Get help now

Relationship Between Philosophy & Education

  • Pages 63
  • Words 15580
  • Views 491
  • dovnload



  • Pages 63
  • Words 15580
  • Views 491
  • Academic anxiety?

    Get original paper in 3 hours and nail the task

    Get your paper price

    124 experts online

    MEANING, SCOPE & FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Unit Structure 1. 0 Objectives 1. 1 Introduction 1. 2 Meaning of the Philosophy and Education 1. 3 Concept of Philosophy of Education 1. 4 Scope of Philosophy of Education 1. 5 Nature of Philosophy of Education Modes of Philosophical Inquiry 1. 6 Functions of Philosophy of Education 1. 7 Relationship between Philosophy of Teaching and Teaching Styles This unit deals with the concept of ? Meaning , Scope, Nature and Functions of Philosophy of Education‘ and hence by the end of the unit you will be able to: . 0 OBJECTIVES After reading this unit you will be able to : • • • • Discuss the meaning of philosophy of education, explain the unlimited scope of philosophy of education. enumerate the various functions of philosophy of education. State the various methods of Philosophical inquiry describe the relationship between philosophy of teaching and teaching styles. 1. 1 INTRODUCTION Philosophy is a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means.

    It signifies a natural and necessary urge in human beings to know themselves and the world in which they live and move and have their being. Western philosophy remained more or less true to the etymological meaning of philosophy in being essentially an intellectual quest for truth. Hindu 2 philosophy is intensely spiritual and has always emphasized the need for practical realization of Truth. Philosophy is a comprehensive system of ideas about human nature and the nature of the reality we live in.

    It is a guide for living, because the issues it addresses are basic and pervasive, determining the course we take in life and how we treat other people. Hence we can say that all the aspects of human life are influenced and governed by the philosophical consideration. As a field of study philosophy is one of the oldest disciplines. It is considered as a mother of all the sciences. In fact it is at the root of all knowledge. Education has also drawn its material from different philosophical bases. Education, like philosophy is also closely related to human life.

    Therefore, being an important life activity education is also greatly influenced by philosophy. Various fields of philosophy like the political philosophy, social philosophy and economic philosophy have great influence on the various aspects of education like educational procedures, processes, policies, planning and its implementation, from both the theoretical and practical aspects. In order to understand the concept of Philosophy of education it is necessary to first understand the meaning of the two terms; Philosophy and Education. . 2 MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY & EDUCATION Meaning of Philosophy The word philosophy literally means love of wisdom; It is derived from two Greek words i. e. ‘phileo’ (love) and ‘Sophia’ (wisdom). This tells us something about the nature of philosophy, but not much, because many disciplines seek wisdom. Since times immemorial there have been various pursuits for unfolding the mystery of the universe, birth and death, sorrow and joy. Various ages have produced different thoughts throwing light upon the mystic region.

    The ultimate truth is yet to be found out. This eternal quest for truth ‘lends the origin of philosophy. A love of wisdom is the essence for any philosophy investigation. On the standard way of telling the story, humanity’s first systematic inquiries took place within a mythological or religious framework: wisdom ultimately was to be derived from sacred traditions and from individuals thought to possess privileged access to a supernatural realm, whose own access to wisdom, in turn, generally was not questioned.

    However, starting in the sixth century BCE, there appeared in ancient Greece a series of thinkers whose inquiries were comparatively secular (see “The Milesians and the Origin of Philosophy”). Presumably, these thinkers conducted their inquiries through reason and observation, rather than through tradition or revelation. These thinkers were the first philosophers. Although this picture is admittedly simplistic, the basic 3 distinction has stuck: philosophy in its most primeval form is considered nothing less than secular inquiry itself.

    The subject of philosophical inquiry is the reality itself. There are different schools of philosophy depending on the answers they seek to the question of reality. It is the search for understanding of man, nature and the universe. There are different branches of philosophy-Epistemology, Metaphysics, etc. There are different fields of philosophy such as educational philosophy, social philosophy, political philosophy, economic philosophy etc. There are also different philosophical approaches such as idealism, naturalism, pragmatism, materialism, and so on.

    Meaning of Education Etymologically, the word education is derived from educare (Latin) “bring up”, which is related to educere “bring out”, “bring forth what is within”, “bring out potential” and ducere, “to lead”. Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.

    Webster defines education as the process of educating or teaching (now that’s really useful, isn’t it? ) Educate is further defined as “to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of… ” Thus, from these definitions, we might assume that the purpose of education is to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of students. In ancient Greece, Socrates argued that education was about drawing out what was already within the student. (As many of you know, the word education comes from the Latin e-ducere meaning “to lead out. ) At the same time, the Sophists, a group of itinerant teachers, promised to give students the necessary knowledge and skills to gain positions with the city-state. Thus we see that there are different views and understandings of the meaning of the term education. In the modern times it has acquired two different shades of meaning namely: (1) an institutional instruction, given to students in school colleges formally ;and (2) a pedagogical science, studied by the student of education. The words of Adam education is the dynamic side of philosophy.

    Philosophy takes into its orbit, all the dimensions of human life. Similarly education also reflects the multifaceted nature of human life. Therefore, education is closely related to various aspects of human life and environment. Hence, the term education has a wide connotation. It is difficult to define education by single definition. Philosophers and thinkers 4 from Socrates to Dewey in west and a host of Indian philosophers have attempted to define education. However education can be understood as the deliberate and systematic influence exerted by a mature through instruction, and discipline.

    It means the harmonious development of all the powers of the human being; physical social, intellectual, aesthetic and spiritual. The essential elements in the educative process are a creative mind, a well integrated self, socially useful purposes and experience related to the interests of the individual, needs and abilities of the individual as a of a social group. In the historical development of man, education has been the right of a privileged few. It is only in recent centuries that education has come to be recognized as a human right. All have equal right to be educated as education has become sine qua non of civilization.

    Our discussion of the concept of education and the concept of philosophy form the basis of arriving at the definition of philosophy of education. 1. 3 CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION All human societies, past and present, have had a vested interest in education; and some wits have claimed that teaching (at its best an educational activity) is the second oldest profession. While not all societies channel sufficient resources into support for educational activities and institutions, all at the very least acknowledge their centrality—and for good reasons.

    For one thing, it is obvious that children are born illiterate and innumerate, and ignorant of the norms and cultural achievements of the community or society into which they have been thrust; but with the help of professional teachers and the dedicated amateurs in their families and immediate environs (and with the aid, too, of educational resources made available through the media and nowadays the internet), within a few years they can read, write, calculate, and act (at least often) in culturally-appropriate ways. Some learn these skills with more facility han others, and so education also serves as a social-sorting mechanism and undoubtedly has enormous impact on the economic fate of the individual. Put more abstractly, at its best education equips individuals with the skills and substantive knowledge that allows them to define and to pursue their own goals, and also allows them to participate in the life of their community as full-fledged, autonomous citizens. Equips individuals with the skills and substantive knowledge that allows them to define and to pursue their own goals, and also allows them to participate in the life of their community as full-fledged, autonomous citizens.

    But this is to cast matters in very individualistic terms, and it is fruitful also to take a societal perspective, where the picture changes 5 somewhat. It emerges that in pluralistic societies such as the Western democracies there are some groups that do not wholeheartedly support the development of autonomous individuals, for such folk can weaken a group from within by thinking for themselves and challenging communal norms and beliefs; from the point of view of groups whose survival is thus threatened, formal, state-provided education is not necessarily a good thing.

    But in other ways even these groups depend for their continuing survival on educational processes, as do the larger societies and nationstates of which they are part; for as John Dewey put it in the opening chapter of his classic work Democracy and Education (1916), in its broadest sense education is the means of the ? social continuity of life? (Dewey, 1916, 3). Dewey pointed out that the ? primary ineluctable facts of the birth and death of each one of the constituent members in a social group? make education a necessity, for despite this biological inevitability ? the life of the group goes on? (Dewey, 3).

    The great social importance of education is underscored, too, by the fact that when a society is shaken by a crisis, this often is taken as a sign of educational breakdown; education, and educators, become scapegoats. It is not surprising that such an important social domain has attracted the attention of philosophers for thousands of years, especially as there are complex issues aplenty that have great philosophical interest. abstractly, at its best education equips individuals with the skills and substantive knowledge that allows them to define and to pursue their own goals, and also allows them to participate in the life of heir community as full-fledged, autonomous citizens. But this is to cast matters in very individualistic terms, and it is fruitful also to take a societal perspective, where the picture changes somewhat. It emerges that in pluralistic societies such as the Western democracies there are some groups that do not wholeheartedly support the development of autonomous individuals, for such folk can weaken a group from within by thinking for themselves and challenging communal norms and beliefs; from the point of view of groups whose survival is thus threatened, formal, state-provided education is not necessarily a good thing.

    But in other ways even these groups depend for their continuing survival on educational processes, as do the larger societies and nationstates of which they are part; for as John Dewey put it in the opening chapter of his classic work Democracy and Education (1916), in its broadest sense education is the means of the ? social continuity of life? (Dewey, 1916, 3). Dewey pointed out that the ? primary ineluctable facts of the birth and death of each one of the constituent members in a social group? ake education a necessity, for despite this biological inevitability ? the life of the group goes on? (Dewey, 3). The great social importance of education is underscored, too, by the fact that when a society is shaken by a crisis, this often is taken as a sign of educational breakdown; education, and educators, become scapegoats. 6 It is not surprising that such an important social domain has attracted the attention of philosophers for thousands of years, especially as there are complex issues aplenty that have great philosophical interest.

