Job Stress

Stress is an unavoidable consequence of modern living. Everyone experiences stress in varying forms and degrees. Company directors, teachers, actors, government officials, athletes, navy officers/soldiers, housewives and even students experience stress. With the growth of industries, pressure in the urban areas, quantitative growth in population and various problems in day to day life are some of the reasons for increase in stress.

More generally, the term “stress” has been widely used in the social sciences following the pioneering work on psychological stress by Selye in the 1950s (Selye, 1956 as cited by Kyriacou, 2001 and Timothy Kerlin, 2001). According to Selye (1974), the three types of stress demands are physiological, psychological, and environmental. Thus, stress is a condition of strain that has a direct bearing on emotions, thought process and physical conditions of a person. Some of them act as a source of inspiration for us and some causes challenges. It is the human nature to face the challenges boldly or to escape from it.

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Any challenge that exceeds the coping abilities of the individual becomes stress. And most people would regard experience of stress at work as something to do with the anxiety caused by having to work under pressure. Selye (1974) as cited in Timothy Kerlin (2001) noted that all individuals need some amount of stress in order to be productive. Minimal stress or sometimes referred to as positive stress gives energy to individuals to perform their tasks. Lack of positive stress in a teacher’s daily job for example, can cause problem, the same as too much negative stress can create tension for the person.

In many countries teacher’s job is often considered as one of the most stressful profession. In the last two decades, intensive researches have been carried out in USA and Europe concerning the sources and symptoms of teachers’ professional stress (Kyriacou, 1996). Studies in the field of teacher’s stress show that the greater part stress is associated with the rapid pace of changes in education, particularly in 1980s and 1990s. Teaching profession is generally considered as a noble profession with lots of expectations from the parents towards their children’s education and the development of their personalities.

These expectations may also contribute as a source of stress. Teacher stress is defined as experiences in teachers of unpleasant, negative emotions, such as anger, frustration, anxiety, depression and nervousness, resulting from some aspect of their work as teachers (Kyriacou, 2001). Teachers are at increased risk for burnout. Measuring teacher stress is important and can play an important role in understanding the processes that lead to teacher burnout. Burnout is described as the inability to perform both functionally and effectively in employment settings due to extensive exposure to job-related stress (Dorman, 2003).

The experience of work stress can alter the way the person feels, thinks and behaves, and can also produce changes in their psychological, physiological and behavioral functions. Work stress in teachers also produces many negative effects. Sometimes these effects are on physical health and sometimes psychological health. For several years, it was hypothesized that stress serves to arouse a person and increase attention to the job, thus improving performance. But this trend is now changing, because beyond that optimum level of stress, performance falls off (Ivancevich and Matteson, 1980).

Studies show that performance whether measured by supervisor’s ratings, organizational perceptions of effectiveness, or job performance on job-related examinations have repeatedly found to decrease with increasing levels of stress (Jamal, 1984; Motowidlo, Pakard and Manning, 1986). It is in this context that this study is proposed in order to determine the relationship of job stress to job performance of public female high school teachers. Theoretical Framework In this present study, the researcher will follow Fimian’s Teacher Stress Model (Fimian, 1984).

This model explain the teacher stress is a ten factor theory, five factors explain the sources of work stress and five factors explain the manifestations of stress, these ten factors comprise stress in teachers. According to Fimian, the occupational stress experienced by teachers is actually a multiple factor construct, and these factors are significantly related to one another. In both the literature and common usage of the term “work stress” it is apparent that certain things cause stress and that this stress, when it does occur, becomes evident in terms of any number of physiological, behavioral and other types of “symptoms. It should thus be possible to identify one array of events that act as sources of stress and another of events that act as manifestations of stress. Moreover, the teacher stress is related to a number of work, job, and organizational variables in terms of both predicted directions and magnitudes. Teacher stress is related more to environmental events, and the teacher’s perception of these events, than it is to personal or professional variables such as teacher gender, age, education level, number of students and number of years teaching.

Fimian (1982) also explained that frequency with which stressful incidents occur and the strength of their occurrence varies from teacher to teacher. A multitude of factors including situational demand, appraisal to that situation, etc. , cause the stress. The factors describe in teacher stress model (Fimian, 1984) are: time management, work related stressors, professional distress, discipline and motivation, professional investment, emotional manifestations, fatigue manifestations, cardiovascular manifestations, gastronomical manifestations, and behavioral manifestations.

Time management refers to the problems in managing time demands and difficulties faced by teacher to manage it. It has consistently been identified as a major source of stress in numerous studies (e. g. , Dewe, 1986; Laughlin, 1984). It refers to the general level of demands made on teachers within very short period of time and teachers find it difficult to manage. Work related stressors refer to work overload and time pressures, e. g. , too much work to do, fast pace of work, big class size, etc.

