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Reaction Time And Energy Drinks Biology

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This drawn-out essay is an probe into reaction times in males and females and how they were affected by Red Bull. The research inquiry was “ How important is the decrease in reaction clip due to imbibing Red Bull, in males as compared to females between the ages of 16-17. ”

To reply this, a simple experiment was carried out to obtain the necessary informations. The swayer bead trial was conducted utilizing a group of 20 topics ( 10 male and 10 female ) .

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The reaction times of the topics before and after imbibing Red Bull were so calculated utilizing the consequences from the swayer bead trial and the expression T = a?s ( 2d /a ) . The average information was so analysed utilizing the T-Test to see how important the difference in reaction clip was before and after imbibing Red Bull. This revealed that even though reaction times in males reduced after ingestion of Red Bull, the decrease was non important. Female topics showed greater lessenings in reaction clip after imbibing Red Bull even though on mean their reaction times were slower than male reaction clip.

The T-Test showed that in females there was a important difference in reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull. Finally the mean decreases in reaction clip for both males and females were compared utilizing the T-test, which revealed that there was a important difference in male and female decreases in reaction clip. This leads to the decision that between the ages of 16-17, Red Bull merely significantly reduces reaction clip in females and non in males.

Introduction

Research Question

“ How important is the decrease in reaction clip due to intake of Red Bull, in males as compared to females between the ages of 16-17. ”

“ It gives you wings ” this is the motto for Red Bull, a popular energy drink. The slogan suggests that Red Bull improves one ‘s overall public presentation. Chemical reaction clip is one of the physical properties affected by Red Bull. I wanted to look into Red Bull ‘s consequence on reaction clip and measure whether Red Bull truly does “ give you wings ” . Reaction clip is the clip taken to react to any given stimulation. The better the reaction clip, the less it is. Fast reactions are utile in many state of affairss, for case avoiding another auto whilst drive, catching a falling glass and even in athletics.

Previous research into reaction clip has found that Males and females by and large have different reaction times with females unluckily holding slower mean times. ( Der and Deary, 2006 ) .

Energy Drinks are drinks that have a boosting or stimulating consequence. They are frequently advertised as public presentation enhancing, with betterments in watchfulness and reaction clip. Red Bull is likely the most outstanding energy drink. The active ingredients in Red Bull include: Glucose, Taurine, Glucuronolacton, Inosital, Niacin, D-Pantothenol ( Vitamin B5 ) , Pyridoxine HCL ( Vitamin B6 ) , Vitamin B12 and Caffeine. ( Further inside informations in appendix ii. ) . These chemicals affect the organic structure ‘s metabolic maps so that overall public presentation is enhanced.

My attack was experimental in which the Ruler Drop Test ( Coach, 1997 ) was used.

Hypothesis

I hypothesise that Red Bull will do a lessening in reaction clip in all topics. This is due to the ingredients contained in the drink. Taurine and caffeine are the two ingredients that affect the velocity of reaction most. Taurine improves nerve transmittal ; this means that motions made will be faster. Caffeine boosts epinephrine degrees which makes one more qui vive and hence more likely to react faster. Thus, I expect reaction clip to diminish in all topics. I besides hypothesise that the betterments in reaction clip will be more important in females as they by and large have a smaller organic structure mass significance that the active ingredients in Red Bull will hold more of an consequence.

Experiment

Trial Capable Choice

It was of import to do certain that the consequences from the experiment were every bit dependable as possible.

To make this I had to take trial topics ( participants in the experiment ) who were similar in age, strenuosity and how often they take energy drinks. I decided to utilize topics within the age scope of 16-17 as this is the age scope with the most people in my school and hence there was a larger trial topic scope. I had to maintain the ages similar because age was found to hold an consequence on reaction clip. ( Gorus et al. , 2008 ) Generally reaction clip decreases with age until a certain point where it begins to increase once more. I wanted topics who were similar in strenuosity because people who are more athletic are more likely to hold quicker reaction times than non-athletic people. ( Levitt and Gutin. , 1971 ) I besides needed topics who did n’t take Red Bull as often. It was assumed that people who take energy drinks often may develop opposition to its effects.

A questionnaire was used to place the topics that fit in with these standards. It was given to 40 people out of whom 10 males and 10 females were selected utilizing random sampling.

