Introduction Leadership, a critical management skill, is the ability to motivate a group of people toward a common goal. These items will help you develop your skills as a leader. What is Personal Development Planning PDP is defined as: A structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development. Section 28 Guidelines for HE Progress Files) ‘Development is always self-development. Nothing could be more absurd than for an enterprise to assume responsibility for the development of a person’ (Peter Drucker) What are the benefits of PDP? (Section 34-36, Guidelines for HE Progress Files, 2001).
PDP processes are designed to improve the capacity of individuals to understand what and how they are learning, and to review, plan and take responsibility for their own learning. PDP will help leaders: integrate their personal and academic development and improve their capacity to plan their own academic programmes; •be more effective in monitoring and reviewing their own progress; •be more aware of how they are learning and what different teaching and learning strategies are trying to achieve; •recognise and discuss their own strengths and weaknesses; •identify opportunities for learning and personal development outside the curriculum; •be better prepared for seeking employment or self-employment and be more able to relate what they have learnt to the requirements of employers; •be better prepared for the demands of continuing professional or vocational development when they enter employment.
Leadership skills assessment using capacity matrix “Changing the way we assess leadership” (Marry, Jo Hall) Leadership skills and competencies •personal learning •establishing direction •aligning people, system and resources •motivating and inspiring others •managing change The level of assessment of the existence of these skills are carried out by analysing three related aspects (Langford, 1995) •Knowledge •Know-how •Wisdom Capacity Matrix OutcomeCompetenciesKnowledgeKnow-how Wisdom
LeadershipPersonal learningUnderstanding basic information about leadershipPractice more on basic information acquired to gain competence and experienceGain competence to be distinct proper utilise Establishing directionResearching available options to develop skillsUnderstanding between skills and job acquired and use knowledgeUsing acquired skills to attain goals Aligning people, systems and resourcesGathering information about people, systems and resources to assess the systemWho will benefit most – making selection and attain goalsGetting benefits by interacting, using people, systems and resources. Motivating and inspiring othersHow to motivate? Handle different situation When, where to motivate?
Becoming a role model to motivate others Managing changeBasic knowledge of components, assess changesHow to use them, affect of changesActually using them. Using different techniques. SWOT analysis SWOT analysis can be used in any situation. Strength Leadership skills ACCA qualification Problem solving skills Good formal presentation Experience in service industry Managerial experience IT skillsWeaknesses Overconfident No consistancy Weak of technical knowledge Opportunities MBA degree Chief accountant Auditor Consultancy firm Higher position in a company Chance to develop leadership skillsThreats Qualification not achieved No vacancy for chief accountant
Tough competition in services market In competition might lose big clients Competition from fellow college graduates PEST analysis SWOT is an infinitely flexible framework, which is made easier to apply when PEST is used to review and shortlist external factors and to review and prioritise internal factors. PEST stands for Political, Environmental, Sociological and Technological factors. Political factors These refer to government policy such as the degree of intervention in the economy. What goods and services does a government want to provide? To what extent does it believe in subsidising firms? What are its priorities in terms of business support?
Political decisions can impact on many vital areas for business such as the education of the workforce. Government policies can interfere the professional’s qualification, or in consistency of government can make problems for services sector. Economic factors. These include interest rates, taxation changes, economic growth, inflation and exchange rates. If the economy is not growing and inflation starts to rise, it can effect on individual jobs and companies may be liquidated and a lot of professionals may become redundant. Social factors Changes in social trends can impact on the demand for a firm’s products and the availability and willingness of individuals to work.
New clients will not attract in my firm because they are loyal to their consultancy firms. My firm may not provide quality services. Technological factors Technological factors include ecological and environmental aspects, such as R activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological change. If any firm fails to implement new technology changes, it will not possible to survive in the market. Individual and firms need to be implemented technological changes so they can utilise to achieve their objectives. 1. 2 Establishment of future goals The goals can be established using SMART criteria. SMART criteria is Specific Goals should be straightforward and emphasize what you want to happen.
Specifics help us to: •Focus efforts •Clearly define what to be done Measurable If a goal can’t be measured, it can’t be managed. In the broadest sense, the whole goal statement is a measure for the plan; if the goal is accomplished, there is a success. Attainable A goal needs to stretch you slightly so you feel you can do it and it will need a real commitment from you. The feeling of success which this brings helps you to remain motivated. Realistic This is not a synonym for “easy. ” Realistic, in this case, means “do-able. ” It means that the skills needed to do the work are available Timely Set a timeframe for the goal: for next week, in three months, by fifth grade.
Putting an end point on your goal gives you a clear target to work towards. Short term gaols Short term goals lead to an individual to attain long term goals. Completion of ACCA will give me a chance to start my career as a professional accountant in an organisation. Professional qualification gives an advantage to work on higher post within a company. The other short term goal is complete Pgd in strategic management and leadership. This qualification will give me chance to work as manager in an organisation. Dual professional qualification will give me a chance to work as an active leader in an organisation. Medium term gaols Medium term gaols can establish and achieve within three years.
