Literature Review On Hackers And Ethical Hackers Computer Science

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Cyber security is one of the most critical facets of security that any organisation in the modern universe must be concerned with. Why? Largely because of Black-hat Hackers. The undermentioned reappraisal is a general treatment about hackers and its best countermeasure, Ethical Hacking. The ground I chose this subject is because it is of great involvement to me, as I someday desire to be an Ethical hacker every bit good.


The word hacker in the yesteryear was defined as a individual who loves playing a around with package or electronic systems. They wanted to detect new things on how computing machines operate. Today the term hacker has a different significance wholly. It states that a hacker is “ person who maliciously breaks into systems for personal addition. Technically, these felons are crackers ( condemnable hackers ) . Crackers break into ( cleft ) systems with malicious purpose. They are out for personal addition: celebrity, net income, and even retaliation. They modify, delete, and steal critical information, frequently doing other people suffering ” . ( Kevin Beaver, Stuart McClure 2004, p10 ) Most of the literature I read give the definition of the word hacker as antecedently stated or to intend largely the same thing.

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The history of choping day of the months back to the sixtiess when a group of people in MIT “ chop the control systems of theoretical account trains to do them run quicker, more efficaciously or otherwise than they were designed to ” . ( Peter T. Leeson, Christopher J. Coyne, 2006 ) . Because of such activity by these persons computing machine proprietors and supervisors took away their entree to computing machines. As a consequence the hacking community came up with their ain codification known as the hacker ethic:

“ 1. Entree to computing machines -and anything which might learn you something about the manner the universe works – should be unlimited and entire. Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative!

2. All information should be free.

3. Mistrust Authority – Promote Decentralization.

4. Hackers should be judged by their hacking, non fake standards such as grades, age, race or place.

5. You can make art and beauty in a computing machine.

6. Computers can alter your life for the better. “ ( Paul A Taylor, 2005 )

The above codification is still followed today and non merely by hackers but by others every bit good.

Not all hackers today have the same degree of expertness. Depending on the psychological science and accomplishments of a hacker they can be put into four groups. ( M.G. Siriam ) Old School Hackers is one group and they believe that the cyberspace should be an unfastened system. Script kiddies is another and they are computing machine novitiates that use tools created by professional hackers to chop systems. Most of the hackers today fit into this group. The following group is professional felons or crackers. They break into systems for the intent of stealing and selling information they gathered.. The concluding group is programmers and virus authors. They are elect persons with a really high accomplishment in programming and runing systems that write codification and utilize other people in charge of let go ofing their codification to the natural state.

Organizations and establishments today are under a batch of emphasis to protect their information from external every bit good as internal security menaces to their computing machine systems. As such most of them have come up with the solution of engaging Ethical Hackers. “ To catch a stealer, you must believe like a stealer. That ‘s the footing for ethical hacking. Knowing your enemy is perfectly critical ” ( Kevin Beaver, Stuart McClure, 2004, p13 ) . In other wards Ethical hackers ( white-hat hackers ) are experient security and web experts that perform an onslaught on a mark system with permission from the proprietors, to happen loop holes and exposures that other hackers could work. This procedure is besides known has Red Teaming, Penetration Testing or Intrusion Testing. ( ) The terminal end of ethical hackers is to larn system exposures so that they can be repaired for community self-interest and as a side-product besides the common good of the people. ( Bryan Smith, William Yurcik, David Doss, 2002 )

Every Ethical hacker should follow three of import regulations as follows: First Working Ethically. All actions performed by the ethical hacker should back up the organisations ends that he works for. “ Trustworthiness is the ultimate dogma. The abuse of information is perfectly out. ” Second Respecting Privacy as all information that an ethical hacker gathers has to be treated with the extreme regard. Finally Not Crashing Your Systems. This is largely due to no anterior planning or holding non read the certification or even misapplying the use and power of the security tools at their disposal. ( Kevin Beaver, Stuart McClure, 2004, p16-17 )

The chief onslaughts or methods that an ethical hackers or even hackers perform are of as follows:

Non Technical Attacks:

No affair how secured an organisation is in footings of package and hardware, it will ever be vulnerable to security menaces because security ‘s weakest nexus are people or its employees. Social technology is a type of non proficient onslaught where hackers “ exploit the trustful nature of human existences to derive information for malicious intents ” . Other onslaughts can be of physical nature such as stealing hardware equipment or Dumpster diving.

