Kindergarten student case studyChapter 1: IntroductionReading comprehension among young students appear to be the subject that particularly receives the least attention from students. Not all students are accustomed to reading on their own rather than they are actually more interested in listening to others read to them.
It has been noted through the historical accounts of teaching that children are less likely more inspired in reading their own books than they are when they simply need to listen to their educators read to them the lessons that they are supposed to learn in school.
Nonetheless, reading is still an important part of young learning that requires ample attention from the instructors of the students enrolled under the curriculum of kindergarten education.The mind develops fast especially between the ages of three towards nine. These crucial stage of learning actually makes it easier for youngsters to grasp lessons that are presented to them in a much more easier process.
This is especially in terms of which actually interests them as young learners.
Reading is one particular subject though that is mostly considered less intersting in this stage of human understanding. The pressure that the mixture of phonetics and understanding the context of the reading material implies makes it harder for the young learners to get grasp of the lessons. Most of it appears like as if everything is a pressure on their part.
This is especially true when dealing with children who are having difficulty in reading. This are usually noted as special cases whereas there are some stages when the young learners are already expected to grasp and rather apply the lessons that they are learning regarding reading comprehension, still some specific individual learners find it hard to do so.Although some people notes the situation as a common problem that need not be worried upon, the case is rather serious. As per noted through studies implying the learning process of children and its development, reading is a main factor that contributes to one’s capability of being able to write, to understand and to speak fluently not only as a student but as a developing individual.
These factors of learning could be noted to have an instilled reaction from the psychological as well as with the mental and learning development of a certain child.The Interconnection of Learning between StudentsTo understand the implied reaction between the said subjects of learning, the following brief discussion shall show how reading explores the capability of one to write and also commit lesser mistakes in terms of recognizing grammatical errors in the language that they particularly use. This is in terms of the teaching procedures by which the educators aim to imply the said lessons among their students. From the lowest level of grade towards the prestigious masteral and PhD degrees offered in schools, writing and grammar enhancement never cease to affect the curriculum.
Why is this process of teaching repeatedly implicated among students? This is primarily because of the fact that writing is one of the most important and the most widely used skill in any type of profession in the business and industrial sectors of the business world, people who are aiming to become professionals in the future, therefore taking part in the different positions of the said economic industries indeed need to learn the basics towards the complicated notes of becoming a fine writer. Not that writing would be a career for them; however, it would always be a part of their communicative connections with their colleagues if whatever field they might be joined with later on.One of the primary lessons regarding this matter though is the writing process. According to Stone, “process writing is learning how to write by writing” (1995, 232).
Certainly, this means that a student or a particular individual is able to learn the basic principles of writing if he is given a briefing on the procedures of correct writing practice. The said procedures include five main activities that must be considered when one is trying to create a certain written work. The said procedures include:· Prewriting- this stage involves the preplanned writing topic of the writer. In this stage the writer aims to prepare himself in the work that he is about to write.
He scribbles down the ideas in a certain note trying to collect the data that are needed to support the topics that he aims to propose.· Drafting- this stage is the process by which the ideas are written in a away that the writer aims to simply present the ideas that he has with regards the topic he aims to write about. This is just the outcome of the prewritten work, which means it still needs to be revised to be able to meet the needs of actually getting the standard result for the final outcome of the written work.· Revising- this is when the writer tries to see the basic errors on the prepared draft and then further assess the work on what ideas need to be rejected and which ones are still needed to be added so as to be able to enhance the impact of the discussion of the topic being presented.
· Editing- The final revisions are applied in editing the work. The final furnishing of the written job makes it easier for the readers to understand the final output since it would become more focused and certain about the ideas that it tries to imply to the audience of this particular reading material being produced.· Publishing- The final output is ready for public reading. After the clarification done on the writing through the first four stages, the reading material that has been produced is now ready for sending the message to the public readers.
These five stages of writing is what the process writing lessons are all about. Schools intend to help the students master these particular stages of writing to help them enhance their capabilities in sending their ideas ort messages to others through written pieces of work. Meanwhile, grammatical learning lessons are also imbedded within the procedures of implying the lessons of process writing within students. However, it is first essential to know what teaching grammar in context means.