The achievement of medium term goals make possible to achieve long term goals. My ACCA qualification will help me to promote on chief accountant. This position can give me big responsibilities and active member of the organisation. ACCA can help me to work as an auditor in different company to gain some audit experience. Auditors can earn big salaries from their work. As an auditor I can perform my work independently. Long term goals Long term goals take 3-10 years to achieve. This is most important in PDP to establish long term goals so individual makes effort to achieve the long term objectives. Experience as an accountant and auditor will give me a chance to start my consultancy firm.
It will bring more satisfaction and profit into firm. Once the firm will be established and then it will be able to provide quality services in competitive market can bring more big clients and profit. All of the above goals are specific, measurable, attainable, and realistic and can achieve within a time frame. 1. 3 Identification and enumeration of specific Actions to achieve your goals There are following actions has taken achieve those goals GoalsAction1 Action2 Courses/trainings program ACCA qualification Attending classes, Fees and time to complete qualification ACCA / college PGD in strategic manager and leadership and MBA Time off to complete professional degree
Use managerial techniques at work placePGD, MBA/ university Chief accountant Show performance at individual level Provide professional advice to top management about financial issuesIn house training Auditor Work with auditors to gain experience Give independent opinion on financial reportsACCA/ audit company Open consultancy firmHigh professional experience and professional approach to give adviceFinance and experienced staff to start own firmExperience in different organisation/ provide in house training Providing competitive servicesProvide quality services Attract big clients, compete in the marketGood reputation in the market 1. 4 communicating plan
Finding appropriate mentors for your best performers doesn’t have to be overly complicated. Mentors do not necessarily have to be a part of your group or business unit. In fact, mentors outside the organization may have broader perspectives. Some organizations have established mentoring programs for high-potential employees. These programs pair individuals with experts who are willing to guide them in meeting certain work challenges and in defining a career path. It is important to make people (mentor, department head and colleagues) know what is going on. It’s demoralizing to hear about what’s happening where you work from someone who is from outside the system.
Communication is a two way process: speaking and listening. Speaking about the personal development plan, what goals have been selected in view of smart criteria and what action have been taken to achieve those goals in a very precise manner is very important. And more important is the feedback relevant to the settings and outcomes of the personal development plan. •Share your plan and seek feedback •Discussing the target set and how those are achievable. •Discuss plan with your mentor in person, using internet or on the phone. The most importantly, mentor should be the person who is a competent person. Feedback should be attained and personal development plant should be revised where appropriate. Discuss plan with your Department Head in person, if possible. Feedback provided will be of utmost importance relevant to the progress in the career. 1. 5 implements the PDP Implementation the personal development plan is to putting into action the action plans to achieve the goals and at the end of this exercise it should be made clear that whether: The plan actually worked and if so then to what extent and which areas needs more attention and consideration. To achieve the professional qualification resources (finance, time, cooperation of management) require. The implementation problem could be fail to achieve the qualification because of time management or difficult to become a professional.
If an employee show performance and achieve all tasks then there may be chances for him to be promoted at higher position. To become chief accountant I need to show performance and quality work at individual level. The possible implementation could be there is tough competition between other accountants. Use of the ACCA qualification to become an auditor needs experience in this field. The change of field can become leaning problems sometimes. Resources are required to start own business, the resources are finance, experienced staff and market. Possible problems could be I might fail to manage finance or big companies will not let me enter into market. 1. Review and monitor the progress of the PDP Like any strategy for growth, PDPs must be managed and monitors to yield results. Review is very important to assess the progress of PDP. This should be done in a positive spirit. Performance indicators give idea to individual where did he well, and where he went wrong. It tells how often an individual meet deadline to achieve the targets, feedback received from others In terms of reviewing PDP, use quantitative techniques by making achievement graphs, setting deadlines & constantly reviewing the goals. By doing this I can easily and regularly monitor my progress. Section 2. 1 Health and safety in an organisation
Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goal of all occupational safety and health programs is to foster a safe work environment.  As a secondary effect, it may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities, and other members of the public who are impacted by the workplace environment. In the UK, health and safety legislation is drawn up and enforced by the Health and Safety Executive and local authorities (the local council) under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974.
