Materials Development for the Language Classroom

Table of Content

Introduction The process of teaching and learning usually related to the way teacher produce the lesson in the classroom. The common techniques that usually teacher use in the classroom is chalk and talk. They never think about pupils’ interest for their teaching process. For teacher herself in the past, preparing teaching aids is a burden and waste of time. As for pupils, without good teaching aids as a second source of information, they will face a difficulty in understanding the lesson. Tomlinson (2001) has given a clear definition of teaching materials.

According to him, ‘materials include anything which can be used to facilitate the learning of a language. They can be linguistic, visual, auditory or kinesthetic. ’ (p. 66). However, in era of technology, preparing teaching aids is not so burden. There are plenty of teaching aids available in the internet. Teacher just needs to find the right teaching materials that can suit the best to their lesson. There a few types of teaching aids that can be use by a teacher to deliver their lesson more interesting and accurately.

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From the simples as textbook to the more complicated such as software that require pupils explore more. However, there are still some teachers that prefer to use chalks and talk during their period. New materials as teaching aids now can easily be used by teacher such as YouTube, DVD, emails and a few others. In other mean that ESL teachers should always adapt materials to be used in the classroom to ensure that they fit into the local contexts and pupils able to understand. Types of teaching aids Pupils can become bored sitting in a classroom for hours.

Teaching aids can provide a welcome break for pupils who have been sitting for awhile and listening to a teacher lecture in front of the classroom. Teacher can use various teaching aids besides textbooks to increase pupils’ interest and demonstrate how things work. Visual aids, such as whiteboards or chalkboards, charts, maps, flash cards, and calendars are commonly used. Presentation tools. such as bulletin boards, audiovisual equipment, and overhead projectors are also utilized frequently along with multimedia displays and computers.

These are commonly uses teaching aids in teacher teaching and learning process: 1. Worksheets Worksheets are handouts that pupils need to complete in order to practice their skills. They give the pupils a chance to get further repetition without taking the teacher’s full-time attention. While all pupils try to complete their worksheets, teacher can focus on the individual pupil who need the most help. Worksheets are also a common form of homework task. A pupil’s performance on worksheets can also be used to monitor the pupil’s progress on that particular subject. 2.

Textbooks Textbooks are books containing information about a particular subject, organized in a manner calculated to make presenting the information easier. Teachers can read a textbook to confirm or expand their personal knowledge and/or assign readings from a textbook for pupils to complete. Many textbooks also include quizzes or review questions to help assess how well students have comprehended what they have read. Publishing companies often release matched pairs of textbooks with workbooks (books full of worksheets) on the same subject matter. 3. Realia object

Realia are real things from the real world that are related to the subject matter being studied. Pupils can interact with the realia to gain better view on what they are studying. For example, pupils can touch a tree as their learning about the enviroment or pupils can make a simple sandwich as they are learning about food in the classroom or pupils can search for item in the classroom such as dustbin, duster and a few more. 4. Multimedia Often among the most popular teaching aids with the pupils, multimedia presentations use video, audio or both to present information.

Films, videos and short film are all examples of multimedia teaching aids. In some school, teacher use internet web as teaching aids like YouTube and other. The use of multimedia will increase pupils attention and knowledge about the topic that been thought by the teacher with need to leave the classroom. However, there is a room to increase multimedia use among pupils in rural area that they also able to taste the use of multimedia. 5. Presentation Tools A number of tools have been designed to help the teacher put information in a place all the pupils can see it during teaching and learning process.

Examples include chalk boards, whiteboards, overhead projectors, bulletin boards, felt boards and in-focus machines. But the main factor that teacher need to be consider is the presentation should be interesting to the pupils. 6. Administrative Tools Besides tools used during presentation, teachers have access to a variety of tools to help manage and maintain their curriculum. Lesson planning books, attendance rosters, grade books and teachers’ guides to subjects or textbooks are common examples of this kind of tool.

Even a simple appointment calendar can be an indispensable administrative aid to most teachers. Why Textbook is my choice? As we all know that textbook provide in our school are be develop by a group from Ministry Of Education (MOE) for pupils uses in the school. MOE has done their study on pupils need and then related the topic with pupils level of thinking by developing a standard textbook that been uses in primary school. Harmer (2001:134) states that “Teachers have always used pictures or graphics – whether drawn, taken from books, newspapers and magazines, or photographs – to facilitate learning”.

Meanwhile McKeachies (1994) mention that ‘For decades the demise of the textbook has been eagerly predicted by advocates of each of the new panaceas for the problems of education. First television, then teaching machines, then the computer—each was expected to revolutionize education and free students and teachers from their longtime reliance on textbooks. But each of the new media has settled into its niche in the educational arsenal without dislodging the textbook. In fact, the greater availability of a wide variety of printed materials is probably as important as the technological revolution’.

O’Neill (1990), state that materials may be suitable for students’ needs, even if they are not designed specifically for them, that textbooks make it possible for students to review and prepare their lessons, that textbooks are efficient in terms of time and money, and that textbook can and should allow for adaptation and improvisation. As I teach Year 1, I found that textbook is a reliable teaching tool for these young learners to learn English as their second language. With a colorful pictures and information inside the textbook, it should able to attract and hold pupils’ attention on lesson.

The information has been organized from easy to difficult and step by step learning based on previous lesson does not burden the pupils to follow. Inside a textbook, there were graph, graphic pictures, time table and other. All these item add to extra information and able to hold pupils attention on the lesson. Without denying the important of other teaching aids, I still believe that textbook still play a major part in giving a new learner a frame of what they are going to learn. My Material from Textbook.

