The chemical component K is a soft, light, silver white metal. It is a member of the alkali metals, a group ( IA of the periodic tabular array ) with similar physical and chemical belongingss. Its chemical symbol is K ( from kalium, the Latinized version of the Arabic word for “ alkali ” ) . Its atomic figure is 19, and its atomic weight is 39.098.
Potassium was foremost made from potassium hydroxide, or K carbonate ( K ( 2 ) CO ( 3 ) ) , which had of import industrial utilizations in glass industry good before 1700. ( It was frequently mistaken for Na carbonate, or sodium carbonate. Merely their different beginnings prevented entire confusion, potassium hydroxide being originally derived from the ashes of vegetable stuffs, whereas Na carbonate is most frequently found as a mineral. ) On Oct. 6, 1807, Sir Humphry Davy connected a piece of solid potassium hydroxide to the poles of a battery and caused the release of a metal at the negative pole. He named the metal K and determined many of its physical and chemical belongingss.
Alkali metals are the most reactive metals. In general, their responsiveness additions with addition in atomic size. Because of their negatron agreement and comparatively big size and little charge, K atoms are contributing to ion formation merely by ionic bonds.
Potassium is indispensable to life. Involved in active conveyance, the procedure of traveling substances in and out of cells, it constitutes about 0.06 % of the atoms in the human organic structure. Whereas Na ions are found chiefly in intercellular fluids, approximately 99 % of the organic structure ’ s K lies within the cells. Together, these ions help to modulate cellular osmotic force per unit area and sourness, or pH, degrees. Potassium plays a cardinal function in musculus activity and the transmittal of nervus urges. It is besides involved in cellular enzyme maps. An abnormally low degree of K in blood serum causes cardiac abnormalcies, and an abnormally high degree leads to a bosom onslaught. Such alterations in degree, controlled by the kidneys, can ensue from assorted diseases. Potassium is present in most nutrient su
bstances, so a potassium-deficient diet is improbable.
Potassium is produced in research lab sums by electrolytic decrease of amalgamate K hydrated oxide ( KOH ) or fused K chloride ( KCl ) . Other methods include electrolysis of amalgamate K nitrile ( KCN ) , heating K chloride ( KCl ) with metallic Ca in a vacuity and condensing the K as it is formed, and heating K hydrated oxide ( KOH ) with Fe, aluminium, or Mg. Because commercial K utilizations are most frequently besides satisfied by more easy recovered Na, merely modest sums of K are produced. One industrial method uses Na vapour to cut down liquefied K chloride at 880 grades C. The K vapour formed is drawn away and condensed.
Potassa potassium hydroxide, from English potassium hydroxide ]
First appeared circa 1807: a silvery-white soft light low-melting univalent metallic component of the alkali metal group that occurs copiously in nature clairvoyance. combined in minerals
Dutch potassa ‘ potash ’
Soft, waxlike, silvery-white, metallic component, symbol K ( Latin kalium ) , atomic figure 19, comparative atomic mass 39.0983. It is one of the alkali metals and has a really low denseness? it floats on H2O, and is the 2nd lightest metal ( after Li ) . It oxidizes quickly when exposed to air and reacts violently with H2O. Of great copiousness in the Earth ’ s crust, it is widely distributed with other elements and found in salt and mineral sedimentations in the signifier of K aluminum silicates.
Potassium is the chief base ion of the fluid in the organic structure ’ s cells. Along with Na, it is of import to the electrical potency of the nervous system and, hence, for the efficient operation of nervus and musculus. Deficit, which may happen with inordinate fluid loss ( drawn-out diarrhea, purging ) , may take to muscular palsy ; potassium overload may ensue in cardiac apprehension. It is besides required by workss for growing. The component was discovered and named in 1807 by English chemist Humphry Davy, who isolated it from potassium hydroxide in the first case of a metal being isolated by electric current.