According to Constance Weaver’s book entitled Teaching Grammar in Context, this particular aspect of education helps the students used their language in a correct manner of putting phrases and thoughts together to create a single message that sends a rightful idea to the readers or the listeners of the message. This I the primary reason why teaching grammar is encourages to be within the context of teaching speech and writing practices to the students. This is to primarily allow the students to use in actual practice what they are learning regarding grammar through writing and speaking as well.Knowing the basic ideas regarding the facts about what process writing and teaching grammar in context means, elaborating the ideas that pertain to this particular discussion indeed helps in enriching the discussion presented herein.
Through the utilization of the ideas of other writers in this particular matter, proving the fact that teaching grammar in context within the curriculum of teaching the processes of writing is a more effective approach in t4eaching language to students of all ages.As mentioned earlier, the book entitled “Teaching grammar in context” as authored by Constance Weaver discusses the most basic ideas that pertain to the fact that the effects of teaching grammar and process writing in an integrated manner gives better results among students, especially in the manner that they try to apply their learned strategies of writing in an effective manner that they are able to send the ample and actual message that they want to sent to their readers. In this particular reading material, Weaver points out several important points of consideration that would indeed help in the process of integrating grammar lessons within the procedures of teaching writing skills to students. The said points are as follows:· teaching concepts of subject, verb, clause, sentence, and related editing conceptsWhen teaching the basic skills that are needed to be considered in writing, the lessons on verbs as well as subjects and other parts of speech would indeed help in the procedures of helping the student understand the importance of using the right words and right phrases to be able to send the actual message needed to be conveyed to the readers.
· teaching style through sentence combining and generatingWhen editing processes are discussed, the sentence structure discussion could also be generated to help the students identify what particular parts of the written work needs to be revised so as to be able to send the correct ideas to the reading audience.· teaching sentence sense and style through manipulation of syntactic elementsSyntactic elements and being able to understand the importance of this particular aspect of grammar in creating sensible sentences helps the writers create a better piece of work with a much clarified message and a much more furnished work.· teaching the power of dialects and dialects of powerThe correct usage of language helps in creating a more clarified message within the context of any written work. Being able to learn this particular power of language shall encourage students, or writers at that in careful choosing the words that they use in their writing as well as furnishing the grammar that they utilize in their writing procedures.
· Teaching punctuation and mechanics for convention, clarity, and style- the impact of learning how to clarify the messages through the effective use of punctuations and clarifying styles of writing shall indeed help writers in being able to understand the importance of sending clarified ideas through the enhancement of the usage of correct punctuations within sentences to denote impact and feelings of the writers towards the topic.These particular points shall indeed create the possibility of making writers or even students understand the importance of using the correct words, punctuations, sentence styles within the context of several written works to be able to convey the right message to the readers. Other works that can help in this particular discussion is that of Gardner and Johnson’s Stages of the Writing Process which particularly discusses the different stages of writing and how they are more effectively imparted among learning writers through the effective integration of teaching grammar as an addition within the curriculum offered. According to the said authors: “”Writing is a fluid process created by writers as they work.
Accomplished writers move back and forth between the stages of the process, both consciously and unconsciously. Young writers, however, benefit from the structure and security of following the writing process in their writing.”(Gardner & Johnson, 1997, 41)Certainly, the impact brought about by the ability of teaching the students writing procedures through the basic rules of grammatical evidences of effect on the conveyance of the message towards the readers brings about great results to the outcome of the written works of writers. How strong is that impact? To be able to prove this the following discussion shall entertain this particular idea.
According to the study of the group of Lisa Sugrue, the teaching of grammar and writing procedures could never be separated. The conclusions of their study pertain to the fact that the importance of putting both lessons together makes a strong impact on the possibility of creating quality writers. More likely, the transfer of grammatical practice towards authentic writing has been proven effective for sending sensible messages to readers of the final outcome of the work. The said study researches even found out a certain fact that should indeed help in the process of integrating grammar lessons within the context of teaching writing procedures among students.
As per mentioned in the study:“Brain research shows us how to make grammar lessons stick. First, the introduction must be novel, something that will impress itself on malleable brains. Change location. Use different materials.