    The following are some issues that philosophers have deeply thought about and philosophy is still in the process of answering these questions. Is Education as transmission of knowledge versus education as the fostering of inquiry and reasoning skills that are conducive to the development of autonomy (which, roughly, is the tension between education as conservative and education as progressive, and also is closely related to differing views about human ? erfectibility? —issues that historically have been raised in the debate over the aims of education); the question of what this knowledge, and what these skills, ought to be—part of the domain of philosophy of the curriculum; the questions of how learning is possible, and what is it to have learned something—two sets of issues that relate to the question of the apacities and potentialities that are present at birth, and also to the process (and stages) of human development and to what degree this process is flexible and hence can be influenced or manipulated; the tension between liberal education and vocational education, and the overlapping issue of which should be given priority—education for personal development or education for citizenship (and the issue of whether or not this is a false dichotomy); the differences (if any) between education and enculturation; the distinction between educating versus teaching versus training versus indoctrination; the relation between education and maintenance of the class structure of society, and the issue of whether different classes or cultural groups can— justly—be given educational programs that differ in content or in aims; the issue of whether the rights of children, parents, and socio-cultural or ethnic groups, conflict—and if they do, the question of whose rights should be dominant; the question as to whether or not all children have a right to state-provided education, and if so, should this education respect the beliefs and customs of all groups and how on earth would this be accomplished; and a set of complex issues about the relation between education and social reform, centering upon whether education is essentially conservative, or whether it can be an (or, the) agent of social change. It is here that that philosophy of education plays an important role in providing direction to education on the following issues as well as providing a theory of knowledge tfor education to work upon. Philosophy of education is essentially a method of approaching educational experience rather than a body of conclusions. It is the specific method which makes it philosophical. Philosophical method is critical, comprehensive and synthetic. 7 Therefore, 1] Philosophy of education is the criticism of the general theory of education. ] It consist of critical evaluation and systematic reflection upon general theories. 3] It is a synthesis of educational facts with educational values. In brief, it is a philosophical process of solving educational problems through philosophical method, from a philosophical attitude to arrive at philosophical conclusions and results. Thus, it aims at achieving general as well as comprehensive results. 1. 4 SCOPE OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION The scope of philosophy of education is confined to the field of education. Thus, it is philosophy in the field of education. The scope of philosophy of education is concerned with the problems of education.

    These problems mainly include • interpretation of human nature, the world and the universe and their relation with man, • interpretation of aims and ideals of education, • the relationship of various components of the system of education, • relationship of education and various areas of national life [economic system, political order, social progress, cultural reconstructions etc. ], • educational values, • theory of knowledge and its relationship to education. The above mentioned problems constitute the scope of philosophy of education and explain its nature. Thus, the scope of philosophy of education includes following. a] Aims and Ideals of Education Philosophy Education critically evaluates the different aims and ideals of education. These aims and ideals have been prorogated by various philosophers in different times.

    They are character building, man making, harmonious human development, preparation for adult life, -development of citizenship, -utilization of leisure, training for civic life, training for international living, achieving social and national integration, -scientific and technological development, education for all, equalizing educational opportunities, strengthening democratic political order and human source development. 8 These and other aims of education presented by educational thinkers in different times and climes are scrutinized and evaluated. Thus, philosophy of education critically evaluates different aims and ideals of education to arrive at. b] Interpretation of Human Nature:A philosophical picture of human nature is a result of the synthesis of the facts borrowed from all the human science with the values discussed in different normative, sciences. The philosophical picture, therefore, is more broad as compared to the picture of man drawn by biology, sociology, psychology, economics and anthropology and other human science. )Educational Values:Value is typically a philosophical subject since it is more abstract, integral and universal. Philosophy-of education not only critically evaluates the values but also systematizes them in a hierarchy. Educational values are’ determined by philosophical values. Educational values propagated by different philosophers have been derived from their own world, view and their outlook on the purpose of human life. Therefore, a scrutiny of the world views, outlook, beliefs is the specific function of philosophy and it is necessary for the philosophical treatment of the values. d] Theory of Knowledge:Education is related to knowledge. It is determined by the source, limits, criteria and means of knowledge.

    The discussion of all these falls within the jurisdiction of epistemology, one of the branches of philosophy, therefore, an important area of the functioning of philosophy of education is related to theory of knowledge. e] Relationship of education and various area of national life and various components of the system of education:One of the most important contributions of the philosophy of education to the cause of education is the provision of criteria for deciding the relationship of state and education, economic system and education, curriculum, school organization and management, discipline etc. These problems have led to the evaluation of different philosophies of education.

    The criteria of judgment everywhere are determined by philosophy, therefore, philosophy of education provides the criteria for critical evaluation and judgment in these fields. 1. 1. 6 Nature of Philosophy of Education Philosophy of education is one of the areas of applied philosophy. There are three branches of philosophy namely ‘metaphysics, epistemology and axiology. 9 Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. It is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world. Metaphysics is the study of the nature of things. Metaphysicians ask what kinds of things exist, and what they are like.

    They reason about such things as whether or not people have free will, in what sense abstract objects can be said to exist, and how it is that brains are able to generate minds. Axiology: the branch of philosophical enquiry that explores: o o Aesthetics: the study of basic philosophical questions about art and beauty. Sometimes philosophy of art is used to describe only questions about art, with “aesthetics” the more general term. Likewise “aesthetics” sometimes applied even more broadly than to “philosophy of beauty” :to the “sublime,” to humour, to the frightening–to any of the responses we might expect works of art or entertainment to elicit. Ethics: the study of what makes actions right or wrong, and of how theories of right action can be applied to special moral problems.

    Subdisciplines include meta-ethics, value theory, theory of conduct, and applied ethics. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge. It attempts to answer the basic question: what distinguishes true (adequate) knowledge from false (inadequate) knowledge? Practically, this question translates into issues of scientific methodology: how can one develop theories or models that are better than competing theories? It also forms one of the pillars of the new sciences of cognition, which developed from the information processing approach to psychology, and from artificial intelligence, as an attempt to develop computer programs that mimic a human’s capacity to use knowledge in an intelligent way.

    When we look at the history of epistemology, we can discern a clear trend, in spite of the confusion of many seemingly contradictory positions. The first theories of knowledge stressed its absolute, permanent character, whereas the later theories put the emphasis on its relativity or situation-dependence, its continuous development or evolution, and its active interference with the world and its subjects and objects. The whole trend moves from a static, passive view of knowledge towards a more and more adaptive and active one. As you can tell, the different branches of philosophy overlap one another. A philosopher considering whether people ought to give excess wealth to the poor is asking an ethical question.

    However, his investigations might lead him to wonder whether or not standards of right and wrong are built into the fabric of the universe, which is a metaphysical question. If he claims that people are justified in taking a particular stance on that question, he is making at least a tacit epistemological claim. At every step in his reasoning, he will want to employ logic to minimize the 10 chance of being led into error by the great complexity and obscurity of the questions. He may very well look to some of the ethical, metaphysical, and epistemological writings of past philosophers to see how his brightest predecessors reasoned about the matter.

    Aspects of each branch of philosophy can be studied in isolation, but philosophical questions have a way of leading to other philosophical questions, to the point that a full investigation of any particular problem is likely eventually to involve almost the whole of the philosophical enterprise. One view on education believes or subscribes to the view that philosophy of education comes under the umbrella of axiology. As a branch of philosophy it utilizes philosophical methods for the solution of philosophical problems with a philosophical attitude to arrive at philosophical conclusion. In this comprehensive process it includes facts concerning education and synthesizes them with values. The other school of thought believes that education as a discipline utilizes or needs to incorporate all modes of philosophical inquiry; metaphysical, axiological and epistemological.

    As individuals involved in the process of education right from the aims, purpose, functions and building theory we need to look at any body of knowledge or generate new knowledge based on the three modes of philosophical inquiry. 1. 6 FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Philosophy of education performs various functions. They area discussed below: a] Determining the aims of education Philosophy of education provides original ideas regarding all aspects of education particularly educational aims. It is said that educational philosophy gives different views, but this situation is not harmful, rather it helps in providing education according to the need of society. The difference in view of philosophy of education reflects the multiplicity and diversities of human life.

    Philosophy of education guides the process of education by suggesting suitable aims from the diversities of life and selecting the means accordingly. b] Harmonizing old and new traditions in the field of educationIn the process of social development the old traditions become outdated for the people. They are replaced by the new traditions. But this process of replacement is not always smooth. It is faced with lots of opposition from certain orthodox sections of the society. At the same time it must be kept in mind that every ‘old’ is not outdated and every ‘new’ is not perfect Therefore, there is a need of co-coordinating the two in order to maintain the harmony between both. This function can be performed by philosophy of education. 1 c] Providing the educational planners, administrators and educators with the progressive vision to achieve educational development:Spencer has rightly pointed that only a true philosopher can give a practical shape to education. Philosophy of education provides the educational planners, administrators and educators with the right vision which guides them to attain the educational goals efficiently. d] Preparing the young generation to face the challenges of the modern time:Social commentators have given many labels to the present period of history for some it is the information age and for others it is post modernity, later modernity, high modernity or even the age of uncertainty.

    One more addition to this list may be that ‘present age is an age of Globalization as a phenomenon arrived on the economic scene in the 1990 in India. This watchword has had its implications in the social political, economic fabric of the country of which education is a part. Philosophy of education is a guiding, steering and liberating force that helps young people to and society at large to face the challenges of the modern time. 1. 7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHING AND TEACHING STYLES Philosophy guides the process of education in different ways. A teacher approaching education philosophically needs to answer four basic questions that guide the teaching learning process. They are: What is the nature of the learner?

    What is the nature of subject matter? How should one use the subject matter to guide students towards meaningful learning activities? What behavior trend should one exhibit in order to carry out one‘s philosophical position? The answers to these questions only will help the teacher to identify a series of preferences, as opposed to a set of behavior that belong to mutually exclusive categories for the following questions. An attempt to answer these questions is nothing but philosophy of teaching. Philosophy and various philosophical view points inform us that each of these questions have different philosophical perspectives that can be considered as extremes in a continuum. Nature of the Learner For the question about the nature of Learner, It will be defined in terms of extremes of the continuum by using the terms ? Lockean? (passive) and ? Platonic? (active) 12 ? Lockean? is a position because it was John Locke, in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, who first wrote about mind, is a tabula rasa. He envisioned the operation of the mind as similar to a blank wax tablet on which data taken in through the senses would make ? impressions?. Sensory data which a learner absorbed formed the true source of knowledge. Any complex mental operations involving association, interpretation, or evaluation of secondary data led to the formulation of increasingly complex knowledge. ?Platonic?