Preparation of Subjects

The trial topics had to be prepared before the experiment to determine that it was in fact the Red Bull that was impacting the topic ‘s reaction clip and non any other nutrient. The Red Bull was administered an hr after break clip. It was assumed that by this clip all nutrient ( if any ) would hold been digested. This was of import because the Red Bull has to be the lone substance ingested prior to the experiment to do certain that the consequences obtained are from the effects of Red Bull and non any other nutrient substance. Testing took topographic point 10 proceedingss after ingestion to give the active ingredients in the Red Bull plenty clip to be assimilated.

Procedure

The Ruler Drop Test was carried out utilizing the undermentioned method.

A swayer was held so that it was between the index finger and pollex of the topic ‘s stronger manus. The top of the topic ‘s pollex was kept in line with the nothing centimeter line on the swayer. The topic so tried to catch the swayer after it was let travel. The distance from the underside of the swayer to the top of the topic ‘s pollex was recorded. To better dependability of the consequences the experiment was repeated once more. It would be about impossible to manually enter the clip taken for person to catch a dropped swayer because this happens really rapidly. So to cipher the clip taken ( and therefore reaction clip ) the undermentioned expression was used.

T = a?s ( 2d /a )

This was derived from:

vitamin D = Vermont + A?atA? [ 11 ]

vitamin D is Distance measured in ( centimeter )

V is Initial speed which is zero

a is Acceleration due to gravity this a changeless value of 981cm/sA?

T is Time measured in seconds ( s )

Data Collection

The tabular arraies below show the consequences from the swayer bead trial conducted on 9.7.2010. It shows the distances that the swayer travelled before it was caught by the topics. The consequences before and after imbibing Red Bull were recorded. The experiment was repeated twice to better the dependability of the consequences.

Trial 1

Trial 2

Males

Females

Males

Females

Capable figure

Distance Before Drinking Red Bull +/-0.05 ( centimeter )

Distance After Drinking Red Bull +/-0.05 ( centimeter )

Distance Before Drinking Red Bull +/-0.05 ( centimeter )

Distance After Drinking Red Bull +/-0.05 ( centimeter )

Distance Before Drinking Red Bull +/-0.05 ( centimeter )

Distance After Drinking Red Bull +/-0.05 ( centimeter )

Distance Before Drinking Red Bull +/-0.05 ( centimeter )

1

16

13

16

9

9

6

12

2

15

14

15

17

12

8

9

3

5

9

30

17

7

5

17

4

8

9

22

11

8

5

13

5

15

11

18

12

6

7

15

6

12

7

19

19

10

7

11

7

6

7

15

11

9

8

16

8

14

8

17

10

11

6

10

9

7

6

14

12

5

8

12

10

14

17

14

10

13

15

15

Datas Processing

The natural information was processed to give the tabular arraies below. The values in ruddy show anomalousnesss, that is informations that is erroneous and/or unexpected, in this instance distances increasing after taking Red Bull and Reaction Time increasing after taking Red Bull. These values could be generated by an mistake in the informations aggregation or an mistake in the experiment. They are hence ignored when sing the significance.

The tabular arraies below show the deliberate reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull. Reaction times were calculated utilizing the distances obtained from the experiments which were so substituted into the expression. T = a?s ( 2d /a ) .

The tabular arraies besides show the difference in reaction clip which is the reaction clip after imbibing Red Bull, subtracted by the reaction clip before imbibing Red Bull. This was done so that that the betterment in reaction clip can be seen. Table ( 1.a ) shows the information from the 1st repetition and tabular array ( 1.b ) shows information from the 2nd repetition and Table ( 2 ) shows the mean of both repetitions. In this tabular array, most of the mistakes disappear as the mean uses the information from both sets of repetitions to demo an norm or tendency.

Examples:

Calculating Chemical reaction Time

A topic catches the swayer at 16.0 centimeter without imbibing Red Bull. The topic so catches the swayer at 13.0 centimeter after imbibing Red Bull. The clip taken for the topic to catch the swayer is worked out like this.

Distance before taking Red Bull= 16.0 centimeter

Formula: T = a?s ( 2d /a )

So

2×16.0= 32

32/981= 0.03262

a?s 0.03262= 0.18061

Therefore it took the capable 0.18061 seconds to catch the swayer before imbibing Red Bull.

Distance after taking Red Bull=13.0 centimeter

2×13.0= 26

26/981= 0.02650

a?s0.02650= 0.16280

Therefore it took the capable 0.16280 seconds to catch the swayer after imbibing Red Bull.

Calculating Difference

The topic ‘s Reaction clip before imbibing Red Bull is 0.18061 seconds and the topic ‘s reaction clip after imbibing Red Bull is 0.16280 seconds.