In addition, it should be fun because when a lesson involves the emotions, it engages the mind. Finally, and most importantly, it should be something that shows meaning rather than merely form. In short, the students should be able to apply it directly to their writing and see improvement (Nunan, 2005).” (As quoted by Sugrue, 2005, 2)Certainly, from this claim, it could be noted that the implication of grammatical lessons within the context of learning writing procedures empowers the idea of effectively helping the learners identify the importance of the usage of the correct grammar styles within the ideas presented within the written works certainly affects the process by which readers understand or decode the message of the written ideas.
For educators of the present generation, it is very important to understand how this particular procedure of teaching should affect the process by which they are implying the lessons of grammar and writing within their students. There are at least seven ways of implying the lessons on the students with regards grammar and writing as per suggested in the study performed by the group of Sugrue:1. Engage students in writing, writing, and more writing.-This involves assisting the students through continuous practice of writing, editing and revising their own written works.
Through their own observation upon their own works, they are able to see the mistakes that they usually make and thus are able to make amends with regards the said mistakes in writing through the implications of the lessons that they learn from grammar curriculums.2. Immerse students in good literature, including literature that is particularly interesting or challenging syntactically.-Reading practices also help in this primary learning procedure.
Of course, through the written works of others, there are those grammatical styles that could be carefully learned by writing beginners. Through the examples of other’s writings; they could be able to identify the correct and effective ways of writing their own ideas.3. Teach relevant aspects of grammar within the context of students’ writing.
-the educator’s ability to help the students identify the clarity of the importance of creatively putting their ideas into writing shall also make the students aware of their effective practices in writing.4. Introduce only a minimum of terminology. Much of this terminology can be learned sufficiently through incidental exposure as you discuss selected words and structures in the context of literature and writing.
-Teaching the grammar basics gradually to the learners indeed helps in inculcating the lessons within the minds of the students in a primarily gradual procedure that would most likely help them carefully store the lessons within their minds more effectively.5. Emphasize those aspects of grammar (as appropriate to writers’ needs) that are particularly useful in helping students revise sentences to make them more effective (this may include how to reorder and otherwise manipulate sentence elements and how to expand and combine sentences.)-expansion of sentences through the procedures of writing and applying grammar lessons within the practice shall help in producing a much more sensible written output.
6. Also emphasize (as appropriate to writers’ needs) those aspects of grammar that are particularly useful in helping students edit sentences for conventional mechanics and appropriateness. (This may include concepts like subject, verb, and predicate; clause and phrase; grammatical sentences versus run-ons and fragments; and usage.)-The mechanical approach in writing could be strongly enhanced by the ability of the students in identifying the basic grammatical errors within the context of their own written works.
7. Teach needed terms, structures, and skills when writers need them, ideally when they are ready to revise at the sentence level or to edit.-It is necessary for the educators to instill within the learners the importance of carefully assessing the terms that they use in their works to convey the message that they intend to share to their readers. Strongly, this means that through writing and learning grammatical basics, sending messages to readers effectively could be applied by the students in a systematic procedure.
From the study presented herein, there could be a five point summary that could be derived from the entire context of the discussion,. The said points are as follows:1. Learning writing and language grammar always go together in an aim to producing worthwhile reading materials that are produced both by professional and amateur writers.2.
The educator’s ability to identify the importance of putting the grammar lessons within the procedures of teaching the correct procedures of writing shall bring better results for the learners and the educators as well.3. Creating procedures by which grammatical lessons within the teaching process on inculcating the correct practice of writing shall help students understand the impact of correct grammatical presentation within the message that they intend to convey to their readers.4.
Making amends in the separation of grammar and writing curriculums should actually help both the students and the educators in putting the importance of both lessons in good use through writing activities.5. Good writing skills results from an effective and clarified view of the writers on the importance of grammatical correctness in language use.With these five-point summary, it could be noted that the writing procedures are indeed empowered to become more effective through the correct application of grammatical basics of the language being used in writing, Through this particular integration in lesson presentations, the effectiveness of writing becomes more sensible for the reading public.
Moreover, it could also be noted that through the abilities of the writer to actually become fine in the practice of reading, he is then expected to be able to come up with sensible write-ups.Chapter 2: Case AnalysisIn this case, a certain child shall be observed with regards the development that he portrays through several examinations made with regards his capabilities of reading as a kindergarten student. A young child named Billy Howard age 6 years old has been noted for having SLI or Special Literacy Impairment, which involves reading comprehension and development based upon the reading capabilities of the child. Billy is attending kindergarten education and his difference upon the development of his classmates in reading has been noted through time.
