Philippine Contemporary Problems and Issues POVERTY – The state of being extremely poor. – The state of being inferior in quality or insufficient in amount. Causes of Poverty 1. Rapid Population Growth As the Philippines has financially limited resources and a high poverty rate, the rapid increase in population has become a problem because there is already insufficient resources to support the population, which leaves much fewer resources to improve the economy. From 2003 to 2006, even though the Philippines experienced above-average economic growth, the poverty incidence actually increased as a result of its population growth rate. . Weakness in employment generation and the quality of jobs generated The failure to sustain a high level of economic growth also explains the unavailability of jobs in the country. Without job opportunities, people will not be able to earn incomes and are vulnerable to poverty. 3. Low to moderate economic growth Economic growth is a necessary precondition for poverty reduction, but the quality of that growth is important, and not all growth is pro-poor. The Philippines empirical record demonstrates that the poverty headcount declines when the growth rate of average family income is higher than the rate of inflation. . Failure to fully develop the agriculture sector The failure of export-oriented industrialization strategy in the Philippines in the 1980s resulted in a new policy thrust called the “Balanced Agro-Industrial Development Strategy (BAIDS). ” It had basic features of import substitution, export expansion, diversification of agricultural products, increased private sector participation, diminished government control and increased foreign investments. 5. High and persistent levels of inequality Inequitable distribution of income and its persistence over the years is another reason for poverty in the Philippines.
High levels of inequality were recorded for the past 20–25 years, which in turn have weakened the already-moderate economic growth. 6. Recurrent shocks and exposure to risks such as economic crisis, conflicts and natural disasters •Social conflicts prevent people from pursuing their livelihoods and economic activities as they are displaced from their homes and places of work. •The geographic location of the Philippines makes it susceptible to natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, environmental degradation, tropical cyclones, and flooding.
MALNUTRITION – can also be defined as the insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients. Several different nutrition disorders may develop, depending on which nutrients are lacking or consumed in excess. KINDS ?Undernutrition (subnutrition) – occurs when an individual does not consume enough food. It may exist if the person has a poor diet that gives them the wrong balance of basic food groups. ?Overnutrition – Obese people, who consume more calories than they need, may suffer from the subnutrition aspect of malnutrition if their diet lacks the nutrients their body needs for good health.
Causes of malnutrition? Malnutrition, the result of a lack of essential nutrients, resulting in poorer health, may be caused by a number of conditions or circumstances. In many developing countries long-term (chronic) malnutrition is widespread – simply because people do not have enough food to eat. In more wealthy industrialized nations malnutrition is usually caused by: •Poor diet – if a person does not eat enough food, or if what they eat does not provide them with the nutrients they require for good health, they suffer from malnutrition. Poor diet may be caused by one of several different factors.
If the patient develops dysphagia(swallowing difficulties) because of an illness, or when recovering from an illness, they may not be able to consume enough of the right nutrients. •Mental health problems – some patients with mental health conditions, such as depression, may develop eating habits which lead to malnutrition. Patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia may develop malnutrition because they are ingesting too little food. •Mobility problems – people with mobility problems may suffer from malnutrition, simply because they either cannot get out enough to buy foods, or find preparing them too arduous. Digestive disorders and stomach conditions – some people may eat properly, but their bodies cannot absorb the nutrients they need for good health. Examples include patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Such patients may need to have part of the small intestine removed (ileostomy). Individuals who suffer from Celiac disease have a genetic disorder that makes them intolerant to gluten. Patients with Celiac disease have a higher risk of damage to the lining of their intestines, resulting in poorer food absorption.
Patients who experience serious bouts of diarrhea and/or vomiting may lose vital nutrients and are at higher risk of suffering from malnutrition. •Alcoholism – an alcoholic is a person who suffers from alcoholism – the body is dependent on alcohol. Alcoholism is a chronic (long-term) disease. Individuals who suffer from alcoholism can develop gastritis, or pancreas damage. These problems also seriously undermine the body’s ability to digest food, absorb certain vitamins, and produce hormones which regulate metabolism.