Indeed, the variety of demand made on a teacher in a typical school day, often with tight dead lies attached to them; make this aspect of teaching a major area of stress (Austin, 1981; Sutherland & Cooper, 1991). Professional distress is comprised of those sources related to some professional variables as lack of progress and promotion opportunities, inadequate salary, lack of recognition, etc. many studies have explained poor working conditions in the sense of prestige, salary, and respect for their salary, lack of recognition, etc. many studies have explained poor working onditions in the sense of prestige for their status and opportunities for progress (Eskridge, 1982; Wanberg, 1984). Discipline and motivation has been the main sources of stress in emerged in many studies, and their lack of motivation have been identified as major source of stress (e. g. , Laughlin, 1984; Payne & Furnham, 1987).

Indiscipline as a source of stress has also been discussed in many studies (e. g. , Dunham, 1984; Galloway et. al. , 1982; Laslett & Smith, 1984). The next factor, professional investment refers to lack of control over decisions, lack of improvement opportunities, etc. hese sources of stress have also been discussed in many studies. War (1992) describes low job discretion as the most important single characteristics in terms of causing stress at work. Karasek (1979) hypothesized that high job demands were not necessarily harmful in themselves but when accompanied by low decision latitude would result in psychological strain. Based on this concept, Karasek and Theorell (1990) developed demand control theory of work stress. According to teacher stess model (Fimian, 1984), stress in teachers have been found to have a variety of manifestations.

These manifestations can be at emotional, physical and behavioral levels. These manifestations are: emotional manifestations, i. e. , feelings of insecurity vulnerable, unable to cope, depressed, anxious; fatigue manifestations, i. e. , sleeping more than usual, becoming fatigued in a very short time, physical exhaustion, physical weakness procrastinating; cardiovascular manifestations i. e. , increased blood pressure, heart pondering or racing, rapid and/or shallow breath; gastronomical manifestations i. e. , stomach pain of extended duration, stomach cramps, stomach acid; behavioral manifestations, i. . , using over the counter drugs, using perception drugs, using alcohol, calling in sick. Many studies have been investigated the association between the various sources of occupational stress and the resulting manifestations of stress i. e. , psychological, physiological and behavioral. The long term effects of these stressors have also been documented (Cooper & Payne, 1988; Milstein & Golaszewski, 1985). Individuals, who are unable to cope effectively with environmental demands that they perceive to be threatening, soon begin to show distress through manifestations of stress.

Fimian and Santro (1981) claim than emotional manifestations are often precursors for behavioral and physiological manifestations. The Psychological Model by Cox and MacKay who redefined stress as a psychological phenomena based on General Adaptation Syndrome model by Selye will also be use as a guide to determine the relationship of job stress to job performance. Stress is “a perceptual phenomenon arising from a comparison between the demand on the person and his ability to cope. An imbalance, gives rise to the experience of stress and to the stress response” (Cox & MacKay, 1976).

Figure 1 According to this model, demands placed on an individual result in an increase in performance. There is a point however where optimal performance is reached, and further demands will act to decrease an individual’s performance. This relationship is sometimes illustrated by the human performance curve (shown in Figure 1). According to Selye (1956), the changes we feel upset about (distress) cause much more biological damage than changes we feel good about (eustress). Selye understood that “how you take it” determines, ultimately, whether you can adapt successfully to change.

Acceptance of change reduces the impact of stress. Thus one could say that increasing our levels of emotional acceptance about a situation helps us adapt to change and reduces the damage of stress. The most interesting implication of this model is that it’s not so much the actual demands that are significant, it’s how we perceive these demands and our ability to cope with them. A person who perceives their ability to cope as weak will experience more stress & vice-versa. Psychological stressors are the most common stressors in modern life.

Stress caused by worrying about things that may never happen such as losing our job, or our loved ones being hurt is much more common than actually being in a situation where we are physically threatened. It is in the above context that this present study proposes to find out the relationship of job stress to job performance of the public female high school teachers in the Division of Cavite City. Job stress is the variate and job performance would be the criterion variable in which, their relationship will be investigated.

This is illustrated in the conceptual model below. Job stress as shown in the model is classified into three (3) types, namely: Behavioral, Psychological, and Physiological. Job performance is classified as the Performance Appraisal Rating of the teachers. The demographic variables included are age, civil status, educational attainment and length of service as teacher, number of students the teachers handle, and number of teaching load. The relationship of the demographic variables to the variate and criterion variable will also be investigated.

Variate Criterion Variable Job Performance Performance Appraisal System for Teachers for SY 2011-2012 Job Stress Behavioral Psychological Physiological Age Civil Status Educational Attainment Length of service as teacher Number of students Number of Teaching Load Demographic Variables Figure1. Conceptual Model Statement of the Problem This study will attempt to determine the relationship of job stress and job performance of public female high school teachers in the Division of Cavite City. Specifically, this study will find answers to the following questions: 1.

