The cell is the smallest living unit in the human body, and all cells need specific parts to function. Some of these cell parts are called organelles. The outer wall of an animal cell is called the cell membrane. It is called membrane because it allows certain materials to pass through in or out of the cell. Plant cells have cell walls, because it doesn’t allow materials to move in or out. Like any unit of life, cells also need energy. The mitochondria are often called the powerhouse of the cell.
Nutrients are broken down inside the mitochondria to produce energy that powers the rest of the cell. The part of the cell that helps make proteins is called ribosome. They connect amino acids together to create protein. These proteins are an essential part of our DNA. The Golgi bodies have more than one job. They provide and store energy for the cell. The energy come from complex molecules that the Golgi bodies build from smaller, simple molecules. They also build lysosomes.
Lysosomes contain enzymes that break down food into smaller particles. If food doesn’t enter the cell, lysosomes will digest other organelles to keep the cell alive. If organelles produce waste that can contaminate the rest of the cell vacuoles are needed. Vacuoles are bubbles inside the cell where materials can be stored. Nutrients and other material need a way to travel around a cell. The superhighway that does this job is called endoplasmic reticulum or E. R. The E. R. is a collection of membranes that allow materials to travel around the cell. Another way materials move around the cell is through the cytoplasm.
The most important part of the cell is the nucleus. It is the brain of the cell which controls the activity inside the cell and contains the cell’s DNA. The nucleoplasm is the protoplasm in the nucleus that also contains DNA. And the nucleolus is also found in the nucleus and it contains RNA.