    Image is that of a teacher who has so much respect for what the learner can contribute to the learning environment that he or she definitely does not want them to ? absorb? prescribed subject matter, as the teacher sees the subject matter. Under such circumstances learners are viewed as the most important ingredient of the classroom environment because they teach each other and their teacher about problems which are meaningful to them. It is almost that learners have the knowledge which is locked inside them which is released through interaction. Platonic concept believes in the doctrine of Reminiscence. o Nature of Subject Matter The terms ? Amorphous? or ? Structured? are used to delineate extremes on the continuum of teacher‘s view on the nature of subject matter. The term ? morphous label has been reserved for rote learning, which emphasizes that each item to be learned is equal in importance to every other item to be learned ; hence youngsters are not encouraged to find relationships among items to be learned and no item is seen to be more important than the other. The other extreme ? structured? we may expect to find a position represented by those who have a quite realistic view of what the subject matter can never accomplish. The term ? Structured? as used in this context, is from Bruner‘s understanding that any subject matter should be viewed as having a natural structure which can help to explain relationships among its components and which can be used to find new information. o How should Subject matter guide students learning activities? The two end points of the continuum is ? cognitive? and ? affective?.

    These concepts are not mutually exclusive categories, but rather matters of emphasis and preferences. In order to illuminate factors involved in any teacher‘s decision to emphasize cognitive or affective learning activities it is useful to consider the following addendum. Cognitive Domain – fact, concept and generalization Affective Domain- belief and value Evidence abounds that students bring into the classroom attitudes which influence the way they perceive facts, concepts and generalizations. Sometimes teachers are fortunate to have students who bring with them 13 positive attitudes towards the subject matter at hand. Most often we have students who bring with them not very positive attitudes.

    In such situations the teachers‘ role will be to help students think critically by transforming generalization, beliefs and values into hypotheses that can be tested. Then the teacher resorts to the affective domain. o Behavior trend in order to carry out one‘s Philosophical Position The terms authoritarian and non-authoritarian are two extremes of the continuum, but should be understood as not merely being ? strict‘ or ? permissive‘. These words should go beyond the aspect of classroom management as it is more inclusive approach to classroom management. It is an over view of the student and the subject matter which this indicator has been designed to examine.

    For instance, suppose some teachers encourage students to view subject matter only as experts in that field might view it; hence these teachers habitually accept for each major question under examination only one right answer which all students are excepted to adopt and understand. We can thus say that these teachers are said to encourage convergent thinking and hence in this context we can term them as ? authoritarian‘ teachers. The converse can be said of ? non authoritarian teachers‘ Teacher need to be aware of the ? Philosophical Positions‘ that they take and have taken while they enter into classrooms or plan to enter into classrooms Philosophical positions affect the way they interact with students and facilitate learning in learners individually or collectively. Thus we see that the way we answer the questions of nature of learner, subject matter etc. definitely affects our teaching style.

    Whether a teacher is authoritative or non authoritarian, whether teaching methods are constructivist or lecture method are influenced based on the philosophical position that they hold. Background for approaching the educational problems effectively. Therefore, it is essential for the educators to have the deep insight into the philosophy of education. 1. 8 UNIT END EXERCISE Q. 1] What is the meaning of the tem philosophy? Q,2] Discuss and elucidate, “All educational questions are ultimately questions of philosophy”-Ross. Q. 3] Why should a teacher study philosophy of education ? 14 Q. 4] Define education in your own words based on the various definitions of educational thinkers. Q. 5] ?

    The scope of philosophy of education is unlimited? Critically evaluate this statement. Q. 6. ) Discuss the relationship between Philosophy of teaching and teaching styles References 1] Chandra S. S. , R. Sharma, Rejendra K (2002) ” Philosophy of Education. ” New Delhi, Allantic publishers. 2] Chakraborty A. K. (2003). ” Principles and Practices of Education. ” Meerut, Lal Book Depot. 3] Gupta S. (2005). ” Education in Emerging India. Teachers role in Society. ” New Delhi, Shipra Publication. 4] Seetharamu, A. S. (1989). Philosophy of Education. New Delhi, ‘ Ashish Publishing House. 5] Taneja, V. R. (2000). ” Educational Thought and Practice. ” New Delhi, Sterling.

    References: On-line Sources: a. Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Ed. : www. educao. pro. br/;links. htm b. The Center for Dewey Studies: www. siu. edu/~dewyctr/ c. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: www. plato. stanford. edu/ d. http://www. objectivistcenter. org/cth–409-FAQ_Philosophy. aspx ????? 15 2 EASTERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION Unit Structure 2. 0 Objectives 2. 1 Introduction 2. 2 Philosophy of Vedas 2. 3 Vedanta in Education 2. 4 Educational Implications of Vedanta 2. 5 To sum up 2. 6 Unit End Exercise 2. 7 Introduction 2. 8 Concept of Yoga 2. 9 Educational Implications of Yoga 2. 10 To sum up 2. 11 Unit End Exercise 2. 0 OBJECTIVES :

    After reading this unit you will be able to: 1) Acquire knowledge about Eastern philosophies of education. 2) Develop an understanding about Vedanta and Yoga. 3) Understand the impact of philosophy of Vedanta and Yoga in the field of Education. 4) Realize the educational Implications of Vedanta and Yoga. 2. 1 INTRODUCTION The Indian schools of philosophy may be classified broadly into two Asthika (orthodox) and Nastika ( heterodox). The first group believed in the Vedas and the second school rejected the Vedas. The first one‘s are called the Asthika systems which have the schools of Mimansa, Vedanta, Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya and Vaisesika. The latter schools are Charvaka, Buddha and Jaina. 16 INDIAN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY. INDIAN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY

    NASTIKA (HETERODOX SCHOOL) {CHARVAKA, BUDDHA, JAINA} ASTHIKA (CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL) BASED ON VEDIC TEXT BASED ON INDEPENDENT GROUNDS {SANKHYA, YOGA, NYAYA, VAISESIKA} EMPHASIZING RITUALISTIC ASPECT (MIMAMSA) EMPHASIZING SPECULATIVE ASPECT (VEDANTA) Eastern schools of philosophy Eastern philosophies are concerned with all aspects of life. Indian philosophies both orthodox and heterodox are more concerned with the perennial problems of life. So philosophy is ? Tattva Darshan? or vision of life. Let us outline, now, briefly the salient features of the Indian philosophical tradition. 1. The Indian philosophical schools have developed more a synthetic outlook.

    There is no separate treatment of ontology (Theory of Reality), Epistemology (Theory of Knowledge), or Ethics and Aesthetics as distinct branches of philosophy. These questions are approached generally and relatively, some schools stressing more the metaphysical point and some the logical approach to knowledge. 2. Indian philosophical tradition is indifferent to History. Every attempt is made to go into contribution and content of each school by clear exposition and sequential arrangement of things. 3. The underlying spiritual and moral basis is uniform to all the schools generally, except perhaps the philosophy of charvaka or the materialistic philosophy. 17 4.

    Philosophy is a practical necessity for understanding how life can be used . the broad human ends (Purusharthas) are Dharma, Arhta, Kama and Moksha. These are far different from mere intellectual pursuits. 5. Indian philosophy starts with a pessimistic note but builds up a positive approach to realize one‘s values in life. 6. The doctrine of Karma or a doctrine of action finds a firm faith. The doctrine of births and deaths is common to Vedic Buddhist and Jaina tradition. 7. There is a reference to the universal stage outside the individual self. The content of ? Para- Brahma? is the external universal transcendental edition of the spiritual development of the individual. 8. The terms ? ondage‘ and liberation are used in the sense that the former means the cycle of births and deaths and latter means release from the process. 9. Self- control and concentration are needed to remove passions and develop techniques of yoga and contemplation 10. The highest aim of life is ? Moksha‘ or ? Nirvane‘ which means liberation positively as the Eternal Bliss and negatively as destruction of all sufferings. 2. 2 PHILOSOPHY OF VEDAS The vedas, upanishads, puranas and epics are the sources oto know the ancient Indian philosophy and education. With a view to understand the philosophy of vedas, it is very necessary to understand the meaning of the word ? veda‘.

    Veda is derived from the root of sanskrit word ? Vid‘. • ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Vid means to : To know {God, soul, nature & mind} To be {one with God} To obtain {salvation} To consider {various relationships} To feel {oneness with God} To tell {glories of God} To dwell {into the mysteries of universe} Vedas believe in: • • The concept of one God and one world God is one & only one (omniscient, omnipotent and ever present) 18 • There are three entities in tthis universe – God, Soul and Matter. • Ultimate aim of life is to obtain salvation (moksha) in union with god • Actions are followed by their results. The ? Law of Karma‘ is an important teaching of Vedas. This universe is formed by god. • The theory of rebirth and immortality of soul • Universe is real, universal fraternity should be promoted • Knowledge of truth should be acquired and dissipated • Justice should be done to all creatures and we should live in peace & harmony. • Vedas was the basic education during those days. • Each Veda was divided into further three broad sections : ? Mantras ? Brahmans ? Aryanakas Mantras (Hymns of God) It contains expressions of wonderments, joy at the visions of beauty in nature around. The dignity of mountains, the majesty of sunrise, the beauty of Moon and such phenomenal powers were worshipped through Mantras.

    Brahamans : ( Prose, Rituals, prayers) It contains detailed scientific description of method of various ritualistic performances and secret methods to invoke the mighty powers. (Aryanakas (Appendages of Brahamanas) Aryana means forest. Aryanakas were studied and composed only in the quiet Himalayan valley. This section is also known as Upanishads .. The upanishads are also known as ? The Ved anta” as it comes at the end of vedas. The word Upanishad is derived from the root ? sad‘ which means to: ? Sit down ? To loose ? To destroy • ? Upa‘ means nearby • ? Ni‘ means devotedly The word Upanishads therefore means sitting down of the disciple near his teacher in a devoted manner to receive instruction 19 about the highest Reality which loosens all doubts and destroys all ignorance of the disciple.