Alcohol contains calories, reducing the patient’s feeling of hunger, so he/she consequently may not eat enough proper food to supply the body with essential nutrients. Preventing malnutrition Malnutrition is caused mainly by not consuming what the National Health Service (NHS), UK, calls “the right balance of nutrients from major food groups”. These include: •Carbohydrates •Fruit and vegetables •Protein •Dairy – vegans are able to find abundant nutrients from non-animal sources (see: The Vegan Diet) •Fats
CRIME – An action or omission that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by the state and is punishable by law. YearIndex CrimesNon-index CrimesTotal Crimes PhilippinesNational Capital Region (NCR)Outside NCRPhilippinesNational Capital Region (NCR)Outside NCRPhilippinesNational Capital Region (NCR)Outside NCR 200148. 578. 044. 149. 568. 146. 798. 0146. 190. 9 200254. 690. 649. 252. 496. 046. 0106. 9186. 695. 2 200352. 197. 045. 650. 1103. 042. 3102. 2200. 187. 9 200451. 190. 945. 341. 475. 736. 492. 5166. 681. 7 200551. 690. 046. 138. 469. 034. 090. 0158. 980. 1 200647. 89. 041. 734. 178. 527. 582. 0167. 569. 2 200741. 880. 136. 132. 675. 626. 272. 9155. 862. 3 200840. 481. 934. 533. 573. 027. 873. 9154. 962. 4 2009327. 1359. 3322. 6217. 9164. 1225. 5545. 0523. 4548. 1 2010218. 0233. 8215. 8208. 0 Solutions to Lowering the Crime Rate Community Policing •An adequate amount of police officers need to be available and officers should be redeployed when necessary to prevent murders, rapes and aggravated assaults. New community police and state and local law enforcement agencies need to be invested in to make a dent in lowering the crime rate.
By working in the same neighborhoods every day, police officers can develop real ties to the community, fix problems in the neighborhoods and form partnerships in order to prevent crime. Drug Violence •Armed drug traffickers, gang members and violent youth need to be stopped. Fund antidrug efforts to educate youth about the dangers of drug use and to treat nonviolent offenders. Comprehensive drug testing should be performed by the state. Sexual Offenders •Sexually violent offenders must register with state officials upon release from prison. It is important to have measures in place to follow up on the offenders after release.
Domestic Violence •These three actions help reduce domestic violence incidents: Set up 24-hour hotlines for domestic violence victims, fund women’s shelters and prosecute domestic violence offenders. Using Statistics and Prediction •Police officers can estimate future crimes using intelligence and can implement predictive crime analysis, data mining and reporting. Environment •According to Kathy Wolf, Ph. D. , at the Center for Urban Horticulture, crime levels are lower in residential neighborhoods and poor inner-city neighborhoods where green areas exist.
Green areas promotes a greater sense of safety, civilities and nonaggressive behaviors that deter crime and create healthier and safer urban communities. DELINQUENCY – Minor crime, esp. that committed by young people Classification of Delinquency •Social Delinquents – youth who hate the authority specially those who have control of their behavior. They are always in conflict with what is right and does it with friends. •Neurotic Delinquents – a youth who always acts alone by internalizing his/her own conflicts and is largely preoccupied with his/her own feelings.
He/she suffers insecurity in life. •Asocial Delinquents – a youth who acts as cold, brutal and vicious quality for which he/she does not feel anything. •Accidental Delinquents – a youth who has an identifiable character but happens to be at the wrong place and time to commit delinquency. Causes of Behavior Disorders ?Social Factors ?Personal Problems ?Necessity ?Imitation ?Curiosity ?Ignorance ?Disease (Mental & Psychology) Importance Needs of Youth ?Acceptance ?Security ?Faith ?Independence ?Guidance ?Control ?Love