What is the profile of the public high school teachers in terms of age, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load? 2. What is the level of teachers’ performance? 3. What is the level of the behavioral, psychological and physiological consequences of job stress to the respondents? 4. Are there relationships between job performance and age, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load? . Are there relationships between job stress and age, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load? 6. Are there differences in the level of teachers’ performance to the level of job stress of the respondents? Hypotheses of the Study It will be hypothesized in this study that: 1. There are no relationships between job performance and age, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load. 2.

There are no relationships between job stress and age, gender, civil status, educational attainment length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load. 3. There are no differences in the level of teachers’ performance to the level of job stress of the respondents. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study are the following: 1. Determine the profile of the public high school teachers in terms of age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load. 2. Find out their teaching performance. 3.

Identify the level of job stress in terms of behavioral, psychological and physiological among public female high school teachers. 4. Determine the relationship between job performance and age, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load. 5. Discern the relationship between job stress and age, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teachers, number of students handled, and number of teaching load. 6. Find out the differences in the level of teachers’ performance to the level of job stress of the respondents. Significance of the Study

This study is intended to promote a better theoretical understanding and recognition of the complexities associated with teachers’ stress. The results of the study may be useful to the following: The Department of Education. The findings may help policy makers and the top management to have awareness and a better understanding of the existence of stress among teachers. This understanding can then be used for the formation of a comprehensive human resource management to optimize the quality of working life. Therefore, findings may be valuable in that they may help in the playing of better organizational productivity and effectiveness.

The School Head/ Principal. They may help to identify areas that may need intervention and change. They will be assisted in developing a working environment that will produce high performance of teachers, thus attaining a quality education in their respective schools. Teachers. Findings of this study will shed light on the causes of stress among teachers and ways by which the impact on their performance can be minimized. And also it will assist them in examining their roles and responsibilities with a concerted effort to manage their stress levels into healthy tension for healthy performance.

Future Researchers. It will serve as a preliminary study in teacher stress and can become a basis for future studies on similar topic such as the coping strategies and stress for the same population or different population. It will also contribute significantly towards future advancements in teacher stress models. Scope and Delimitations The study will focus on the relationship of the Job Stress to the Job Performance of Selected Public Female High School Teachers in the Division of Cavite City, School Year 2011-2012. This research will only be limited to female teachers.

Relatively, there are more female teachers than male teachers in the Department of Education, Division of Cavite City. There is a bulk of literature debating on gender differences among the levels of work stress. Few studies show that the is no gender difference among men and women on their experience of stressful circumstance at work environment (Lowe and Northcott, as cited in NIOSH, 2003), but a lot of researches has shown that women experience higher job stress and are more likely than men to bring job stress at home (Sharma, 2001; NIOSH, 2003).

Research shows that women’s stress in the workplace is related more to lack of balance and demands of home and work combined (Wrigh, 2002). There are many well documented reasons to expect that more women workers over than men workers suffer from negative aspects of work-family spillover (Becker and Moen; & Voydanoff, as cited in Wrigh, 2002). The focus of the present study will only focus on secondary or high school teachers. The assumption that secondary school teachers experience more stress is based on general observations and empirical studies.

Many studies have concluded that secondary school teachers are highly stressful as compared to primary school teachers (Borg, Riding & Falzon, 1991; Pervez & Hanif, 2003). In our education system, secondary classes have importance in a sense that after the completion of this class youngsters get choice for a career. Secondary school certificate is considered as the backbone of future career. So the teachers have great pressures as compared to primary school teaching. In a recent study, Pervez and Hanif (2003) compared primary and secondary school teachers on levels and sources of stress.

The results indicated that secondary school teachers experience more stress as compare to primary school teachers. The study will also be limited on public school teachers. Perez and Hanif (2003) studied the differences among government and private school teachers. The result of their study revealed that government school teachers showed more stress than the private school teachers. According to the study of O. ’Lanre Olaitan,et. al. 2009 (Prevalence of Job Stress among Primary School Teachers in South-west, Nigeria School), types of school had a significant different in job stress.

The finding here was no surprising to the researchers as this has been proved to influence Job Stress. Considering the state of schools in Nigeria with no infrastructure, no recreation facilitate, the internal wrangling, inadequate wage, classrooms inadequate etc. one would have expected no less other than a significant difference between the public and private school factors responsible for job stress. (Oparah &Falode, 2007 ) This is expected in Nigeria Universities.