It is undeniable that his classmates are already able to recognize phonologies and are thus able to comprehend to at least 52% of the reading activities that the class engages with. However, in the case of Billy, the development is rather slow and less evident. In this regard, the need for extending assistance to such type of students is suggested among the instructors of the said student.Here are some of the examinations that were presented by the attending clinical psychologists with regards the reading and developmental procedures taken by the subject, Billy Harold.
(Source: http://harcourtassessment.com/NR/rdonlyres/28734FE5-EC3F-454A-AA3E-59A519C3A558/0/EmergentLiteracyDeficitCaseStudy.pdf)From this diagram, it is quite obvious how much the subject is trying to make evident progress in terms of reading. Although at the beginning of the examinations, the results particularly show the fact that he indeed is having a hard time coping up with the reading development as per presented by his classmates.
Moreover, the pressure even made it harder for the child to achieve much for himself as he has not been able to recognize the actual need that he is required to face as a kindergarten student. It is also evident how much reading is actually noted as a factor contributing to the comprehension of a child with regards the other subjects that are presented to him in school. This includes writing and grammar comprehension issues on the part of the learning development of Billy Harold. However, although developments are likely evident, there is still a certain instilled enthusiasm among educators of the child to actually become comprehensive in the ways by which they are trying to reach he interest of the child to be able to gain attention in reading.
;;(Source: http://harcourtassessment.com/NR/rdonlyres/28734FE5-EC3F-454A-AA3E-59A519C3A558/0/EmergentLiteracyDeficitCaseStudy.pdf)The second diagram shows that even though there were pictures in the book presented to him, the child had lesser aims of actually being able to learn from reading. It is evident that his incompetence with the other sections of the examinations further implied pressure on him that eventually made it possible for him to loose interest in the following reading tests after the previous examinations that he needed to deal with during the day.
This is specifically true with every child having problems with literacy problems such as reading. As the process already appears to be less interesting, it becomes a pressure when the act or the learning procedure is to be forced to a certain student as young as the kindergarten level learners.Chapter 3: Literature Review and Other DiscussionsSpecial children have considerably different needs depending on their health situations. Hence teaching these types of children is indeed a challenge especially to early childhood educators.
Parents at first base may have a hard time accepting the fact that their children are mentally different from other children. This is the reason why the educators of such children are required to have exceptional strategic ways of assisting the special children as well.How would this problem be best resolved? How could the educators ensure that the special students who are to be enrolled in their institutions are sure to receive amiably fine education amidst their difficulties and difference against other children? What are other forces needed to be incorporated in the learning processes of the said exceptional students? These are among the most important questions that need to be addressed when the topic being discussed is regarding the educational systems provided for several exceptional students. First step to be able to address the problems of the said students though is to outline the types of difficult students that are usually enrolled in educational institutions.
There are numerous types of learning difficulties among young students. Most of the time, the said difficulties occur among the children at the very moment they were born. Realizing the difficulties on the part of the parents though usually occur quite a longer time from being born. At most, when the children reach the age of three, the symptoms of such difficulties already show and thus the parents realize the need to treat their children differently especially with regards to learning.
However, not all difficulties mean that the children lack the interest in learning or the possibilities of being able to learn at that. Some difficulties are simply related to the attention span of some students. As for example, children with ADHD are exceptionally bright and creative, however, their lack of interest in giving much interest to learning processes makes it hard for educators to catch their attention during classes. The following paragraphs shall discuss the different difficulties that occur among children that concerns special educational arrangements for them.
AUTISMAutism is a disorder of the brain in which social behavior, communication skills, and thinking ability fail to develop normally. It affects the way sensory input is processed, causing people with autism to overreact to some sensations (sights, sounds, smells, and so forth) and under react to others. The impairments of autism produce an assortment of unusual behavioral traits. Symptoms, which usually appear before the age of three, can vary greatly from child to child.
Consider the following examples.Imagine reaching out with love to your own beautiful child and getting no response. This often happens when a child has autism. Instead of interacting with people, most children with autism prefer to be alone.
They may dislike being cuddled, avoid eye contact, and use people as they would tools—showing little awareness of others’ feelings. In severe cases some do not seem to make any distinction between family members and strangers. They appear to live in a world of their own, oblivious to the people and events around them. The term “autism,” from the Greek word au·tos´ meaning “self,” refers to this self-absorbing quality.