To happen the difference the topic ‘s reaction clip after imbibing Red Bull is subtracted by the Reaction clip before imbibing Red Bull to give: -0.01781.

In this illustration, the deliberate difference in reaction clip is negative. This shows that after imbibing Red Bull, the topic ‘s reaction clip improved by -0.01781 seconds.

Calculating the Mean

In the 2nd repetition of the experiment the topic catches the swayer at 9 centimeter before imbibing Red Bull and so catches the swayer at 6cm after imbibing Red Bull. The topic hence gets these reaction times:

Before imbibing Red Bull: 0.13546 sseconds.

After imbibing Red Bull: 0.11060 seconds.

The mean for reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull can be calculated, utilizing the values from the 1st and 2nd repetitions of the experiment.

Average reaction clip before imbibing Red Bull:

0.18061 + 0.13546= 0.31607

0.31607 / 2= 0.158035 seconds

Average reaction clip after imbibing Red Bull:

0.13546 + 0.11060= 0.24606

0.24606 / 2= 0.12303 seconds

The mean shows a more dependable value from both repetitions.

Table ( 1.a ) : Table of consequences from the first test of the experiment

Trial 1

A

A

A

A

A

Males

A

A

Females

A

A

Capable figure

Chemical reaction Time Before Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Chemical reaction Time After Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Difference In Reaction Time +/- ( s )

Chemical reaction Time Before Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Chemical reaction Time After Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Difference In Reaction Time ( s )

1

0.0058

0.0052

-0.00057

0.18061

0.13546

-0.04515

2

0.0056

0.0054

-0.00019

0.17487

0.18617

0.01129

3

0.0032

0.0043

0.0011

0.24731

0.18617

-0.06114

4

0.0041

0.0043

0.00025

0.21178

0.14975

-0.06203

5

0.0056

0.0048

-0.0008

0.19157

0.15641

-0.03515

6

0.005

0.0038

-0.00118

0.19681

0.19681

0

7

0.0035

0.0038

0.00028

0.17487

0.14975

-0.02512

8

0.0054

0.0041

-0.00132

0.18617

0.14278

-0.04338

9

0.0038

0.0035

-0.00028

0.16894

0.15641

-0.01253

10

0.0054

0.0059

0.00055

0.16894

0.14278

-0.02616

Table ( 1.b ) : Table of consequences from the first test of the experiment

Trial 2

A

A

A

A

A

Males

A

A

Female

A

A

Capable figure

Chemical reaction Time Before Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Chemical reaction Time After Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Difference In Reaction Time ( s )

Chemical reaction Time Before Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Chemical reaction Time After Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Difference In Reaction Time ( s )

1

0.13546

0.1106

-0.02486

0.15641

0.17487

0.01846

2

0.15641

0.12771

-0.0287

0.13546

0.11946

-0.016

3

0.11946

0.10096

-0.0185

0.18617

0.16894

-0.01722

4

0.12771

0.10096

-0.02675

0.1628

0.13546

-0.02734

5

0.1106

0.11946

0.00886

0.17487

0.1628

-0.01208

6

0.14278

0.11946

-0.02332

0.14975

0.11946

-0.03029

7

0.13546

0.12771

-0.00775

0.18061

0.17487

-0.00574

8

0.14975

0.1106

-0.03915

0.14278

0.13546

-0.00733

9

0.10096

0.12771

0.02675

0.15641

0.14975

-0.00666

10

0.1628

0.17487

0.01208

0.17487

0.1628

-0.01208

Table ( 2 ) : Table of average values from test 1 and test 2

Trial 1 + Trial 2

2

Males

Females

Capable figure

Chemical reaction Time Before Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Chemical reaction Time After Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Difference In Reaction Time ( s )

Chemical reaction Time Before Drinking Red Bull ( s )

Chemical reaction Time After Drinking Red Bull ( s )

1

0.0051

0.0044

-0.00065

0.16894

0.15641

2

0.0053

0.0048

-0.00052

0.15641

0.15641

3

0.0035

0.0038

0.00028

0.21888

0.17777

4

0.0041

0.0038

-0.00026

0.18889

0.14278

5

0.0047

0.0043

-0.00035

0.18341

0.15964

6

0.0048

0.0038

-0.00097

0.17487

0.1628

7

0.0039

0.0039

0

0.17777

0.1628

8

0.0051

0.0038

-0.00128

0.1659

0.13917

9

0.0035

0.0038

0.00028

0.1628

0.15312

10

0.0053

0.0058

0.00047

0.17194

0.15312

Datas Analysis

The first measure in analyzing the information is to compare the reaction times of males and females before and after imbibing Red Bull individually utilizing the mean values from table 2. This is done below:

Graph ( 1.a ) :

The graph ( 1.a ) shows the comparing of the average male reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull. The graph shows that by and large the bluish saloon ( Male Reaction Time before Drinking Red Bull ) is higher than the ruddy saloon ( Male Reaction Time After Drinking Red Bull ) This suggests that Red Bull by and large had the consequence of cut downing reaction clip in males.