I have chosen Year 1 language textbook on pages 27 based on topic ‘Look at me’ as my teaching material. I believe that my pupils will develop their interest on this topic because the content for this topic is fun and easy for them to remember. Pupils will start of this topic through a song from the text book. The use of song is to develop pupils focus on the lesson that I going to teach. With a colour picture and movement that going to be made during singing the song, it will increase pupils attention. In year 1, it is not suitable to teach only using chalk and talk.

Even do reading is the main focus, but we must create an interesting reading environment. I need to develop a two ways communicative learning process. Pupils in year 1 still are not fully ready to focus on lesson like year 6 or secondary school pupils. The role of a teacher is needed to put these pupils on right track and get them ready for a lesson. If the teacher unable to make sure pupils focus on their side, there will be a problem in class control and delivering the lesson. This song is easy for year one because the words and rhythm uses is not so difficult and pupils are familiar with it.

Vocabulary words such as head, shoulders, knee and toe are familiar words that pupils will found. How this material is used This teaching material is suitable for year 1 pupils because it’s fun and enjoyable. The vocabulary use from this topic is simple and easy for pupils to remember it. The vocabulary that been used are head, knee, shoulder, eyes, nose, ears and toes. As a language teacher, we must use multiple types of teaching aids in order to introduce a new vocabulary to the pupils. Pictures and song is one example of material that can be use especially for young learner.

Using song and pictures, pupils easily capture the lesson that teacher try to teach and pupils able to related the lesson with their prior knowledge and express their opinion widely based on the lesson. Set induction For my set induction, I will introduce a rhymes song. Music benefits children’s oral communication. They learn to be attentive listeners, which is a skill that helps their phonological awareness, phonemic awareness and overall fluency. When teachers use music naturally, they expand vocabulary, promote sight words, identify rhymes and retell stories.

According to Wiggins (2007), simple songs such as “Down by the Station,” when coupled with a book, “nurtures auditory and visual discrimination, eye-motor coordination, visual sequential memory, language reception and, most importantly, promotes comprehension and dialogue”. The song that I choose is ‘London Bridge’. The choosing of these songs (London Bridge and Head and shoulder and knee and toes) because both of these songs have the same rhythm. I will continue to sing the London Bridge song for a few times until pupils able to master the rhythm. Then I will explain about part of the body.

This activity will be going for at least 5 minutes. First step I will introduce the song ‘Head and shoulder, knee and toes’. I will sing the song first a few times before I ask pupils to sing along with me. The tone or rhymes that should use is similar to ‘London Bridge’ song earlier in the set induction. During singing the song, I will make a hand movement to point out the part of the body that been mentioned in the song. Then I will ask pupils to read the song slowly so they can say it correctly. On vocabulary word, I will ask pupils to points out the part of the body mention in the song.

I will drill the song until pupils able to say it correctly and remember it providing feedback and guiding conversations among students that move learning forward should be more than providing correct answers and verifying procedures. Second step In second step I will point my focus on the vocabulary that been use in this song. I will relate the uses of these parts of the body with their function. Simple questions will be asked to pupils in order to make sure that they able to recognize the part and it functions. By questioning pupils about the part of the body, I hope pupils will able to increase pupils understanding on the subject.

Questions ask by teacher will support effective learning. A question will develop pupils courage and confident. Examples of relevant questions are: 1. Why do we need eyes? We need eyes to see. 2. How do we breathe? We use nose to breathe. 3. How do we run? We use our feet to run. Third step In third step, my teaching using this material is more on pupils understanding. Therefore my focus in this step to make sure pupils understand the lesson and remember for future lesson. I will distribute a worksheet that related to song and ask pupils to identify part of the body by filling the blanks.

This formative assessment will help me to make another lesson plan based on previous lesson plan. If the formative assessment shows that pupils are still lack of knowledge on this lesson, teacher always teach the same lesson but with a different approach. In formative assessment the teacher uses this evidence to shape teaching, adapting teaching to meet student needs based on information about student reasoning and understanding (Black & Wiliam, 1998). Conclusion Textbook develop by Ministry of Education (MOE) consist the need of pupils in learning language as second language.

With the new technologies appear in printing, makes textbook become interesting and colorful. Textbooks are especially helpful for beginning teachers and pupils to learn about a new topic. The material to be covered and the design of each lesson are carefully spelled out in detail but not so burden to pupils and even able to relate with previous experience. Textbooks provide organized units of work. A textbook gives all the plans and lessons in order so that teacher and pupils struggle to learn. A good teacher able to modified the textbook relevant to their teaching in the classroom.

Don’t be to scare to modify the textbook. There are plenty excitement can be creating if a teacher knows how to plan a lesson based on the textbook. It is cannot be deny that teaching aids is the most crucial element in creating a fun and enjoyable teaching. The other part that should be considered is how teacher create the environment from these all teaching aids. What teacher needs to do is find the best teaching aids available. Referrences Book Brian Tomlinson. 2011. Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom. Jack C. Richards, Willy A. Renandya. 002. Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge University Press. United States Of America Ibraheem Saeed Al-Ja’afari 2009. Using Pictures in Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 5 and 6 Classrooms, Sharqiya South Region Web http://www. preservearticles. com/201105236971/classification-of-teaching-aids. html http://nectfl. net/reviewarticles/62-allen. pdf http://textbookuse. pbworks. com/f/Why%2Buse%2Btextbooks. pdf http://hub. hku. hk/bitstream/10722/51780/6/FullText. pdf? accept=1 http://ebookbrowse. com/mckeachie-wj-svinicki-m-teaching-tips-2006-pdf-d370459980

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