Throughout history. there have been many autochthonal folks. However. one of the most known folk has been the Mayans. The Mayans were one time one of the most dominant autochthonal societies of Mesoamerica. They are a singular group that sparks many people’s wonder. They have an interesting civilization and cryptic historical background. Their historical background is best characterized as rhythms of rise and autumn. A batch of accomplishments were made and city states rose in prominence. but fell into diminution and replaced by others.
Originating in the Yucatan Peninsula and contemporary Guatemala. they covered Belize. parts of Mexican provinces of Tabasco and Chiapas. and the western portion of Honduras and El Salvador. The topography of the countries varied from volcanic mountains. which consisted of the Highlandss in the South. to a porous limestone shelf. known as the Lowlandss. in the Central and Northern parts. The Lowlandss produced harvests which were used for their ain personal ingestion. the rule cultigens being maize.
The volcanic upland was the beginning of obsidian. jade. and other cherished metals like the cinnabar and haematite that they used to develop a lively trade. [ 1 ]
Culture was a really of import facet of Mayan life. Building on the thoughts of earlier civilisations. such as the Olmec. they developed uranology. calendrical systems. and hieroglyphic authorship. Their favourite manner to show their pride and spiritual devotedness was to construct many temples. pyramids. and edifice that would all organize big metropoliss. The Mayan workers who constructed these homes frequently decorated the walls with many images and symbols that would state anything from a person’s life to an of import spiritual belief or narrative. [ 2 ]
The of import finds. anticipations. and promotions of the Maya were really of import. but the most absorbing facet of the Maya doesn’t prevarication in their temples or pyramids or their hieroglyphics. it lies in their faith. And although the cosmogonic beliefs of the Maya are non to the full known. from what could be told. faith was the impulsive force of the Maya. With their polytheistic position. they based their lives. their edifices. and their whole being on delighting the Gods. To them. scientific discipline and faith were one in the same. Many work forces were sacrificed merely to delight the Gods. Many male monarchs gave their ain blood because they believed it would assist the harvest crop.
The Mayans who studied uranology believed that several Gods. who would do the twenty-four hours favourable or unfavourable. controlled each twenty-four hours. Priests made of import astronomical computations to demo which God ruled at which clip. The priests were besides the 1s who ordered the building of many temples and edifices. It is known that the Maya believed that the universe had three major planes. the Earth. the underworld beneath and the celestial spheres above. Their position of the hereafter consisted chiefly of a unsafe ocean trip of the psyche through the underworld. which was populated by sinister Gods and represented the panther. symbol of right. Majority of the Mayans ( including swayers ) went at that place. Heaven was preserved for those who had been sacrificed or died during childbearing. [ 3 ]
Despite all these promotions that took the work of many Mayans. the Mayans were ne’er truly united into one individual imperium. The Mayans were divided into many city states. each ruled by an elect household organized into a hierarchy. These royal households claimed decent from the Gods and were looked upon by the people as unchallenged. untouchable existences. Part of the Maya’s diminution was in portion to warring city states and households. Each city state had a centre of pyramids and other constructions for the public presentation of spiritual ceremonials and authorities activities. Basically. there were three chief categories. At the top was the royalty who lived in the castles. Next. was the affluent category who lived in big houses near the castles. Last. was the hapless category who lived in the outskirts of town in huts. The societal pyramid consisted of Priests – Nobles Wealthy – Commoners and Low Level Officers – Slaves and Servants. All of this contributed to the pride of the city state and its people. And associating to the opinion category is the Mayan societal construction. [ 4 ]
The history of the Maya is divided into three major clip periods: pre-classic ( two thousand BC – AD three hundred ) . authoritative ( AD three hundred – AD nine hundred ) . and post-classic ( AD nine hundred – AD 15 hundred ) . In the pre-classic epoch of Mayan history. maize was farmed and the early Mayans laid a base for their civilization. which was believed to hold been influenced by the Olmec Indians near-by. The really first hieroglyphics were written. and metropoliss started to look. The early Mayan economic system was based on agribusiness and the exchange of farm goods. It is estimated that every bit many as one hundred and fifty yearss out of the twelvemonth were free from farm labour. Using the clip off from farming. the Mayans reinforced magnificent metropoliss and temples to honour their many Gods. Some of their best creative activities include: the Caracol. an astronomical observatory in Chichen-Itza. the grave of Lord Pacal ( inside the Temple of the Inscriptions ) . the royal castle. which was used to look out for encroachers over the Usumacinta River. El Castillo. or the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl ( the feathered snake ) . and eventually the Temple of the Magician. which was rebuilt five times to follow the unit of ammunitions of the Mayan calendar every 50 two old ages. The great architecture was merely one of the many facets that made the Maya such an advanced civilisation.
The Maya reached their tallness in the authoritative period ( AD three hundred to AD nine hundred ) . Over one 100 metropoliss existed during this clip. and some of the most advanced included: Tikal. Uaxactun. Quirigua. Copan. Palenque. Uxmal. Kabah. Sayil. Labna. Etzna. Old Chichen. and Coba. All of these metropoliss served as cultural. spiritual. and religious centres for the Mayan people and swayers. Cities that flourished during the Authoritative period were located in current twenty-four hours Guatemala and were led by the big metropolis of Tikal. which had many pyramid-temples that rose over two 100 pess high. These pyramid-temples contained legion carved slates that acted as clip markers and reign recording equipments. When the Mayan imperium collapsed. these metropoliss. which can be compared to the city states of ancient Greece. collapsed besides and were lost from memory forever. Another portion of the Mayans civilization that made them far more advanced than most other ancient civilisations was the Mayans acquisition and their educational progresss. The Mayans recorded their history in hieroglyphics. a authorship system that used images and certain symbols.