    There are as many as 1180 Vedic literature, each school has Upanishad . Of about 280 Upanishad unearthed so far 108 have been generally accepted as authentic texts. All Upanishads have one goal which is Liberation and prescribe techniques of achieving this goal Vedic literature comprising ? shruti‘ & ? smriti‘ literature is storehouse of knowledge which throws light on the intellectual, economic, political, religious, social and spiritual life. Shruti is that part of vedic literature which acc. To Hindu belief was revealed to certain sages by God and then passed on orally from generation to generation. Smriti was composed by Rishis on the basis of their memory. • The Vedic literature consists of: ) Four vedas : Rigveda (consisting of 1028 hymns), Yajurveda (lays down the procedure of sacrifices), Samveda (history of Indian music), Atharvaveda (deals with medical sciences). 2) The Vedangas Vedangas are sort of help books to pronounce and understand correctly the words contained in the Vedas. i. Shiksha (science of phonetics) ii. Chandas or metres iii. Vyakarna iv. Nirukta or Etymology v. Jyotish or astronomy vi. Kalpa or rituals 3) The Upvedas : There are four upvedas each deal with four subjects viz i. Ayurveda (deals with medicine) ii. Dhanurveda (Military science) iii. Gandharvavea (Music) iv. Shilpaveda (Architecture & Arts) 4) Brahamana Granthas: They provide supplememtary matter.

    Brahamana Granth are written in prose and composed by Rishis and Acharayas. Some of known Brahma granths are Satpath Brahaman, Gopatha Brahman, Sam Brahman, Aitareya Brahmana etc. The Satpath Brahaman is a 20 voluminous prosework and provides valuable information about the Geography, History, Philosophy and Rituals etc of vedic age. 5) The Upanishads: Deal with the relation of matter , soul and God. Out of 108 upanishad, the following ones are most important: 1) Isha Upanishad ( emphasizes on spiritual unity ) 2) Kenya Upanishad ( illumines the nature of knowledge) 3) Katha Upanishad ( deals with philosophical Questions put by Nachiketa, the student and answers given by Yama, his guru. 4) Mundaaka Upanishad (clarifies higher & lower knowledge) 5) Mundakya Upanishad (related to the true self of the man) 6) Chandougya Upanishad (provides an important account of mans spiritual education) 7) Brihadaryanka Upanishad (explains the nature of the divinity of man) 6) Six systems of philosophy I. Nyaya system deals with knowledge. It is the science of sciences. According to it knowledge can be acquired through 4 methods: Pratyaksha (Intuition) Anumana (Inference) Upma (comparison) Shabda (verbal testimony) II. III. IV. V. VI. Shankhya system of philosophy by Rishi Kapil deals with matter. Vaisheshika system of philosophy by Rishi Kanad deals with theory of atom.

    Yoga system of philosophy by Rishi Patanjali is related with self control through yoga. Purva-Mimansa system by Rishi Jamini deals with scheme of right living through appropriate action. Uttar-Mimansa or Vedanta system of philosophy by Rishi Vatsayana elucidates the concept of supreme being. 7) Bhagwat Geeta : Bhagwat Geeta is a collections of teachings of Lord Krishna to his disciple Arjuna. The essence of the philosophy as contained in the Gita is with innerconvictions. We should discharge our duties diligently and honestly irrespective of the consequence and leave the rest to Almighty we must fight for Justice and right cause. 8) Sutras : There are three sutras : 21 ) Ashtadhyayi ( 14 sutras of grammar composed by Panini) ii) Dharma sutras (rules laid down for conduct of both teachers and students) iv) Grah sutras ( related to art of living) Characteristic of Vedas : 1. Vedas are representative of the Indian society and culture and point to a unique socio-economic civilization where all are equal irrespective of status and gender. 2. Vedic people had simple and pure living. 3. Worshipped one God whom the wise described as many. It was a religion of nature which held man central. 4. Vedic outlook is optimistic and positive. 5. Vedic outlook on life is revealed 6. profess and practice ideal moral life without seduction and sin. 7.

    People were religiously and spiritually simple, kind and honest. 8. Students were given special attention and treatment by teachers, depending on their interests, aptitude, proficiency and performance, thus acting as a forerunner of the modern theory and practice of education. 2. 3 VEDANTA IN EDUCATION Education during vedic period was the third eye, the eye of insight and source of illumination. The system of education generally advocated emanated from the Vedas and was called vedic system of education, which insisted on code of conduct both for the student and the teacher and placed the child under the care and direction of the teacher. Aims of Education during vedic age 1.

    Citta-Vritti- Nirodh : Education must aim at self- fulfillment and provide freedom from material desires and attachment. 2. Education of Mind : Education must provide knowledge for creativity and pursuit of culture and civilization. 3. Make living worthy : Education should make life worthwhile, purposeful and relevant. 4. Tamso-ma-Jyotirgamaya : Knowledge should dispel doubts, dogmas and darkness. 22 5. Religion centred : Religion dominated every aspect of life all national, personal, social and educative procedures and practices, hence education should be wedded to religion. 6. Individual- Centred : Education was for individual which was its chief concern. Education should therefore aim at overall development of an individual. 7.

    Nature- Oriented : The centres of education were located from the populated and crowded areas, more in natural and sylvan surroundings. Education should make man one with nature. Educational System • Primary: Education was first provided at home then a ceremony (vidya Arambha Sanskar) before beginning education was performed. Education period was upto age of five years. Child was made to pronounce vedic mantras, knowledge of sandhis (connective rules), elementary grammar, elementary airthmetic. After primary education children were sent to Gurukulas and ashramas for higher education. Higher education: Entry age varied between 8 to 12 for different varnas and completed by the 25th year of age.

    Upanayan ceremony was performed to enable the child to enter into studentship • • • Curriculum According to Kathoupanishad, the subjects fell into two categories: Para-vidya or (spiritual learning) Apara-vidya or (worldly learning) Paravidya: Into this study fell the essential study of 4 vedas. Also included vedangas, upanishads, puranas, Pitrya (rules for sacrifices for ancestors), vakovakya (logic),Ekayana (ethics), Devavidya (etymology), Brahmavidya etc. Apara-vidya : This included subjects like History, Ayurveda, Economics, Astrology, Physics, zoology, chemistry, science, kalpavidya, the rashi (science of numbers), bhutvidya (sci. of demons). Methods of Teaching 3 Two methods of Teaching were being practiced during vedic period. The first method was Maukhik (oral) and second was based on chintan ( thinking or reflection). In the oral method students were to memorize the mantras (vedic hymns) and Richayas (verses of Rigveda). The process of education passed through three stages of comprehension i. e Shravan (Hearing), Manan ( meditation) and Nidhi-dhyasan ( realization and experience). Methods of teaching was based on apprenticeship and was psychologically sound. Teaching followed some strategies such as simple to complex, activity and skill oriented procedures. QuestionAnswer technique and illustration . Self-study ( Swnadhyaya) was considered more important.

    Discipline • Rules for conduct of both teachers and pupils were listed down. • Rules also for respect due from pupils to teacher were framed. • Rigid rules were laid for conduct of pupils • Code of dress was observed • Observation of Brahmacharya or celibacy was compulsory for all pupils. Teacher During Vedic period the teacher occupied very important place in the scheme of education. He was the centre of education and without him no education could be conceived of. He was called Guru or Acharya and he was respected as a god by the student as well as the society. Even the king did not enjoy so much respect as the teacher enjoyed. 2. 4 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS ) Pride in civilisation and culture We are living in modern age, but we feel proud of the civilization and culture of our ancestors inherited to us. We give more preference to character, spiritualism philosophy rather than wealth, power, violence and diplomacy. We wish to lead an ideal life. Educational aims of vedic age are accepted in principle as aims of modern education to build character and make life worth living for our young ones. 2. Discipline and pupil teacher relationship : The sense of discipline and cordial relation between teacher and pupil of vedic age is well known to the world. Today‘s scenario 24 can be revived back by taking efforts to adopt the ideal relationship between teacher and pupil. 3.

    Subject of studies : Vedic literature is enriched by the sense of peace, humanity, universal brotherhood which is also vital part of our curriculum. 4. Teaching Methods : As discussed above ,some methods of teaching are still used fruitfully in our classrooms. 5. All round development of child: The nature of education was much more individualistic rather than joint in groups. All round development of a childs personality was the chief aim of education. Same aim is kept in view in modern education also. 6. Equality of opportunity: There was no discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, colour etc and the students of all strata of society received education on an equal footing. In modern too, the constitution has adopted the principle of equality in the field of education. 7.

    Education for self- sufficiency: Apart from intellectual aspect of education its practical side was not lost sight of and along with art, literature and philosophy, students got a working knowledge of agriculture and other vocations of life. Modern education also lays stress upon preparing students to prepare themselves for their future life. Vocational subjects are included in the curriculum. 9. Commercial education and vedic mathematics : Commercial education and Mathematics Education is one of the chief features of vedic period. The ideas of the sope and nature of commercial geography, needs of the people of various localities, exchange value and quality of articles and language spoken at different trade centres were considered necessary. Vedic mathematics have become more popular now.

    More and more parents are aware about the significance of vedic mathematics and are taking keen interest to offer the opportunities to their child to learn vedic mathematics. 2. 5 TO SUM UP Terms such as knowledge, awakening, humility, modesty etc are often used to characterize Vedic education. Education leads to the development of personality. The word ? Veda‘ originates from the root ? vid ? which bears the meaning of knowledge. Sayana declares that the 25 veda is a means to the obtaining of the adored, that which is worthy of worship, as well as a means to the banishment of the undesired, the evil. Knowledge of the four Vedas Rigveda, yajurveda, samaveds and atharvaveda, along with the knowledge of shruti, smriti etc provided an individual with new knowledge which broadened his intellectual horizon.