(Doman, 74);In contrast with their indifference to people, children with autism may become preoccupied with a particular object or activity, pursuing it for several hours at a time in a bizarre, repetitive manner. For example, instead of pretending that toy cars are real ones, they may line the cars up in neat, straight rows or may endlessly spin their wheels. They display repetitiveness in other ways also. Many are intolerant of change in their daily routines, insisting on doing things exactly the same way every time.
Children with autism may also respond in strange ways to the events and situations that they encounter. Their responses can be baffling, since most of them are unable to describe what they are experiencing. Nearly half are mute; often those who can speak use words in unusual ways. Rather than answer a question by saying yes, they may simply repeat the question (a phenomenon called echolalia).
Some use expressions that seem strangely out of place and that can only be understood by those familiar with their “code.” For instance, one child used the phrase “it’s all dark outside” as his term for “window” (Cooper, 45). Many also have difficulty using gestures and may scream or throw a tantrum to signal a need.Unlike most youngsters, children with autism do not readily absorb information from their surroundings.
Teaching them the basic skills needed at home or in the community is a challenging and slow step-by-step process. The day’s routine can keep a parent rushing from task to task; assisting with dressing, feeding, and toileting; redirecting disruptive or inappropriate behaviors; and cleaning up after accidents. “Until [my son] was ten years old,” one parent recalls, “I was just trying to make it through each day.” (as quoted by Klein, 47)Adding to the strain is the child’s need for constant supervision.
“Tommy has to be watched constantly,” says his mother, Rita, “because he has little sense of danger.” Since many autistic children also have irregular sleep patterns, the vigil often extends into the night. Florence, whose son Christopher was described at the outset of this article, comments, “I slept with one eye open.” (as quoted by Wagman, 47)As the children grow older, some of these demands diminish while others may intensify.
Even when progress is made, almost all those with autism continue to require some level of supervision throughout their lives. Since residence facilities suitable for adults with autism are scarce, parents of autistic children face the prospect of either providing lifelong care at home or, if this becomes impossible, placing their grown children in institutions.ADHD/ADDOver the years, attention problems have been blamed on everything from bad parenting to fluorescent lighting. It is now thought that ADHD is associated with disturbances in certain brain functions.
In 1990 the National Institute of Mental Health tested 25 adults with ADHD symptoms and found that they metabolized glucose more slowly in the very areas of the brain that control movement and attention. In about 40 percent of ADHD cases, the individual’s genetic makeup seems to play a role. According to The Hyperactive Child Book, other factors that may be associated with ADHD are the use of alcohol or drugs by the mother during pregnancy, lead poisoning, and, in isolated cases, diet. (Doman, 47)In recent years doctors have found that ADHD is not just a childhood condition.
“Typically,” says Dr. Larry Silver, “parents will bring in a child for treatment and say, ‘I was the same when I was a kid.’ Then they’ll admit they still have problems waiting in line, sitting through meetings, getting things done” It is now believed that about half of all children with ADHD carry at least some of their symptoms into adolescence and adulthood. During adolescence, those with ADHD may shift from risky behavior to delinquency.
“I used to worry that he wouldn’t get into college,” says the mother of an ADHD adolescent. “Now I just pray that he stays out of jail.” (Cooper, 41)That such fears may be valid is shown by a study comparing 103 hyperactive youths with a control group of 100 children who did not have the disorder. “By their early 20s,” reports Newsweek, “the kids from the hyperactive group were twice as likely to have arrest records, five times as likely to have felony convictions and nine times as likely to have served time in prison.
” (Cooper, 45)Cerebral PalsyAccording to a medical book, cerebral palsy is the general term for a group ofabnormal conditions commonly associated with a brain disorder that causes the loss or impairment of muscle control. It has been known through a chain of surveys worldwide that “7,000 suffers from some degree of the said disability” (Wagman,126). This damage in the nervous system often occurs from birth, during delivery or in rare cases, because of an accident, injury or severe illness during infancy or childhood.The symptoms of this illness vary so much from every case.
Usually pediatricians, along with several others assist in providing therapies to children affected by this illness. Yet, one of the most important factors of the therapy is parental understanding and care. It involves helping the child help himself. Guiding him to understanding his own limits as a child and thus accepting it without bitterness.