Archeologists today are still seeking to decrypt the many hieroglyphics found on spiritual temples. stepss. and the walls of places and castles. Another educational progress was the development of an advanced mathematics system. This system was non perfected in Europe until centuries subsequently. This system contained the figure nothing. The Mayans besides developed a three hundred and 60 five twenty-four hours calendar that was modeled after the motion of the Sun. Moon. and stars. This calendar ( in the Mayans clip ) was the most accurate since the Gregorian calendar centuries before. The Mayans were to a great extent involved with uranology. Mayan uranologists calculated the motion of the Moon and the Sun. calculated the age of certain stars. and made many astronomical anticipations that would subsequently be proved to be merely old ages ( even months! ) away. Other mentionable facets of Mayan civilization included: the devising of fabrics out of cotton. and the production of paper out off tree bark. After the authoritative period ( AD three hundred – AD nine hundred ) most of the Maya started to worsen. Many of their metropoliss were war-worn. their harvests destroyed. and their civilisation in pandemonium. This epoch marked the beginning of the station authoritative period ( AD nine hundred – AD 15 hundred ) . During the station authoritative period. many civil wars plagued the Maya.
On top of that. the Toltec. a belligerent people took over Mayan metropoliss and made Chichen-Itza their capital. The Mayan civilization survived though. and shortly the Toltec were absorbed in Mayan civilisation. In AD 15 19. Hernando Cortez came to present twenty-four hours Mexico and took over the Maya. He defeated their ground forcess. conquered their metropoliss. and changed their civilization. He banned the old faith and tried to present the Mayans to Christianity. One of the Spanish bishops. Diego de Landa. ordered all Mayan texts burned. Merely four books survived and today are in museums. In AD fifteen-forty two. the Mayans were wholly in the custodies of the Spanish. The brilliant metropoliss were deserted and became overgrown with jungle and brush. and the most advanced civilisation in North American history disappeared after over two thousand old ages of laterality. [ 5 ]
Because of this cryptic disappearing. many would look to believe the Mayans themselves disappeared for good. But over six million Mayan people live in Guatemala. Belize. and Mexico today. The Maya clasp on to some of their old beliefs but have besides modernized in their attitude and patterns. Their modern life is slightly hard in that there are many Rebels and a authorities that they are caught between and see the worst of. The Maya civilization and lives are at jeopardy every twenty-four hours but they continue to be. Most Mayans today speak Spanish but back when their imperium was at its extremum they spoke Yucatecan and Cholan. These two have since developed into about 30 different linguistic communications and are heard throughout different communities today. Spanish is now considered the chief linguistic communication. nevertheless. and is used in their faith and authorities. Equally far as faith goes the Maya continue to partake in activities as the old Maya did. This has been combined. nevertheless. with some Catholicism. They continue to take part in rites merely as they did antecedently in the beginning of the Maya civilization but their old Gods have been replaced with Santos. The rites include giving and imbibing a certain type of alcoholic drink. The Maya are on a 260 twenty-four hours ritual calendar which is kept by a priest-doctor. or twenty-four hours keeper.
Healings of the ill and cursed besides occur in these modern civilisations. These ancient ways of the Maya take topographic point is caves and topographic points of the kind. The Maya civilization can be easy identified by their frock and can be farther broken down into different communities besides by their frock. Overall adult females normally wear certain forms or colourss depending on what community they originate from. Their blouses. called huipiles. are loose and hand-woven. They wear these to this twenty-four hours but may besides be found have oning a more modern western manner blouse. Men normally do non dress in traditional Mayan apparels because they could convey attending upon themselves and perchance be harmed. Womans are celebrated for their weavings in Mayan communities.
Work forces run the communities which includes taking on all fiscal duties for their full community. Equally far as vacations go the Maya celebrate largely the basic Christian vacation. Christmas is one of the chief 1s along with a hebdomad of jubilation referred to as “Holy Week” which is the hebdomad prior to Easter. Other interesting facts about the Maya include their new patterns. Soccer is now a common athletics among these people and they love to play. They can be found listening to a mariachi set on a Sunday at a park. Schooling among the Maya is normally in public or Catholic schools. Mayans who wish to foster their instruction will go to embarkation schools. The Maya are a really interesting group of people but are get downing to lose touch with their history and ancient ways of life. [ 6 ]
So while even today the disappearing of the Mayans from Tikal stands as a great enigma. it should be no enigma on whether or non the whole Mayan civilisation still exists or non. To state that they disappeared is non merely an inaccuracy. but a great ill service to the Maya today. And while they may non travel on in the manner they had one time earlier. they still exist.
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“A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya [ Paperback ] . ” A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya: David Freidel. Linda Schele: 9780688112042: Amazon. com: Books. .
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“Politics of the Ancient Maya. ” About. com Latin American History. .
“Maya Social Structure. ” Tarlton Law Library. Web. .
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[ 1 ] “Mayan Geography. ” ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation. .
[ 2 ] “Caribbeanedu. com | Caribbean Odyssey. ” Caribbeanedu. com | Caribbean Odyssey. Web. 03 Nov. 2012. . [ 3 ] “Mayan Religion. ” – ReligionFacts. .
[ 4 ] “Politics of the Ancient Maya. ” About. com Latin American History. Web. : “Maya Social Structure. ” Tarlton Law Library. Web. .
[ 5 ] “Mayan History. ” Mayan History. . [ 6 ] “The Maya Today. ” The Maya Today. .
“We are non myths of the yesteryear. ruins in the jungle or menagerie. We are people and we want to be respected. non to be victims of intolerance and racism. ” –Rigoberta Mench’u Tum. victor of the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize.
Cite this Mayan Civilization Sample
Mayan Civilization Sample. (2017, Aug 03). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/mayan-civilization-essay-sample-essay/