Red Bull contains Taurine ( see appendix two ) Taurine speeds up nervous transmittal, so nerve urges are passed along through the nervous system much faster. This means that the clip taken for the topics manus to respond to the stimulation ( in this instance the dropped swayer ) is less. Another ingredient that likely affects reaction clip most is caffeine. Caffeine blocks adenosine and encouragements adrenaline degrees. Adrenaline causes the bosom rate to increase, the respiratory rate in the lungs to increase and muscle contraction all around the organic structure. These are merely some of the effects known as the “ battle ” or “ flight ” response. The overall consequence is that you respond better to stimuli as the organic structure is more watchful.

T Test

The T-Test shows how important the statistical difference between two values is. The T-Test determines the P-Value. In Biology the difference between the two values is considered statistically important if the P value is below 0.05 If it is The Null hypothesis is hence rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted.

Null Hypothesis: There is no important difference in reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull in Males.

Alternate Hypothesis: There is a important difference in reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull in males.

For this T-Test I compared the average values of reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull for males. I got a P-Value of 0.06626028. This is greater than 0.05 therefore the Null hypothesis has to be accepted.

The T-Test suggests that with males, the difference in reaction clip after imbibing Red Bull is non important because the P value ( 0.06626028 ) is greater than the standard critical value ( 0.05 ) .

Graph ( 1.b )

The graph ( 1.b ) shows the comparing of the average female reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull. Again, the graph shows that by and large the bluish saloon ( Female Reaction Time after Drinking Red Bull ) is higher than the ruddy saloon ( Female Reaction Time Before Drinking Red Bull ) This suggests that Red Bull by and large had the consequence of diminishing reaction clip in females. This lessening is once more due to the ingredients contained in Red Bull. Both taurine and caffeine affect the topics system so that the velocity of motion and response in increased.

T-Test

Another T-Test is carried out to happen out how important the difference in reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull in females is.

Null Hypothesis: There is no important difference in reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull in Males.

Alternate Hypothesis: There is a important difference in reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull in males.

For this T-Test I compared the average values of reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull for females. I got a P-Value of 0.00068587. This is less than 0.05 therefore the void hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted.

The T-Test suggests that the differences in the female reaction clip before and after imbibing Red Bull are really important as the P value ( 0.00068587 ) is far below the standard critical value of 0.05.

The concluding measure in analysing the information is to compare male and female alteration in reaction times.

Graph ( 2 )

Graph ( 2 ) shows the Comparison of Male and Female decrease in reaction clip. The pink secret plan points show the average female difference in reaction clip ; whilst the blue secret plan points show the average male difference in reaction clip. The graph shows that by and large intend male decrease in reaction times were much lower than the average female decrease in reaction clip. This suggests that females are affected more by Red Bull. Another observation that can be made from the graph besides shows that the female information is more varied than the male informations. However the informations that was collected was excessively little to do any definite decisions.

T-Test

A T-Test was carried out to happen out how important the difference in average male and female difference in reaction clip.

Null Hypothesis: There is no important difference between average male and female difference in reaction clip.

Alternate Hypothesis: There is a important difference between average male and female difference in reaction clip.

In this T-Test I compared the average values of difference in reaction clip for both males and females. I got a P-Value of 0.001571698. This is less than 0.05 therefore the void hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted.

The T-Test suggests that there is a large significance in the difference between average male and average female difference in reaction times because the P value is much lower than the critical value of 0.05.

Decision

In general, reaction times decreased after imbibing Red Bull in both males and females. Males by and large had faster times females. However the T-Test shows that in males this difference is non important whilst in females, it is rather important. Further computations showed that there was a important difference between the decrease of reaction clip in males and females. Females by and large had greater decreases in reaction clip.

The information does non back up the first hypothesis, which states that reaction clip would diminish in all topics after the ingestion of Red Bull, as there were some cases where the reaction times worsened. These anomalousnesss may hold been due to error in the method nevertheless, and had no overall significance to the experiment as they were ignored.