This naturally requires patience, persistence, and resourcefulness of the entire family, and may require a number of group therapies and counseling.General Training Strategies for Exceptional StudentsThe methods suggested by Maria Montessori, who has been a victim of cerebral palsy in her earlier years of life, proved to be effective in teaching as it is used today in Montessori school. Where disabled kids such as those who have disorders as cerebral palsy and other special situations in child development are given chance to learn and live normally.Here are the methods they use in teaching exceptional students:· Children who find it difficult to communicate may express their frustration in bad temper or aggressive behavior.
This may mean keeping a note of what leads up to the bad behavior. In other words, trying to establish the triggers. This also includes the constant tracking of the child’s behavior, recording what he does and does not like and the emotional responses that he shows to different situations he finds himself in.· Try to keep the classrooms structured and keep the child aware of the pattern of the day-you might use a picture timeline.
Since school must be an accommodating place for a child with cerebral palsy, pictures could make it more enjoyable for the child and also easier to understand things that are essential for them to know.· Have a de-stressing area and have a child learn what to do when he/she is angry or frustrated. As to what has been said earlier, it may not be that easy to express anger for these children as they tend to be violent at times. A de-stressing area may help them eliminate their anger without hurting anybody else or even ruining things in the rooms.
· Try to seat the child in area of low distraction at least for some of the time. This could include a creatively decorated area, which may serve as a reward every time a child is able to do something good. A child with the said disorder needs a time-off every now and then to relax their minds and body as well.· Consult a physiotherapist or occupational therapist as to know the correct seating for the child.
Since the disorder may vary from the different cases they belong to, the children having this disorder also have different needs as to space and location of their seats from the board or the study area itself. It is very important to consider this able to provide the child with the learning that he could be able to easily grasp.· Allow the child a wider space in seating as he may fidget frequently and this may annoy others who are seating nearby. Sometimes, it’s even better to have a child sit by himself to avoid irritation on other kids.
· Lighting can affect a child with cerebral palsy so it is better to put the light behind them so that there would be no glare affecting their eyes as it may affect their learning process.· Some children who are specially suspended concerning education have poor memories. They may have short concentration span and may have difficulties in retaining new vocabularies. They may better learn from pictures and lessons involving visual illustration.
Like with any other normal children, this type of teaching strategy makes the classroom more enjoyable and learning becomes an easy job for the child.· Use reinforcement method. This involves recalling the lessons learned from time to time. All the previously learned lessons must be reviewed both before and after the class to improve the memory skills of the children.
· Chalk and talk is not the best way to teach a child with cerebral palsy. Children with this disorder comprehends better with pictures, songs, rhymes and other sensual activities that makes their body and mind work making the learning environment seem to be more like a game. Pressures should be set aside in treating children with this case.· Children with cerebral palsy can have difficulty with spatial awareness.
As well as getting in other people’s way, it can cause problems with copying notes from the blackboard. If possible, get children to copy from the pages of their books. These books are to have enlarged printed notes. It may also help if the writing activities are lessened and replaced with joining phrases or points, drawing and singing activities.
· There could also be implemented a separate time when they learn alone and another time when they learn with a group. This will help the children be able to learn at their own pace and then enjoy activities with other children at some time of the study hours.Chapter 4: ConclusionIt is indeed true that dealing with exceptional students in the educational systems require so much effort. The challenge that is opened to the educators who are supposed to deal with the said students is indeed an opportunity for them to measure their capability of educating students with special requirements.
This is the reason why educators for these type of students are required to have long patience and understanding concerning the needs of the children especially with regards to their emotional being and development.To be able to successful with such learning difficulties, the involvement of the parents in the process of learning is a vital part of education for the said students. Hence, love for the students could be considered as the most essential part of educating exceptional students. This emotion and concern would naturally move the educators to have all the necessary skills for teaching special children and thus apply them regularly in dealing with the children’s learning needs.
Reading is one particular subject that needs to be given focus by the educators in several learning institutions. This is primarily because of the fact that reading skills spurs up the other learning capabilities of the students as young as kindergarten learners as per discussed in the earlier chapters of this paper. Moreover, without the ample attention given upon the importance of treading, the other levels of learning among young students would certainly suffer.References:Cooper, C.
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