    In the Vedic period, education had an idealistic form, in which the teachers (acharyas) laid stress upon worship of God , religiousness, spirituality, formation of character, development of personality, creation of an aptitude for the development of culture, nation and society. 2. 6 UNIT END EXERCISE QI ) Describe various salient features of vedic education. Q2) Discuss the impact of vedic education in the present system of education. Q3) Discuss educational implications of Vedanta education Q4) Multiple Choice Questions: 1. The method of teaching in vedic education is _________. a) Sravana c) Nidhidhyasana b) Manan d) All of the above b) Tamso-ma-Jyotirgamaya d) All of the above. 2. The aim of education of vedic system is ________. ) Citta-Vritti- Nirodh c) Education of Mind 3. The subjects of study in vedic education is _________. a) Devavidya c) Rashi Key : 1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (d) b) Brahmavidya d) All of the above. CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY YOGA 2. 7 INTRODUCTION Since time honoured the lore of Yoga was developed and refined by the Indian sages in search of the real-most state of human nature. In course of time that traditionally evolved system of Yoga has been a science of conciousness development and finally in modern time yoga was seen as the science of possibilities, latent within oneself and and helpful in dealing with crucial problems of human life. After 6 the popularization of health promotion potentials of Yoga practices among masses, certain other applied aspects of the yoga system, concerned with human resource development, have been remained to be substantiated scientifically. That‘s why modern educationists are taking interest in improving the quality of education with the help of yoga system. It is seriously being felt that besides the development of national strength and scientific mentality among the students, the aim of education should be the liberation of mind and soul as well. 2. 8 CONCEPT OF YOGA It is one of the six ancient Indian philosophy other being (Nyaya, Vaisishika, Mimansa, vedanta & Sankhya).

    The word Yoga is derived from the word ? YUJ‘ which means to unite or to combine or to bind yoke with the individual self with the universal self. To bring out the balance & harmony on every level viz. physical, mental & spiritual to transform human into super human. • Types of Yoga : ? ? ? ? ? Bhaktiyoga Gyanayoga Karmayoga Mantrayoga Layayoga To attain physical, moral , mental and spiritual perfection, the following eight fold steps of yoga discipline are recommended which help in controlling and sublimating attachment which distract the body and mind: 1. Yama : It is discipline to control will-power. It includes restraint of injury to anyone through thought, word or deed.

    Absentism from falsehood (satya), from stealing (asteya), from passions and lust, from greed and avarice (aparigraha). 2. Niyama : it is moral culture and aims at cultivation of good habits . Individual discipline, regulates one‘s own behaviour. It leads to satisfaction . 3. Asana :it means steady & comfortable posture. Yogic posture does not involve physical strain or violence, but in turn tones up our body & mind. Reduces our fatigue, soothing nervous system and discipline of the mind. 4. Pranayama : controlling breath to win overtime, is the discipline of breath control. It aims at regulation of inhalation, retention and exhalation of breath.

    Not only beneficial to health but also conducive to concentration and meditation. 27 5. Pratyahara : controlling senses from their objects. Withdrawal of senses and turning the senses inwards. 6. Dharna :it is the discipline of fixing the mind without any modification on the object of meditation. 7. Dhyana : means meditation, the steady contemplation of the object of meditation without any break. Concentrating on a point to reach higher self. 8. Samadhi : It is the state of mind in which contemplative conciousness disappears and has no awareness of itself. Thus samadhi is ultimate goal of life, being in that state means being in universe. The first five are external aids to yoga while last three are internal aids.

    The remarkable part of vaidic literature, Kathopanishad elucidates that Yoga is a system of holistic life where all the facets of human life as well of personality get due consideration as inevitable elements of a whole system. In Bhagwad-Gita, composed by the sage Ved-Vyasa , the practical implication of Yoga in active life situations has been wonderfully elaborated. In the modern period, after having been redefined as a system of modern sciences, yoga is presently being defined as a system of personality development, transformation of consciousness and integration within the human system leading to complete well-being. The outstanding figure of contemporary Yoga, Sri Aurobindho defined yoga as a methodical effort towards self- perfection.

    It is a process by which the limitations and imperfections in man are washed away which result into all round personality development at the physical , mental, intellectual emotional and spiritual levels. There is a great relationship between holistic health and yoga has been proved by present scientists, educationists, psychologist not only in India but by the practioners all over the world 2. 9 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF YOGA Commonly, the term Yoga Education has been referred to as the training and teaching process of Yoga, though it should also be seen as the application of Yoga techniques to bestow better support to the education process. The target of both the disciplines is the same and that is enhancement of socially useful potentials of human personality.

    To achieve this target, the system of Yoga lays foundation stones whereupon the education system may flourish in all areas. Modern educationists are taking interest in improving the quality of education with the help of yoga system. Yoga in education should lead 28 to the development of harmonious personality and behaviour at all levels. An atmosphere needs to be created where the students study yoga with their own enthusiasm. To the whole the higher level of education is the fittest for integration of yoga. In the current Indian perspective, the role to be played by the education system is facing new challenges. Normally the main aims of education have been the physical, psychological, interpersonal, professional and spiritual refinement of a personality.

    In modern Indian perspective it is deemed that the system of education should also be helpful in the attainment of the objectives of socialism and democracy mentioned in Indian constitution too. Besides , to attain refinement at the level of thoughts (intellectual development) and feelings (affective aspect), contributing to the development of national character and scientific mentality among the people, at present it is seriously being felt that the aim of education should also include the liberation of mind and soul as well. Acharya Vinobha Bhave , the spiritual heir of Mahatma Gandhi suggested the same that ? Education in India should be based on three principles i. yoga (spiritual training), udyoga (vocational training) and sahayoga (social training) Areas of educational processes Certain thrust areas positively concerned with educational process have been identified, where the potential of yogic practices are duly proved: Treatment of physical difficulties. Improvement of mental health,and developing resistance to strain. Promotion of emotional balances and control on Hyperactivity. Positive aspects of yoga : 1. Promotion of willpower 2. Development of perseverance in students 3. Education and training about inner self 4. Unfolding creative consciousness 5. Promotion of uniqueness or talent in the students • Aims of Education ? Comprehensive development of Human personality ? Free child from bodily, mental and supernatural miseries ? Physical , mental, intellectual and spiritual growth ? Moral preparation of pupil ? Understanding of human nature 29 ?

    Development of scientific attitude and logical and intellectual faculties Teacher & Taught • • • • • Great importance to teacher Not only a theoretician but also a demonstrator Give practical demonstration to the student (scientific notion) Teacher has power of knowledge, power of will and power of action. Role is that of scientist in our age Student • • Surrender to his teacher for his total cure Without teacher nothing can be obtained by the student. Curriculum Not explicitly laid down ? System stands for psycho-physical training of human child ? Provides literature which arouses interest amongst students in moral life. ? Embodies such specific psychology, social sciences sciences as medicine, clinical Yoga approves all those subjects which deal with human physiology, true human nature and hidden laws of nature ? Comprehensive ? Most appropriate to the evolution of individual and society ? If society are highly evolved divine culture can be happily fostered Methods Of Education • • • • ? cittavrthinirodha‘ ( concentration/ meditation) involves right cognition, wrong cognition, imagination, memory. Concentration as the most essential method Scientific attitude development method Yoga adopts not only the scientific attitude but also the Programmatic one 30 • • The system also believes in Discriminative method in acquiring knowledge. The law of Association in education constitutes great importance in the yoga.

    Discipline • • • Education & Discipline are identical Discipline is the means of which yoga is the aim One has to discipline oneself bodily, mentally and intellectually whether he is a teacher or taught so that he may learn. ( Teacher & Taught both) Disciplining of body and mind process. is the core of educational • Education system not only in India but the modern globalizing world also really is in great need of taking help of yoga system. Therefore it is high time to think seriously on inclusion of yoga and yogic values in education system. Self education (education of self – realization): Yoga renders self education. It is nothing but education of self awareness. Yoga teaches us how to live with wisdom, not with the worldly orientations, present education system should inculcate this yogic value intensively.

    Yoga system can impart progressive training for the development of self awareness and educate us about the realities of our being and becoming. Pursuit of the Transcendental state of Psyche: The paramount aim of yoga system is the pursuit of the transcendental state of psyche I. e Nidhidhyasana, assumed as an essential aspect of the ancient Indian system of study and education. Samadhi leads to the Nidhidhyasana state which further escorts the wisdom. The experience of Samadhi is not a very difficult or rare stage. Like other components of yoga it is also attainable. Samadhi is a state of consciousness, which begets energy, awareness and delight to the experiencing being for his/her creative thoughts and actions.

    Morever, the real creativity is impossible to achieve without attaining Samadhi state. A creative Samadhi is again hard to achieve without adopting high moral values in daily life. Samadhi (transcendental state) further leads to wisdom. Yoga teaches how to attain wisdom. Knowledge through real vision or wisdom, accomplished by profound meditation, directed to the Samadhi is the real attainment. Learning through mind and senses is a shallow class of knowledge, which leads to complexity. In most of the institutions today, we find that majority of the student are growing with a complexity. Complex living patterns leads to tensions. 31 Methods of peaceful living are not being included in present education system.

    Development of General Awareness: The objectives of Yoga , besides causing physical, mental and spiritual unfoldment in an individual, are also the inculcation of social and ecological awareness within oneself. Yoga system emphasizes on awareness of very subtle aspects, hardly attainable subject of single pointed focus. It leads to the awareness of the external environment in its fullest extent and awareness of the external environment in its full depth as well as awareness of internal environment in its full depth as well as awareness of those aspects, which are beyond internal and external attainability. Normally people are so absorbed in self-centred endeavors and materialistic sensual enjoyments around their world that they are unable to see the pros and cons or good and bad effects of their conducts.