Operating-System Attack:

Choping an operating system ( OS ) is a preferable method of the bad cats. OS onslaughts make up a big part of hacker onslaughts merely because every computing machine has an operating system and OSes are susceptible to many well-known feats. ( Kevin Beaver, Stuart McClure, 2004, p15 )

Distributed denial of service onslaughts ( DDoS ) :

This is the most popular onslaught used by many hackers to convey down systems. It ‘s a type of onslaught that overloads the web or waiter with a big sum of traffic so that it crashes and renders any entree to the service.

Internet Protocol ( IP ) spoofing:

“ It is a manner of masking the hacker ‘s existent individuality. This method allows a hacker to derive unauthorised entree to computing machines by directing a message to a computing machine with an IP reference demoing that the message is from a sure host. To carry through this, a hacker must utilize different tools to happen an IP reference of a sure host, and so change the package headings so it appears that the packages are coming from the host. ” ( Tanase 2003 ) .

The procedure of ethical hacking contains many different stairss. The first thing that is done is to explicate a program. At this phase acquiring blessing and mandate from the organisation to execute the incursion trial is highly of import. ( Kevin Beaver, Stuart McClure, 2004, p15 ) . Next the ethical hacker uses scanning tools to execute port scans to look into for unfastened ports on the system. “ Once a cracker scans all computing machines on a web and creates a web map demoing what computing machines are running what runing systems and what services are available, about any sort of onslaught is possible ” ( Bryan Smith, William Yurcik, David Doss, 2002 ) This method is used by hackers every bit good but for chiefly for malicious intents. After scanning has been done the ethical hacker selects the tools that are traveling to be used to execute certain trials on the mark system. These tools can be used for watchword snap, seting back doors, SQL injection, whiffing etc. The trials need to be carefully performed because if they are done falsely they could damage the system and could travel unnoticed. ( Bryan Smith, William Yurcik, David Doss, 2002 ) Finally the program needs to be executed and the consequences of all the trials so necessitate to be evaluated ( Kevin Beaver, Stuart McClure, 2004, p22 ) Based on the consequences the ethical hacker tells the organisation about their security exposures every bit good as how they can be patched to do it more secure.

A Grey chapeau hacker is a type of hacker that has the accomplishments and purpose of a ethical hacker in most state of affairss but uses his cognition for less than baronial intents on juncture. Grey hat hackers typically subscribe to another signifier of the hacker moral principle, which says it is acceptable to interrupt into systems every bit long as the hacker does non perpetrate larceny or breach confidentiality. Some would reason, nevertheless that the act of interrupting into a system is in itself unethical. ( Red Hat, Inc, 2002 ) Grey chapeaus are besides a signifier of good hackers that normally hack into organisations systems without their permission, but so at a ulterior phase direct them information on the cringle holes in their system. They besides sometimes endanger to let go of the holes they find unless action has been taken to repair it. ( Peter T. Leeson, Christopher J. Coyne, 2006 )


Testing the security of a system by interrupting into it is non a new thought but is something that is practiced in all facets of industry. For illustration if an car company is crash-testing autos, or an person is proving his or her accomplishment at soldierly humanistic disciplines by sparring with a spouse, rating by proving under onslaught from a existent antagonist is widely accepted as prudent. ( C.C. Palmer, 2001 ) Since the security on the Internet is rather hapless at present, ethical hacking is one of the lone ways to ways to proactively stop up rampant security holes. Until such clip a proper societal model is founded, to distinguish the good cats ( white chapeaus ) from the bad cats ( black chapeaus ) , a jurisprudence must non be brought into consequence, as this may put on the line taking off our last hope of stabilising defence and non recognize it until it is excessively late. In the terminal, it is up to the society to see the societal and ethical criterions to use to the ever-changing engineering, so valuable information does non fall into the incorrect custodies for the incorrect intents.

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