlation with job productivity. This finding is crucial for researchers and businesses as the belief that satisfaction and job performance are closely linked is often mentioned in the media and non-academic management literature.

    A recent meta-analysis discovered that the uncorrected correlation between job satisfaction and productivity averaged r=.18. However, the average true correlation, accounting for research artifacts and unreliability, was calculated to be r=.30 [24]. Additionally, the meta-analysis revealed that the connection between satisfaction and performance can be influenced by job complexity. For high-complexity jobs, the correlation between satisfaction and performance is higher with a value of ?=.52, compared to low to moderate complexity jobs with a correlation of ?=.29. Moreover, numerous studies have found a significant association between job satisfaction and intention to quit. It has been established that job satisfaction can impact the decision of an employee to stay or quit within an organization (Kim et al., 1996).

    Recent research has shown that Intention to Quit can have effects such as poor performance orientation, organizational deviance, and poor organizational citizenship behaviors (Krishnan, Sandeep, and Singh, Manjari, 2010). In summary, the relationship between satisfaction and productivity is not always straightforward and can be influenced by various work-related factors. Therefore, the belief that “a happy worker is a productive worker” should not be the sole basis for organizational decision-making. When it comes to job performance, employee personality may be more significant than job satisfaction. [25] The connection between job satisfaction and performance is considered to be an indirect relationship; rather, both satisfaction and performance are influenced by individual personalities.

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