    With the awareness of Yogic values, slowly one experiences the joy present in his surrounding and after a time finds himself deeply connected with his external environment and starts appreciating the truths of ecology.. so the general awareness leading to the deeper appreciation and realizations should be the essence of yoga in education. Promotion of will Power and Perseverance: The path of Yoga is a test as well as the training of will power. Will power is a quality that plays its major role in every creative performance and success. Management of Mental Health : In the Eight-limbic system of yoga, Patanjali recommended the observance of Yama and Niyama, for the management of conscious emotional conflicts, whereas, as far as the subconscious emotional are concerned he recommended Asana and Pranayama. tability of body , brought about by the practice of Asana may lead to the emotional stability and psychological wll-being. Many psychologists on the basis of their experimental results and clinical experiences found that Yoga is an effective instrument of modification of human behavior. Treatment of Physical Difficulties: From the period of later Upanishads it was duly emphasized that the practice of yogic postures and yogic breathing, in addition to mental and ethical disorders are also able to alleviate physical pains and problems. Management of Stress Disorders : Stress can be controlled by recommended Yogic techniques. Yoga appears as a system of selfhealing, causes remarkable reduction in anxiety and hypertension. 2. 10 TO SUM UP 2 The aim of entire education formal and informal is to attain bliss that comes after the empirical self ismerged in the transcendental self or God. But the process of self-discipline implies that without the well-being of human body and moral preparation on the part of man yoga is not possible. This aspect makes education a social necessity. The yoga lays stress on Yama- Niyama, Asana and pranayama and these four aspects point out how social values such as truth, nonviolence, non-steeling, non-collection and celibacy are needed. The aim of education according to the Yoga is the comprehensive development of human personality. Yoga is entirely a philosophy of doing with concentration.. Hence doing with concentration in education has value of great order.

    Also disciplining of body and mind is the core of educational process and modern educators must know the inevitability of this factor in any kind of education. Discipline in education is of far reaching importance in the sense hat if a teacher or student does not discipline himself he cannot concentrate on the subject and cannot know about it. Educational process requires , by implication, an expert teacher in every subject. When a teacher gives any thing to a student from his inner experiences with great confidence and demonstrations it is impossible that education should not take place. The system is therefore a challenge to a theoretical teacher of today who simply transmits knowledge from books to students. 2. 1 UNIT END EXERCISE Q1. Enumerate eightfold path of Yoga (Asthanga yoga). Q2. Discuss Yoga education with specific reference to aims of education, curriculum, methods of teaching and role of a teacher. Q3. Discuss in detail the educational Implications of yoga education. Q4. Discuss the role of Yoga in education. ????? 33 3 HETERODOX SCHOOLS OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY Unit Structure 3. 0 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 3. 6 3. 7 3. 8 Objectives Introduction Buddhist Philosophy Educational philosophy of Buddhism Educational Implications of Buddhist Philosophy. Philosophy of Jainism Educational Implications of Jainism To Sum Up Unit End Exercise 3. 0 OBJECTIVES

    After reading this unit you will be able to 1) Know about heterodox schools of Indian Philosophy 2) Understand the educational philosophy of Buddhism and Jainism 3) Identify distant features of Buddhism and Jainism 4) To understand about the contribution of Buddhism and Jainism in Education. 3. 1 INTRODUCTION Strictly speaking it is not proper to use such a blanket tem as Indian tradition of philosophical thinking. The Vedanta might be the dominant philosophical tradition in India, but it is not the sole system of thought. To emphasize and highlight the Vedanta only in lieu of Buddhism and Jainism is to omit a vast chunk of Indian tradition of philosophical thought. Schools that do not accept the authority of vedas are by defination unorthodox (nastika) systems. The following schools belongs to heterodox schools of Indian Philosophy. 34

    Carvaka : It is characterised as materialistic and aesthetic school of thought. Accepted direct perception as the surest method to prove the truth of anything. Insists on joyful living. Buddhist Philosophy : It is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautma. Buddhism is a non-theistic philosophy whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or non-existence of God. Jain Philosophy : Already in existence by 6th century B. C , it was revived by Mahavira , the 24th Jain Tirhthankar. 3. 2 BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY Buddhism is one of the most remarkable development of Indian thought. It is an offshoot of later vedic thought.

    Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu Philosophical concepts. It has many philosophical views with Hinduism, such as belief in Karma, a cause and effect relationship between all that has being done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be direct results of previous events. The ultimate goal for both is to eliminate Karma (both good & bad) , end the cycle of rebirth and suffering and attain freedom (Moksha or Nirvana). Buddhist education system (200B. C to 200 A. D) was founded by Lord Gautam Buddha. Gautam Buddha was primarily an ethical teacher and reformer and not a philosopher. He was concerned mainly with the problems of life.

    He avoided the discussion of metaphysical question because they are ethically useless and intellectually uncertain. He always discussed the most important questions of suffering, its cessation and the path leading to its cessation. Thus Buddha‘s enlightenment which he tried to share with all fellow-beings has come to be known as the four Noble Truths. Four Noble truths are: ? There is suffering ? There is cause of suffering ? There is cessation of suffering ? There is a way to cessation of suffering • Buddhists philosophy of life to get ? Nirvana‘ from suffering is based on the following eight principles: ? Right Faith (Samyak Dristi) 35 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

    Right Resolve (Samyak Sankalpa) Right Speech (Samyak Vakya) Right Action (Samyak Karmanta) Right Living ( Samyak Ajiva) Right Thought (Samyak Smriti) Right concentration (Samyak Samadhi) Right Effort (Samyak Vyayama) 3. 3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM Buddhist Education offered to impart education to all. Many people shifted to Buddhist system of education. It was for the first time in India that education was institutionalised on a large scale during Buddhist movement. It is also a historical fact that with the arrival of Buddhist era great international centres of education like Nalanda, Takshashila, Vikramshila, Ballabhi, Odantapuri, Nadia, Amravati, Nagahalla and Saranath were in prominence. Educational centres in Buddha period developed in Viharas and Sanghas.

    Aims of Education The Buddhist educational aims were comprehensive based on knowledge, social development, vocational development, religious development, character development aims which were as follows : • • • • • • • • • • • To follow the moral values of Buddhist religion To adopt good conduct and violence To achieve the final goal of Nirvana To propagate Buddhism To eradicate Vedic karmakanda or ritualism To give up caste system To take the teachings of Buddhism to the masses. To leave yajna and sacrifices for achieving knowledge To provide education in the language of masses i. e Pali To emphasise the progress and development of the society rather than the individual To provide education through the new system this was stated by Buddha.

    Principles of Education • Avidya that is ignorance must be removed through education as it is the root cause of sufferings 36 • Education should be provided in peaceful sorroundings in Buddhists monastries, viharas and organised educational institutions instead of Gurukulas. Pupils should be educated in a democratic atmosphere Things of luxury must be prohibited for students. Framed few commandments for the Suddhvi, Harika (new entrant) at the time of ? Pabajja‘ ceremony. A ritual called as ? pabajja ritual was necessary for admission to a monastery for education. Educational period for this phase was 12 years. After 20 years of age Upsampada ritual was performen to gain an entry into higher education.

    Rules for second ceremony ? Upasampada were also laid down. • • • • Education System • Two tier system: 1) Popular Elementary Education 2) Higher Education Elementary Education: Popular Elementary education was religious in nature, included wordly education, upto the age of 12 years, pupils received instructions in reading, writing, arithtmetic and religion. Curriculum of Elementary education : Thorough learning of Grammar,Hetu vidya (Logic), Nyaya (science of reasoning), Adyatma vidya (philosophy), shilpa sthan (arts & crafts) & chikitsya vidya (medicine) • Higher education : Well organised, carried out at Buddhist monastries & Buddhist universities.

    Higher education was given to only those students who intended to be monks or nuns. Emphasised both theortical and practical aspects. Following subjects were included in the syllabus of higher education: Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Theology, Philosophy, Metaphysics, Logic, Sanskrit, Pali, Astronomy, Astrology, Medicine, Law, Politics, Administration, Tantrik philosophy Methods of Teaching • • • Mostly verbal. Question, answer, discussion and debates. Agra shishya pranali (Monitorial system) 37 • • • • Travelling and Nature study method Book method. Preaching and conference method Medium of instruction was pali and also importance to vernacular dialects were given.

    Teacher Taught Relationship • • • Close , Pure, good and affectionate Teacher besides being a scholar of repute must have in himself inspiring ideals. Like his students the teacher also used to spend life in simplicity, constant study, celibacy, following ideals and strength of character. Both teacher and student were required the authority of reason and experience. Students were required to maintain the freedom of thought Disciplined in matter of morals and conduct Maintain self restrained life • • • • 3. 4 • EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY IMPLICATION OF BUDDHIST Cosmopolitan: Buddhist education was free from communal narrowness, there was no favouritism on the basis of caste , creed in the centres.

    Total development of personality: Buddhist education laid much emphasis on the physical, mental and spiritual development of the novice, even today the aim of education is integration of personality that can develop the various aspects of the individual which are interlinked. No corporal punishment: corporal punishments were absolutely forbidden which is also very true in the present scenario of education. Positivism: Buddhist philosophy is positivistic and has a careful logical systematisation of ideas Ethical: it is ethical, the eightfold path to Nirvana makes a universal appeal. • • • • 38 • Democratic: it is democratic as it believed in freedom of enquiry.

    Democratic and republican procedures were followed while running the educational institutions. Development of good conduct: the entire techniques of Buddhism provide directions to develop good conduct and which is also the essence of a sound system of education. Also its belief in Karma lays stress on the necessity to be constantly on the vigil to maintain one‘s conduct in the present life. Moral Discipline : The Buddha Bhikku (monk) took the vows of chastity and of poverty. Character was the basis of moral discipline. Emphasis on Manual skills : Training of manual skills like spinning and weaving was emphasized to enable men to earn for living. Pragmatic : It is pragmatic, everything is in a state of flux as it is only momentary.

    Change is the rule of the universe. It does not believe in the absolutism. It is witnessed in the present era of globalisation. Methods of Teaching : the methods of Instruction was oral . Preaching, repetition, exposition, discussion and debates were all used. Buddhist council organised ? seminars‘ to discuss the major issues at length. Learned conferences, meditation, educational Tours. International impact : Buddhist education helped India to gain international importance. It also developed cultural exchange between India and other countries of the world. international exchange of scholars attracted students and scholars from far off lands.

    Value education & Character development: To be moral being one must follow noble path, the eightfold path as preached in Buddhism provides guidance for moral education and peace. The entire techniques of Buddhism provides directions to develop good conduct which is also the essence of sound system of education. Curricullum: Curricullum included secular as well as religious subjects. Organisation and Structure of Universities : Universities established during this period are still serving as a guiding force. The organization of Nallanda and Ballabhi university was advanced that it continues to influence the organization • • • • • • • • • 39 and structure of university till present day.