Increasingly in the UK the regulatory trend is away from prescriptive rules, and towards risk assessment. Recent major changes to the laws governing asbestos and fire safety management embrace the concept of risk assessment. The main current legislations are: –Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (2002) –Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 –Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (often referred to as the Workplace Regulations) –Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 –Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 –Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 Factories Act 1961 (since completely superseded by the 1992 Regulations The main purposes of health and safety laws and regulations are to ensure that people have a safe and healthy working environment and that, as far as possible, accidents can be prevented. •Under this legislation, employers have a legal duty of care towards their employees, customers, suppliers and visitors as well as themselves. •In practice, this means that employers are required to provide a safe and healthy working environment, and also, make sure that the services they provide or the products they make are safe. •Effective health and safety — safe workplace, safe working practices, safe equipment and so on — has to be influenced top down, throughout the organisation. In other words, once the staff knows what is required of them it is their responsibility to do it, but it has to be the responsibility of senior management to develop health and safety policies and programmes, and to make sure that these are effective. BS 8800 offers an organisation the opportunity to review and revise its current occupational health and safety arrangement against a standard that has been developed by industry. It is equally applicable to small organisation as to large, complex organisations. The aim of the standard are to improve the occupational health and safety performance of organisation by providing guidance on how management of occupational health and safety may be integrated with the management of other aspects if the business performance in order to: •Minimise risk to employees and others •Improve business performance Assist organisation to establish a responsible image in the workplace In any review of an organisation’s current health and safety management system, BS 8800 recommends the following •Requirements of relevant legislation dealing with occupational health and safety management issues •Existing guidance on occupational health and safety management within the organisation •Best practice and performance in the organisation’s employment sector and other appropriate sectors •Efficiency and effectiveness of existing resources devoted to occupational health and safety management The organisation should make arrangements to cover the following area, I. Overall plans and objectives, including personal and resources, for the organisation to achieve its policy II. Have or have to access to sufficient occupational health and safety knowledge, skills and experience to manage its activities safely and in accordance with legal requirements III. Operational plans to implement arrangements to control risks identified and to meet the requirements identified IV. Planning for operational control activities V.
Planning for performance measurement, corrective action, audits and management reviews VI. Implementing corrective actions to shown to be necessary. Using the above approach a manager can establish and manage a safe and healthy organisation Section 2. 2 Total quality management Total quality management (TQM) is a technique that can be pursued by firms to ensure that they meet their customers’ needs. “TQM is a management approach for an organization, centred on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society. ” ISO 8402:1994 Integrating TQM into the Strategy of an Organisation Develop a shared vision and mission for the organisation –Develop the ‘mission’ into its critical success factors (CSFs) to coerce and move it forward –Define the key performance outcomes as being the quantifiable indicators of success in terms of the mission and CSFs –Understand the core processes and gain process sponsorship –Break down the core processes into sub processes, activities and tasks and form improvement teams around these –Ensure process and people alignment through a policy deployment or goal translation process Total quality management (TQM) has continued to develop as a strategic business improvement approach in organisations and within the Operations Management literature. Strategic TQM is a dynamic phenomenon, reflecting the complexity and technology development in the business environment. Therefore, this conception of TQM has led to significant challenges with regards to developing suitable models and research methodology where traditional, and normative research data, includes survey responses associated with deductive theory and testing. Such data, and its use, is often premised on cause and effect rationality and fails to supply deep rich data to address meanings, phenomena and complex socio-political events, which is a feature of strategic TQM.
The establishment if performance indicator in a TQM exercise will set hoped offer standards against which actually achieved standards against which actually achieved standards of performance can be compared. TQM standards are set ambitiously to improve processes, so it is likely that most reported variance will be adverse. This should not be taken as reflecting badly on the employees responsible. There is a danger of employee becoming de-motivated and just giving up if they believe that their efforts are being criticised in the adverse variances. Sensitive management efforts will be able to encourage the employees into even greater efforts in the next reporting period.
For a good a strategy in an organisation there should be commitment to the TQM program is therefore vital, from each employee from the top of the bottom of the company. Each employee will be taking responsibility for the quality of work that they do. If senior manager are seen uncommitted to the program, it is unlikely even to get off the ground. Refernces ACCA Business analysis P3 Adair, J. (2006). Effective Leadership Development; CIPD. Adair, J. (2007). How to Grow Leaders: The seven principles of effective leadership development; Kogan Page. Cartwright, R. , Collins, M. , Green, G. & Candy, A. (1998). Managing Yourself – A competence approach to supervisory management; Blackwell Business. Cottrell, S. (2003).
Skills for Sucess: The Personal Development Planning Handbook; Palgrave. Hall, M. -J. (1997). Changing the way we assess leadership Acquisition Review Quarterly Oakland, J. (2003). Total Quality Management: Text with cases; Butterworth Heinemann. Stranks, J. (2003). A Managers Guide to Health and Safety at Work; Kogan Page. Taylor, D. & Edge, D. (1997). Personal development plans: unlocking the future. Career Development International, 2: 21-23 www. businessballs. com/pestanalysisfreetemplate. htm www. businessballs. com/pestanalysis dissertations. ub. rug. nl/faculties/management/2001/z. zhang/ www. greatleadershipbydan. com/2008/01/leadership-development-for-players. html
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