Physiological needs – Which include hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs 2. Safety needs – Which include security and protection from physical and emotional harm. 3. Social needs – Which include affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 4. Esteem needs – Which include Internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention. 5.
Self Actualization ; Refers to the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, which includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment ERG Theory of Clayton Alder In motivating people, we are confronted by three sets of needs: existence (E), elatedness (R), and growth (G).
1 . Existence -? this refers to needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions. 2. Relatedness – this refers to the needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships. 3.
Growth – this refers to the needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions. Acquired Needs Theory of David L. McClellan 1. Need for achievement – this refers to the desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.
2. Need for affiliation – which refers to the desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. 3. Need for power – which refers to the desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others.
McClellan believed that the foregoing needs are acquired over time as a result of life experiences. Two-Factor Theory of Frederick Herbert 1. Job Context “Hygiene Factors”- as a source of dissatisfaction. Job context or work setting relates more to the environment in which people work. O Organizational policies o Quality of supervision o Working condition Relationship with peers Improving any of the hygiene factors will not make people satisfied with their work; it will only prevent them from being dissatisfied. 2.
Job content “Motivator Factors” – as a source of Job satisfaction. The Job content relates more to what people actually do in their work. O Achievement o Recognition o Work itself o Responsibility o Advancement o Growth When the foregoing factors are not present, there is low Job satisfaction among workers and there is lack of motivation to perform. Process Theories – explain how people act in response to the wants and needs that hey have. 1. Expectancy Theory of Victor Broom 2. Equity Theory of J. Stacey Adams 3. Goal Setting Theory of Edwin A.
Locke This theory sees people as choosing a course of action according to what they anticipate will give them the greatest rewards. Motivation is a product of the following factors: 1. Valence – how much one wants a reward. 2. Expectancy – one’s estimate of the probability that effort will result in successful performance. 3. Instrumentality – one’s estimate that performance will result in receiving the reward. Expectancy theory predicts that motivation will be high if all the here factors are rated high. Conversely, the lower the rate for any or all of the three factors, the lower the motivation becomes.
Equity Theory of J. Stacey Adams It may be defined as a theory that individuals compare Job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate inequities. Equity theory assumes that employees are motivated by a desire to be equitably treated at work. Equity exist when employees perceive that the ratios of their inputs (or efforts) to their outputs (or rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of other employees. Inequity exists when Hess ratios are not equivalent. Goal Setting Theory of Edwin A.
Locke It may be defined as the theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback lead to higher performance. A goal is the specific target that an individual is trying to achieve. 1. Specific goals lead too higher performance than generalized goals. 2. Performance generally increases in direct proportion to goal difficulty. Goals that are difficult to achieve is regarded as a challenge to the ability of the person. Exceptions, if goals are too difficult, and the person gets frustrated rather than inspired. 3. For locals to improve performance, they must be accepted by the workers.
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