    The system of determining a minimum age for higher education, providing a set of rule and taking a test for admission are even today guiding the educational structure. • Education as a social Institution : Education as a social institution got its existence as a result of Buddhist system of education. Imparting education in practical subjects : An important contribution of this period is the imparting of education in various practical subjects , a tradition which has come down to the present day also. Collective Teaching Methodology : It was in this period that the method of collective teaching and the presence of numerous teachers in single institution was evolved. • • 3. 5 PHILOSOPHY OF JAINISM

    Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several aspects, such as in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas, its pessimistic outlook on life, and its refusal to believe in supreme God. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable, such as its recognition of permanent entities like the self (jiva) and matter. Derived from the word ? jina‘ with root in ? ji‘ it means ? victor‘ i. e, the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. The origin of Jain philosophy traces back to the pre-historic time. It is said 24 tirthankars or liberated persons preached this truth which was handed over one by one in course of time.

    The last of them was Vardhamana also called Mahavira, a contemporary of Gautam Buddha. Jainism is the smallest of the major world religion, but in India its influence is much more. Jain philosophy and culture have been a major cultural and philosophical, social and political force since dawn of civilisation in Asia. Metaphysically, Jainism believes in plurality of souls and not in the existence of God. It holds that there are as many souls as there are living beings. They also accept the existence of souls even in animals and plants, with degrees of difference in the level of consciousness. They believe that every soul is capable of attaining infinite conciousness, power and happiness by removing all ? Karmas‘ or bondages.

    Infinite faith, infinite knowledge, infinite power and infinite bliss is the state of liberation. According to Jainism Nirvana or liberation is obtained through three jewels : Right Philosophy, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct. ( Tri-ratna) Right conduct implies 5 40 absinences : not to lie, not to steal, not to strive for luxury and not to strive for possessions, not to be unchaste and not to injure (Ahimsa). Ahimsa is vital principle of Jainism. Jainism rejects the idea of creator of the world. It believes reality to be many sided. Jainism emphasises ? Syat-vada‘ or ? ane-kant-vada‘ which lays the mind open to truth coming from any quarter. No preposition about the truths ca be a absolute. This generates tolerance and regard for all.

    In the theory of knowledge Jainism accepted three sources of getting real knowledge, namely perception, inference and testimony. Practical teachings of Jainism 1. Triratna or three gems of its teaching precious principles of life. were considered three 2. Five vows (vrata) or absciences to indicate general character. 3. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Indian thought but in Jainism it requires distinct meaning and depth; it is nonviolence in word, thought and deed. 4. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect, Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant and believes in happiness of all. 5.

    There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 6. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism believes in transmigration of soul. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage, and is to be redeemed and liberated. 7. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter, restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 8. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world, as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection, Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 9. Jaina views are both realativistic and pluralistic as it recognizes jivas and the material objects. 10.

    The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul, rather than the interpretation of the universe, hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Jaina Education : Aims of Education Truth is relativistic and pluralist, in a state of ? may be‘. Knowledge , therefore may be viewed differently. Nothing fixed. 41 Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Development of personality as an individual. Hence , more stress on individual aims. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva Cessation of Karma would disassociate jiva from it and regain its power and glory.

    Teaching must help train one for it. Believes in transmigration of soul , hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Curriculum : ? punya‘ and ? paap‘ are the two principles of the Nine categories. Hence , education should develop sense of discrimination . Education should include provision for attainment of Triratnas, the precious principles of life, that bring happiness, success and love here and now. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue, practiced and not only aspired for, that would be socially desirable. Teaching of nine principles called as nine categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.

    Methods of Teaching Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Teaching must develop these faculties. Teaching should be social and tolerant, and should bring happiness to all. Jiva is essentially karmic, therefore education must be action based and ideally oriented. Discipline : Emphasis on self discipline and hard work Practical discipline (of a lower order meant for ordinary house-holders) is essential for release from the bondage. 42 Happiness and bliss through action. Man is a free moral agent, responsible for all his deliberate action. 3. 6 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS • Major Contributions : Jainism has made important contribution to art, architecture and literature.

    Jain philosophy and culture have been a major cultural and philosophical, social and political force since dawn of civilisation in Asia. Strong emphasis on Non-Violence: The distinguishing feature of jain philosophy is its strong emphasis on non-violence, accent on multiple facets of truth, morality and ethics. Integrated : he contribution of jain philosophy in the development of Indian philosophy has been significant. Jain philosophy concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Moksha, Sansara and like has been assimilated into philosophies of other Indian religions like Hinduism and Buddhism. It is impossible to separate Indian religion , philosophy and education. Concept of Compassion : Sense of sympathy extends to all living beings even to animals as stated in in both jainism & buddhism.

    Contribution to a strain of Pacifism : Absolute respect for living beings is stressed, best way to resist evil is through nonviolence, it is successfully used in jainism & buddhism. Law of Karma (cause and effect) : universe is ruled by moral law which punishes all sins and rewards good deeds, belief that our character creates its own heaven and hell is significant in nearly all schools of philosophy. Aims of education : The education has always aimed at some of the philosophical and religious objectives enlisted in indian philosophy of education. It is clear that main objectives of education in India since earliest days of civilization had been Man- making who is capable of self-realization. Highest state of knowledge : The highest state of knowledge is intuition through which man chieves a realization of oneness of the universe. Most of the Indian philosophies essence lies in this aspect. • • • • • • • 3. 7 TO SUM UP 43 The education imparted during the Buddhist period in reality, reaction to the education of the preceding post-vedic period. During this period, educational institutions or general education were established. They made provisions for imparting primary as well as higher education. An important contribution of this period is the imparting of education in various practical subjects. Educational institutions were formally organized and established in this period. It may favourably compare with the modern Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

    Summarizing Jaina education we can say that the distinguishing featyre of this philosophy is its strong emphasis on nonviolence,accent on multiple facets of truth , morality and ethics. The education has always aimed at some of the philosophical and religious objectives enlisted in Indian philosophy of education. Education system according to jainism has nothing special to mention except the following the vedic and buddhistic system of schooling and discipline. 3. 8 UNIT END EXERCISE Q1. Describe salient features of Budhhist education. Q2. Comment upon the following in context of Buddhist Education : 1) Pabajja ritual 2) Upasampada ritual 3) Higher Education Q3. Discuss aims of education and the role of teacher with specific reference to Buddhist education. Q4.

    Discuss Buddhist education with specific reference to aims of education, curriculum, methods of teaching and role of a teacher. Q5 Discuss in detail the educational Implications of Buddhist education. Q6. Discuss Jaina education with specific reference to various components of education. Q7. Discuss in detail the educational Implications of Jaina education. ????? 44 4 ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Unit Structure 4. 0 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 4. 7 Objectives Introduction Basic Tenets of Islamic World View Features of Islam Islamic Education in relation to Components of Education Educational Implications of Islamic Thought. To sum up Unit End Exercise 4. 0 OBJECTIVES

    After reading this unit you will be able to : 1) Define the basic tenets of Islam 2) Identify the major features of Islam 3) Understand the Islamic education in relation to components of education 4) Understand the educational Implications of Islamic thought. 4. 1 INTRODUCTION Islam is a religion for all mankind and is relevant for both spiritual and mundane life. Islam does not recognize the differences on the basis of caste, creed, wealth, language , race, region etc. Islam contains just economic system, a well-balanced social system, codes of civil, criminal, international law and a philosophical outlook on the mission of life. Islam essentially stands for deep religious life and at the same time defines a good living for the mankind. 4. BASIC TENETS OF ISLAMIC WORLD VIEW • Man is the creation of God who can choose to conform to his ordinates 45 • Man has intelligence, will and speech. But man is also weak and forgetful. Through revelation‘s guidance he can seek to overcome his imperfections. Conformity with God‘s will determines a man‘s destiny in this life and the next. The right way to live is according to God‘s will, which he has revealed through the prophets. Islam is a restatement of what god has to say to man as a set of beliefs Law is prescribed in Islam for every sphere of life Islam has provided the social framework for a great culture for more than a thousand years. The Muslim world is one unit.

    Islam is not only to be apprised of, even carefully acquainted with, its pattern, institutions and history but also to apprehend what these mean to those who have the faith. • • • • • • • 4. 3 FEATURES OF ISLAM • Islam is universal : The Islamic system is such that it makes all men as one community and does not make any distinction on the basis of language , race, colour , culture or history. Islam is comprehensive : It provides a complete code of conduct for living . It is not merely for individuals but nation as well. Islam is eternal : From the beginning of the universe , Islam has been the only true religion . Islam is not a novel religion that appeared in Arabia four centuries ago, preached by the Prophet Muhammad. It is the religion God made known on the day when man first appeared on the earth.