There is a wide difference between public and private Universities, in the sense that, public schools lacked infrastructures, classrooms and others, while private schools are well funded with less stressful conducive offices. This is due to the fact private schools are well funded from the money raised from student whereas public schools money are mismanaged and siphon. (Grandz & Murray, 1980; Jones & Bright, 2001). All these and others are responsible for job stress experienced by workers. The main variables in this research are job stress and job performance.

Keeping in view the importance of variables, the present study aims to find out levels and sources of stress that teachers experience at their workplaces. The relationship between stress and job performance will also be determined. Imam (1990) concluded that secondary school teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs due to workload and relationship with students, colleagues and supervisors. It is revealed in literature that job dissatisfaction may lead to stress and burnout, and affects the overall performance of individuals and organizations.

Dua (1994) found that 825 of academic staff experienced job stress and this was strongly associated with job dissatisfaction and work load. It is also found out that job stress affects the performance of teachers negatively (Chance, 1992; Dickman & Emmer, 1992). This research will also focus to find out the role of certain demographic and job related variables such as age, civil status, educational attainment, length of service as teacher, number of students handled, and number of teaching load in the teacher stress and their job performance.

The respondents consisted of one hundred (100) female public school teachers and they were randomly selected from the two (2) public schools in Cavite City, Cavite National High School and Sangley Point National High School Definition of Terms For an accurate interpretation and understanding of this study, the following terms are defined/describe to give the readers clear concepts and better understanding of the words in this proposed study: Behavioral.

Behavioral consequences of stress are responses that may harm the person under stress or others. Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, paid, speech, and sleep disorders. Job stress/occupational stress. This refers to the interaction of work conditions with characteristics of the work such that the demands of work exceed the ability of the worker to cope with them.

Occupational stress can be defined as the physical and emotional response/s that occur when worker perceive an imbalance between their work demands and their capability and/or resources to meet these demands or In simple words it is the harmful physical and emotional response that can happen when there is conflict between job demands on the employee and the amount of control an employee has over meeting these demands. Steers (1981) indicate that, “Occupational stress has become an important topic for study of organizational behaviour for several reasons. 1. Stress has harmful psychological and physiological effects on employees. 2. Stress is a major cause of employee turn over and absenteeism.

3. Stress experienced by one employee can affect the safety of other employees. 4. By controlling dysfunctional stress, individual and organization can be managed more effectively. Beehr and Newman (1978) define occupational stress as “A condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs and characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning. Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (PAST). It refers to an instrument in the form of a checklist used in rating public school teachers in terms of: (1) Instructional Competence; (2) Professional and Personal Characteristics; and Punctuality and Attendance. In this study, the rating obtained by the teachers from PAST during school year 2010-2011 was used as the measurement of their performance. Physical. Also refers to medical consequences of stress affect a person’s well being.

According to researches, it revealed that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increases blood pressure, bring out headaches and induce heart attacks. Psychological. Psychological consequences of stress replace to an individual mental health and well-being from or feeling depressed. Job related stress could cause dissatisfaction, in fact it has most psychological effect on the individual and lead to tension, anxiety, irritability, and boredom. Teacher. It refers to the teaching staff in an educational institution that is engaged in instruction, research, or related educational activities.

Teachers’ performance. It refers to the productivity of work based on teaching performance which is measured through Performance Appraisal System. Teachers’ stress. A response syndrome of negative affects (anger and depression) usually accompanied by potentially physiological and psychological changes. Teacher stress is defined by Kyriacou (1987) as “the experience by a teacher of unpleasant emotions, such as tension, frustration, anxiety, anger, and depression, resulting from aspects of work as a teacher” Teacher stress according to Boyle, et. al. 1995), teacher stress may also be defined as a responsive of negative effect resulting from aspects of the teacher’s job and mediated by the perception that the demands made upon the teacher constitutes a threat to his/her well being. Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI). Michael Fimian, 2000, an instrument used to assess the occupational stress of teachers. This was comprised of 49 items pertaining to 10 subscales of teacher stress. The five subscales was included sources of stress i. e. , time management, work-related stressors, professional distress, discipline and motivation, and professional investment.

And five subscales were comprised of manifestations of stress i. e. , emotional manifestations, fatigue manifestations, cardiovascular manifestations, gastronomical manifestations and behavioral manifestations. Stress. The physiological and psychological reaction that occurs when people perceive an imbalance between the level of demand placed upon them and their capability for meeting that demands. Stress is the body’s reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response.

According to Bruno (1990), stress ‘is the system of internal forces, organic or psychological, tending to produce wear and tear on the body. Selye (1974) defined stress as a non-specific response to specific events or stressors that could be either positive or negative in valence. The relevancy of stressors was found to be in their impact on human adaptation and the intensity of stress seemed largely dependent on three factors: (a) the availability of external resources for support (b) individual stress tolerance, and ( c) individual perception of stressful events

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