The information supports the concluding hypothesis, which states that Red Bull would better reaction clip more significantly in females. The consequences from the probe show that females had a more important decrease in reaction clip after imbibing Red Bull as compared to males. The ground for females being affected more by Red Bull is, Pound for lb females have less H2O in their organic structures than work forces, so their organic structure parts are more open to the active ingredients in Red Bull. This leads to the decision that between the ages of 16-17, Red Bull merely significantly reduces reaction clip in females and non in males.

Evaluation

There were some facets of the experimental method that may hold reduced the dependability of the informations.

When the swayer bead trial was performed for the 2nd clip the topics – alternatively of bettering reaction clip as a consequence of imbibing Red Bull – may hold of course improved their reaction clip through pattern. Besides the topics knew that they were imbibing Red Bull and that Red Bull is said to better physical public presentation including reaction clip. This once more may hold caused them to better their times of course through the psychological stimulation.

There is no existent cogent evidence nevertheless that betterment in reaction clip was due to pattern. It is merely a guess. However if the topics reaction times were bettering as a consequence of pattern so this would impact the information as Red Bull would non be the lone factor bettering reaction clip. The best manner to cut down the consequence of this factor would be to transport out the experiment merely one time. This would cut down the dependability of the informations as a mean of both experiments non would be possible to cipher but at the same clip it would better the dependability of the informations as topics would non be acquiring better with pattern and it would be merely the Red Bull impacting the topic ‘s reaction clip.

I besides could hold set up another Ruler Drop Test experiment utilizing a different set of topics but replacing the Red Bull energy drink with a non – energetic drink. The topics nevertheless, would be told that they are holding another trade name of energy drink. This would prove the idea of holding an energy drink makes the capable expect to execute better and hence really bettering their reaction clip of course. A 2nd experiment utilizing the same topics could so be carried out utilizing but utilizing Red Bull. The consequences of the 2nd experiment could so be compared with the consequences from the first experiment to farther asses the significance betterment in reaction clip due to Red Bull.

Mistake Analysis

30 cm Ruler ( centimeter )

Absolute uncertainness

+/- 0.05

Percentage Uncertainty %

0.25

Overall Uncertainty %

0.25

Appendix ( I )

Questionnaire

How old are you: ____

2. How Much Sport do you make?

None Wednesday Clubs Merely

Barely Active Engagement

3. Make You Take Energy Drinks Regularly: ______

4. Are You Willing To Participate in this Experiment_____ ?

Appendix ( two )

Active ingredients in Red Bull:

Glucose

Glucose is a sugar. The organic structure uses glucose in respiration to do energy.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36ATP

Glucose + Oxygen = Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy.

Redbull contains 5.25 g of glucose.

Taurine

Taurine is an amino acid that is normally made in the organic structure. Each can of Red Bull contains 1000mg of Taurine. Taurine helps travel minerals like K, Na, Ca and Mg through the cells. This helps to bring forth nervus urges hence doing nervous transmittal faster.

Glucuronolacton

Glucuronolacton is a chemical similar to taurine. It affects memory and concentration in the encephalon. It is known to hold effects similar to anti-depressants and stimulations.

Inosital

Inosital is a chemical that has a temper hiking consequence and it maximises the encephalons utilizations of a 5-hydroxytryptamine a chemical that is found in most anti-depressants.

Niacin

Niacin is a B vitamin that helps in energy formation. It metabolizes energy from fat and saccharides. Niacin can assist the organic structure usage energy by let go ofing it from nutrient.

D-Pantothenol

D-Pantothenol is besides known as vitamin B5, or Pantothenic acid. It is known to better temper and hike energy. D-Pantothenol aid turn fat into energy and increases metamorphosis.

Pyridoxine HCL

Besides known as Vitamin B6, Pyridoxine HCL helps ruddy blood cells to organize and provides better O use. It besides help to interrupt down sugar that you have stored in your organic structure to utilize for energy.

Vitamin B12

B12 helps in the formation of ruddy blood cells, for better O use. It besides help with energy production by interrupting down fat and protein.

Caffeine

Red Bull contains 80.0 mg of caffeine which is about double the sum of all other soft drinks. The caffeine in Red Bull gives you energy by barricading a chemical in your encephalon called adenosine. Adenosine promotes drowsiness and without it you would non be able to fall asleep. When adenosine is blocked you body releases a encouragement of epinephrine which wakes you up.

Cite this Reaction Time And Energy Drinks Biology

Reaction Time And Energy Drinks Biology. (2016, Dec 07). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/reaction-time-and-energy-drinks-biology-essay/

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