    Islam is dynamic : Islam is not a static RELIGION. It‘s principles are not confined to any one particular period of history or particular set of circumstances, Islamic principles cannot be outdated. They are capable of meeting the demands of the modern age. Islam is rational : Several verses quoted from Holy Quran and sayings from Prophet clearly ask human beings to observe, to think, to analyse and to judge. All these are symptoms of rationalism and reasoning. Islam is realistic : Islam is a religion which does not make discrimination between theory and practice. It does prohibit from such action which is difficult to do. Islam knows the characteristics and nature of human beings. • • • • • 6 • Islam does not make any distinction on the basis of colour : Islam considers all human beings on the same footing and does not discriminate on the score of colour. Islam promotes harmony between the individual and the society, faith and science, the material and the spiritual Islam is misunderstood : It has been the misfortune of Islam that it has been misunderstood by various religions and their followers. The causes of misunderstanding are improper interpretations old Jihad, the alleged use of sword in spreading Islam, imposition of Jizya, polygamy, divorce etc. if nonMuslim try to understand how misgivings have arisen about these terms then Islam can be properly understand. • • 4. ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN RELATION TO DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF EDUCATION Education system was essentially religious in character. It was patronised by the Muslim rulers. The sole aim of Muslim education became spread of Islam, perpetuation and preservation of Muslim culture. The Muslim rulers and beneficiaries established ? Maktabs‘ and ? Madarsas‘ where the study of Holy Quran became a prominent feature. The Islamic laws, opinions, customs and doctrines were subjects of study and all students were required to master them. The object of Muslim education was attainment of worldly prosperity and social distinction. The main aim of education is ? to nderstand the relation of man with God as revealed in the Holy Quran‘. Aims and Objectives • • • To provide the teachings of Holy Quran as first step of education To provide experiences which are based on fundamentals of Islam. To provide experiences in the form of knowledge and skills with clear understanding that these experiences are likely to be changed in the light of changes in society. To develop understanding that knowledge without the basis in faith and religion is incomplete education To develop commitment towards the basic values which have been prescribed in religion and scripture. To develop sense of accountability towards Almighty creator so that man passes his life like a faithful servant • • • 7 • • • • • • To encourage international brotherhood irrespective of differences in generations, occupations and social class. To foster great consciousness of the Divine presence in the universe To bring man nearer to an understanding of God and of the relation in which man stands to his Creator To develop piety and faith amongst the followers To produce man who has faith as well as knowledge in spiritual development To develop such qualities of a good man which are universally accepted by the societies which have faith in religion Nature of Elementary & Higher Education • Maktaba & Primary education : Maktaba is a Arabic word which means a place where writing is taught.

    Thus Maktaba is a place where pupils learn reading & writing. Here pupils are made to learn Ayats & verses of Quran Like the vedic ? Upanayana‘ and Buddhists ? pabajja‘ in the Islamic education a ceremony called ? Bismillah? was performed when the child attained the age of 4 years, 4 months & 4 days . Curriculum : The child was taught the letters of alphabets of Urdu, persian and Arabic languages. Recitation sutras or chapters of Quran. Stories of muslim fakirs and the poems of persian poets were also taught. For character building, the books Gulistan and Bostan written by sheikhsaddi were taught. Grammar and literature, history of laws of Islam, logic, hilosophy, Law, Astrology, History, Geography, Agriculture, Unani system of medicine, Teaching Methods Recitation ,learning kalama & collective repitition. Writing, reading and oral methods and also Monitor methods in Maktabs and madarsas. Madarsas and Higher Education: The word ? Madarsa? is derived from Arabic word ? dars? which means a lecture. Thus Madarsasas mean a place where lectures are delivered. Madarsa was an educational institution for imparting Islamic education and higher learning in which students sought admission after completing Maktab education. 48 Lecture method was supplemented by discussions. Duration of education in Madarsas was 10 to 20 years. • Curriculum was divided into two categories: (Religious education & Secular education). Religious education: The contents of religious curriculum included intensive and critical analysis of the Quran, intensive study of Islamic Law, suffism and the heritage of Mohammad Sahib. Secular education: The contents of secular education included the teaching of languages and literatures of Arabic and persian, logic, History, Geography, Astronomy, Astrology, Arithmetic, Agriculture, Medicine, Economics, Ethics, Philosophy, Teaching Methods : Lecture method, self study, method in subjects like music architecture. Teaching Methods : Lecture method, self study, method in subjects like music architecture. practical practical • • •

    Discipline Education was not imparted on psychological line. Students were forced to maintain strict discipline by giving them severe corporal punishments. Truants and deliquents were severely caned on palms. Good and intelligent students were rewarded. Teacher- Pupil Relationship The relationship between teachers and studens in Muslim period was as cordial as it was during Vedantic and Buddhist period. Students and teachers showed genuine kind of feeling of love and respect. There was constant and intimate relationship between teacher & student. 4. 5 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS EDUCATION • • OF ISLAMIC Practical and useful Education : Education was for preparation for the practical life .

    Education achieved more objectivity Free- Education: education in Maktabs and Madarsas was free and compulsory upto elementary level for all muslim children. Boarding and lodging in Madarsas was also free. Individual Contact: Education was considered a personal process, the teacher had to live with his pupils. Monitorial System : Monitorial system was also more commonly used. • • 49 • • Status of Teacher : Teacher had high status, they commanded respect in society. Were man of high moral character. Patronage of Education : Enjoyed state patronage. Almost all muslim rulers set up maktabs & Madarsa and showed their generosity, favour and love for education. Even learned persons, literary people, poets etc got patronage and encouragement from states and royal families.

    Promotion of cultural Unity : No restriction of caste and religion to get admission in Maktabs & Madarsas Encouragement to persian language & Science: Persian Language was the media of education, so special emphasis was given on the teaching of Arabic and Persian language, and the study of science subject was emphasized. Development of Literature and History : Great attention was given to the growth of History and art of writing History, infact tradition of writing history had its root in this period. Various forms of Literature also underwent significant growth. • • • 4. 6 TO SUM UP : The stream of Islamic education continued to flow in India for a period of almost 500 years. Its system passed through the hands and reign of many rulers. This process inevitably left an indelible mark on Indian life.

    In this period a synthesis between wordly or materialistic and religious education began, and consequently a tendency toward professionalisation or vocationalisation emerged. During this period, great attention was paid to the growth of history and the art of writing history. 4. 7 UNIT END EXERCISE: Q1. Discuss various salient features of Islamic Education. Q2. Discuss the organization of Islamic Education Q3. Discuss Islamic education with specific reference to aims of education, curriculum, methods of teaching and role of a teacher. Q4. Comment briefly on the Educational Implications of Islamic education. ? ? ? 50 ? ????? 5 WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION Sub-Unit-a.

    An Introduction to the conventional Philosophies of education and the educational implications of Essentialism. Unit Structure 5. 0 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 5. 5 5. 6 5. 7 5. 8 5. 9 5. 10 5. 11 5. 12 5. 13 Objectives Introduction Beliefs of Traditional Philosophy Beliefs of Progressive Philosophy Essentialism Basic Principles of Essentialism Goals of Education Curriculum Method of Instruction Essentialist classroom Role of Teacher Discipline Conclusion Unit End Exercise 5. 0 OBJECTIVES: After reading this unit, you will be able to: Differentiate between the beliefs of Traditional Philosophy and Progressive philosophy Explain the philosophical principles of Essentialism Discuss the educational implications of essentialism 5. INTRODUCTION: Both Philosophy and education permeate the fiber and texture of culture. Philosophy does so because every culture, literate and non literate alike, symbolizes a basic pattern of beliefs providing those who accept 51 that culture with greater or lesser articulation and significance. Education does so because every culture endows its members with formal and informal symbols and training that aim to acculturate its philosophy into attitudes, habits and skills. If philosophy expresses the belief of culture, education helps to carry them out. It is important to understand and have some knowledge of these two conflicting philosophies.

    These are usually described as the conventional and progressive philosophies. It must be emphasized that those who support the traditional philosophy are not old-fashioned. Major beliefs of the traditional and progressive philosophies are listed below: 5. 2 BELIEFS OF TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHY : 1) Education is reasonably authoritarian and hierarchical. 2) The curriculum is subject-centered. 3) Emphasis is on content in the process. 4) Knowledge and accuracy are essential. 5) Rationality and the consideration of factual evidence should predominate 6) Recognition of right and wrong. 7) There should be a product 8) The product, or knowledge of content, should be objectively tested or measured. ) Choice between different curricula and/or different types of school is essential to maximize individual strengths. 5. 3 BELIEFS OF PROGRESSIVE PHILOSOPHY : 1) Education is egalitarian. 2) It is child-centered and relevant, 3) Emphasis is on skills. 4) Experience, experiment and understanding are more important. 5) Creativity and feelings are more important than facts. 6) Criteria provide a framework for subjective assessment or tasks based on skills. 7) Co-operation gets the priority 8) Entitlement for all replaces choice and differentiation; equal opportunities can be used to construct equality of result. The traditionalists believe that the purpose of education is to pass on a body of knowledge (both factual and cultural) to future generations; 52

    The progressive believe that the purpose of education is to change attitudes and values, to construct a politically correct secular and socialist society. The progressives give particular attention to English, History and Research, because these subjects have enormous cultural importance. 5. 4 ESSENTIALISM : Educational Essentialism is a theory that states that, children should learn the traditional basic subjects and these should be learned thoroughly and rigorously. An essentialist program normally teaches children progressively, from less complex skills to more complex. William Bagley (1874-1946) was The founder of the Essentialist Movement.

    The term essentialism as an educational philosophy was originally popularized in the 1930s by the American educator William Bagley. Bagley completed his Ph. D. in 1900 and spent the following academic year, as an assistant in Kitchener’s laboratory. In 1908 Bagley joined the faculty at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. At Illinois, Bagley helped to develop the Department of Education to the point that it became one of the most well known in the nation. The foundation of Essentialism took place in 1938 by William Bagley. •Early in the twentieth century, essentialism was criticized as being too rigid to prepare students adequately for adult life. •But with the launching of Sputnik in 1957, interest in essentialism revived.

    Bagley’s basic point with his role in the founding of essentialism was that the currently dominant theories of education were feeble and insufficient. •He wanted these dominant theories complemented, and perhaps replaced, with a philosophy that was strong, forceful and positive. •He did not, however, want to destroy completely the dominant theories that he was critiquing. •Throughout his life, he supported both the academic disciplines and certain basic tenets of Progressive education. Essentialism is a uniquely American philosophy of education which began in the 1930‘s and 1940‘s as a reaction to what was seen as a overemphasis on a child-centered approach to education

    This essay was written by a fellow student. You may use it as a guide or sample for writing your own paper, but remember to cite it correctly. Don’t submit it as your own as it will be considered plagiarism.

    Need a custom essay sample written specially to meet your requirements?

    Choose skilled expert on your subject and get original paper with free plagiarism report

    Order custom paper Without paying upfront

    Relationship Between Philosophy & Education. (2016, Oct 02). Retrieved from

    Hi, my name is Amy 👋

    In case you can't find a relevant example, our professional writers are ready to help you write a unique paper. Just talk to our smart assistant Amy and she'll connect you with the best match.

    Get help with your paper
    We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy