Research Proposal on the Effects of Motivation on Employee Productivity

The effect of work related stress on employee productivity By A research proposal in partial fulfillment for the required award of a bachelor degree in business management department of Masinde Muliro university of science and technology - Research Proposal on the Effects of Motivation on Employee Productivity introduction. March, 2012 DECLARATION Declaration by the researchers SIGNDATE Declaration by the supervisor PROFESSOR J. B. OSENO SIGN……………………. DATE………………………… TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration Dedication Acknowledgement Abbreviations Abstract CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. 0 Introduction 1. 1 Background to the study 1. 2 Statement of the Research Problem 1. 3 The purpose of the study . 4 Objectives of the study 1. 5 The research questions 1. 6 Hypothesis 1. 7 The scope of the study 1. 8 Significance of the study CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0 Introduction 2. 1 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 0 Introduction 3. 1 The research design 3. 2 The study area 3. 3 The target population 3. 4 Sampling procedure 3. 5 Sample size 3. 6 Data collection 3. 7 Validity and reliability of the statement 3. 8 Data analysis 3. 9 Presentation of the findings APPENDIX * Questionnaire * Map of the place where the study is being conducted * The organizational structure References CHAPTER ONE 1. 0 Introduction This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, research questions, hypothesis, objectives of the study, the scope of the study, significance of the study and the conceptual framework. 1. 1 Background of the Study Work related stress has a vital role to play in organizations globally, nationally and even within. Recent statistics confirm that work related stress is wide spread in the UK working population and is not confined to particular sector or high risk jobs or industries.

That is why population wide approach is necessary to tackle it. One such study was on organizational behavior by G. A COLE in African organizations. This study was motivated by the fact that public organizations are losing a significant number of fundamental in agro-economical and scientific development another study by Richard J. B willies (1992) address the issues of work related stress in cracking the stress problem by replacing them in a number of recognizable context. He conducted a stress management program in many countries e. g. Britain, England, Scotland, Ireland.

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It examined the innovative ways in which these countries were trying to limit the damages caused by work related stress on employee productivity. Currently the performance of workers in Kenya agricultural research institute has been declining. It is for this reason that researcher’s thought there was a need for a thorough study in order to identify the cause this problem. Work related stress on employees of a given organization cannot be emphasized neither can be looked down upon. It is estimated that almost half of the KARI employees undergo work related stress and their stress needs are not well taken care of.

The huge backlog has caused many employees absentees and hostility derailing the organization target. This therefore calls for immediate action towards attaining a better solution. 1. 2 The Statement of the research problem Ogolla (2002:13) states that, the organization is a community of various categories of workers bound together by the same vision and mission and hence geared towards achieving a common goal of increased productivity, commercialization and competitiveness of the agricultural sector through generation and promotion of knowledge, information and technologies that respond to client demands and opportunities.

The problem of work related stress is a global one affects both developing and industrial countries (Tetty,2006:11). KARI is well for the role it plays in the welfare of Kenyan farmers by providing agricultural advice on new technology and developments in the agricultural sector. But of late, workers have been complaining of the amount of stress they face at work. This might be because of issues like straining at workplace and travelling to interior hardship areas which has led to poor performance thus compromising their effectiveness and competence. t is therefore quite imperative to identify these problems and if possible provide solutions that can help and end this menace. 1. 3 The purpose of the study The main purpose of carrying out this study is to find out which are the main stresses faced by workers of KARI and their possible solutions. The research findings will be taken to relevant authority for actions. It will also act as a guideline to the management in finding out how implementations can be made the study also opts to other similar organizations in structuring policies dealing with workers stress.

This will improve employees competence at work hence creating harmony at the place of work. 1. 4 Objectives of the study The study has a number of objectives which include: 1. To present the present state of work related stress. 2. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of work related stress and agricultural issue on KARI 3. To introduce, monitor and validate uniform procedures for recording and analyzing the work related stress data and information. 4. To explore important determinants of physical workload, illness symptoms, intervening and social factors of shift work. . To explain health, hygiene, safety issues for sustainable workplace improvement in KARI where physical work is intense but it’s a casual practice. 1. 5 Research questions 1. What is the general state of working conditions available to employees of the organization? 2. Which are the missing conditions that might be affecting employee productivity? 3. How employees in different departments relate to each other do and what effect does this relationship have to workers. 4. What are the possible appropriate solutions to overcome this shortcomings? 1. 6 Hypothesis

Work related stress has a relationship with employee productivity. 1. 7 The Scope of the study The study will be carried out in western province in Kenya, Kakamega County. The management structure and administration of KARI is basically the same in all KARI centers thus, the number selected will be a fair representation of the total number of employees in KARI as a whole. Under the inclusion exclusion criteria, KARI kakamega has been selected because of its rural setting and its proximity to the researchers. , kakamega also has an agricultural setting. 1. 8 Significance of the study

In an effort to curb work related stress, the significance of the study will enable the organization: i. Ensure that the workload is in line with workers capability and resources. ii. Design jobs to provide meaningful stimulation and opportunities for workers to use their skills. iii. Clearly define workers role and responsibility. iv. Give workers opportunities to participate in decision making and action affecting their jobs. v. Improve communication and reduce uncertainty about career development and future career prospects. vi. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. . 9 Description of key study variables. Conceptual framework. DEPENDENT VARIABLES EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY * Level of concentration * Territorial coverage * Number of clients DEPENDENT VARIABLES EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY * Level of concentration * Territorial coverage * Number of clients INDEPENDENT VARIABLES WORK RELATED STRESS * Role conflict * Management style * Work relation among employees * Employee turnover and absenteeism * Alcohol and drug abuse INDEPENDENT VARIABLES WORK RELATED STRESS * Role conflict * Management style * Work relation among employees Employee turnover and absenteeism * Alcohol and drug abuse MODERATING * Working conditions * Personal condition * Level of technology * Nature of supervision * Amount of work given MODERATING * Working conditions * Personal condition * Level of technology * Nature of supervision * Amount of work given CHAPTER TWO 2. 0: Introduction 2. 1: General overview of stress in workplace The effect of stress in workplace h to as led to 2. 2: Stress Factor There are a number of stress factors which influence the performance of employees. These factors can be divided into a number of grouping . nvironmental factors, job and organizational factors and personality factors. G. A Cole, noted that the stress factors that demand attention of the management of any organization: organizational factors, work relationships, job characteristics, External environment, Domestic factors, personal factors . This study is interested in investigating the influence of three stress factors ;External environment ,work relationship, job characteristics. 2. 2. 1: External Environment The external environment acts as an important factor that play a great role of stress in workplace especially when the organization is in decline .

On the case study of Kenya Agricultural research institute the external factors determine the success of the organization . some of the external factors are: Arrival of new technology, political change. Arrival of new technology may lead to reduction in jobs or the skill requirement or pressure to acquire new knowledge and skill which may lead to stress in the work place . Political changes may affect organization vulnerable to political influence . ie state owned business Kenya Agricultural institute is a good example of state owned business. 2. 2. 2: Work Relationship

This is the relationship reflected in the workplace. It will either a stress free condition or a stressful environment . All employees whom play part in the running of an organization determine this factors they include: Superiors, colleagues, own staff. Superiors-especially where individuals fail to achieve a reasonable working relationship with their immediate supervisor. Colleagues-an inability to get reasonable terms with fellow team members or collegue from other sections can source of considerable unhappiness. Own staff/other outside people-they can be a source of stress . e especially those dealing with customers all day long. 2. 2. 3: Job Characteristics Here the organization focuses on physical conditions . i. e. Role conflict. Role conflict i. e. Where the organization role is lead to confusion or don’t meet the job holders target. 2. 3: Organizational factors These factor involve: Management style, Organizational structure, organizational culture . 2. 3. 1: Management style Where the individual finds it difficult to adapt to his superior management style ie . because its too autocratic or too participative 2. 3. 2: Organizational structure

The pattern of jobs and the attendant rules and regulation constrain the individual range of choice in how to do the job. 2. 3. 3: Organizational Culture The dominant echoes is one for employee turnover operates in the policy. Culture determines the condition of an employee. 2. 4: The relationship between works related stress and Employee productivity. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 0 Introduction This chapter describes the research design and the methodology that shall be employed in carrying the study on the effect of work related stress in KARI kakamega implications on employee productivity.

It describes the study area, the target population, the sampling procedure, date collection intruments and data analysis processes. 3. 1 The research design A descriptive research design will be used since the study will be examining a social issue that exist in KARI kakamega. It will be used to describe the effect of work related stress in the institute and its impact on employee productivity. According to Richard J. B Willis (1992), descriptive data on stress is obtained through the use of questionnaires, interviews and observation methods. 3. 2 The study Area

KARI kakamega is located within kakamega municipality 1. 5 km south-east of the town Centre. It occupies an area of about 100 hectares and has a sub-Centre at Alupe in Teso district which occupies about 340nhectares. The Centre is located an altitude of 1585bmeters, within a high potential agro-ecological zone, and has an annual rainfall of 1850 mm. The Centre mandate covers currently 26 districts in Nyanza province. 3. 3 The Target Population The population of the study will be KARI staff. The study will target a total of 147(one hundred and forty seven) staff i. e. five from each department.

A staff according to KARI Act, 2004 refers to a scientist and humanities staff i. e. Centre director and his deputy, head of sections, administrative officer and his assistant, Centre accountant, supplies officer, transport officer, librarian, firm manager, laboratory technologist and technical officer. 3. 4 Sampling Procedure Stratified random sampling technique will be used. This approach is considered appropriate because it is to classify the population into designation according to the level of hierarchy 3. 5 sample size The sample of this study will consist of five staff drawn from each department.

This will constitute 60% of the population. According to Dr. A Njaili ghenekav(1960)and Gay(1972) 50% and 60% of the population is considered acceptable in descriptive research. Under the inclusion exclusion criteria KARI Kakamega has been selected because of its rural setting and its proximity to the researchers and kakamega has an agricultural setting. 3. 6 Data collection The institute administrator will be informed of the purpose and significance of the study and their role in it for permission to be granted for the go ahead with the study.

Discussion will be held with personnel administrators to determine the existence of a staff retention policy and how effective it is. Data collection will be based on primary and secondary data. Three enumerators will be engaged to assist in data collection. The questionnaire will be delivered to and collected from the respondents either in person or by the enumerators. The research tool will be a self-completion questionnaire with a mix of closed and a few open ended questions. Closed ended questions will solicit specific responses while open ended question question will solicit respondents own opinion.

According to kinoti (1998), the advantages of a questionnaire include a large coverage of population within a short time and less cost, anonymity of the respondents may enhance honesty in the answer, ensure uniformity and it allows respondents time on questions that would require reflection before answering then to avoid hasty response. 3. 7 Validity and reliability of the instrument According to Coolican (1999) reliability refers to a measure’s consistency in producing similar results on different but comparable occasions. Validity refers to the extent to which an instrument measures what it purports to measure.

According to Muganda and Mugenda (1999) the quality of the study demands that the tools or instruments used to collect the data yield the type of data that the researcher can use accurately support the research. To maximize validity and reliability of the data, properly constructed tools, appropriate data collection procedures and sampling techniques that target the right population and accurate data will be used in the study. 3. 8 Data Analysis Raw data will be coded and classified before analysis. Statistical package will be used to analyze the data.

The data will then be interpreted, conclusions and recommendations made. The typical statics that used are measures of dispersion and central tendency. The variance and standard deviation will be used as measure of dispersion while the mean, median and mode will be used as measures of central tendency. The variable with greater dispersion will indicate disparities within the university and so will be of great interest to the study. 3. 9 Presentation of findings This study shall employ the descriptive data analysis and inferential statistics.

These will inbolve tables, line graphs and pie charts . Centre director and his deputy , head of science section and their deputy’s administrator officer and their respective section heads. Random interviews and research studies have shown that there is a relationship between work related stress and employee productivity. Work related stress is a major factor in most organization globally, nationally, and even within our country Kenya. During our research we were able to collect secondary sources that were able to enlighten us on work stress globally.

Secondary source include any publication written by an author whom is not the direct participant of the event. (Richard J. B Willis) addresses the issues of work related stress in cracking the stress problem by placing them in a number of recognizable contexts. He conducted stress management programs in many countries. The UK`s health and safety executive tells us that the top seven stressed professions are teachers, nurses, managers, social workers, prison officers and road transport drivers. Did you spot yourself in the list?

From guardian financial survey educator 54% media specialist 51%proffesional service providers 50% information technologists 45% health providers 42%travel and leisure providers 39% financial service providers 34% accountants 25% manufacturers 20 % is still not listed perhaps among 150000 workers who have taken at least a month off sick due to work related illness 27% stressful office atmosphere and 19% who said that they don’t have enough desk space17% said the office is not modern, has enough light or air 12% technology 5% environment is not smoke free 4% lack companionship 13% office location 14% no enough space to meet with colleagues away from their desk. All this information is statistical information on the global level done through survey research.

Stress is essentially defined and must be understood with reference to characteristics of both the individual and his environment as its outcome of the two. Let’s focus on stress levels and work performance When stress increases beyond a certain point the individual is likely to find it difficult to cope up and thus the performance is adversely affected. Pressure on individual leads to stress symptoms and weakened job performance Pressure on individual acts as a spur to performance High Performances Low Low High Pressure on individual leads to stress symptoms and weakened job performance Pressure on individual acts as a spur to performance High Performances Low Low High

The logic of the diagram is that at lower levels of stress an individual functions perfectly capably, even better than other conditions but a higher levels the individual begins to develop stress symptoms and performance decline over time. Key factors in tress The key factors which influence work related stress have a number of grouping environmental factors, job and organizational factors etc. External Environment (Economic condition arrival of new tech) External Environment (Economic condition arrival of new tech) Organization Structure and Culture (organization culture) (management style) (organization structure) Organization Structure and Culture (organization culture) (management style) (organization structure) Job characteristics (Role conflicts) Job characteristics (Role conflicts) Individual stress (Perception of problem outcomes and self) Individual stress Perception of problem outcomes and self) Work Relationship (superiors, colleague’s & outsiders) Work Relationship (superiors, colleague’s & outsiders) SYMPTOM CHANGES * Depression * Phobia * obsession SYMPTOM CHANGES * Depression * Phobia * obsession CHANGES CHANGES PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES * High blood pressure * Back pain * ulcers PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES * High blood pressure * Back pain * ulcers BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES * Increase drug abuse * Absence * Aggression towards colleagues * Committing errors than normal * Taking longer overtasks employee turnover BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES * Increase drug abuse * Absence * Aggression towards colleagues Committing errors than normal * Taking longer overtasks employee turnover Work related stress in KARI During our research we used various methods in collecting data from the institute to be able to justify its affects to the organization on the ground. We interviewed an employee from KARI to be able to know if it’s a problem in the institute and yes it affects most employees on the organization. We have noted that it has affected the innovativeness terminal coverage number of clients that are served at the institute. Their moderating variable are working conditions, personal conditions, level of technology, nature of supervision, amount of work given.

As a group we have suggested ways of handling stress 1. Source of stress job characters Design work: allow job holders to share in positions that affect their work. Ensure clear work goals and targets that do not conflict with those set for others. 2. Work relationship Superiors can develop participative management style that allow for discussions for issues well appropriate, delegation of authority colleagues, accept fellow team members in a corporate spirit, team members support each other 3. Organizational structure Hierarchy of jobs reduced to the minimum (flatter structure) to permit wide use of skills and authority. Decision making process people at every level re able to share in decisions affecting their work and their future prospects results of decisions affecting employees are notified as soon as possible. 4. Organizational culture Attitude towards employees are positive even if customer first priority training, good salaries etc. PROVIDE APPROPRIATE TRAINNING FOR JOB AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PROVIDE APPROPRIATE TRAINNING FOR JOB AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PROVIDE COUNSELLING AS BACKUP MEASURES PROVIDE COUNSELLING AS BACKUP MEASURES ENSURE ADEQUATE REST AND HOLIDAY BUILT IN TO WORK CONTRACTS ENSURE ADEQUATE REST AND HOLIDAY BUILT IN TO WORK CONTRACTS Minimize bureaucracy Minimize bureaucracy PROVIDE ADEQUATE COMMUNICATION MECHANISM

PROVIDE ADEQUATE COMMUNICATION MECHANISM THE POTENTIAL FOR STRESS IN WORKPLACE THE POTENTIAL FOR STRESS IN WORKPLACE DESIGN WORK AROUND PEOPLE DESIGN WORK AROUND PEOPLE ENSURE ADEQUATE RESOUCES ESPECIALLY AUTHORITY AND DISCRETION ENSURE ADEQUATE RESOUCES ESPECIALLY AUTHORITY AND DISCRETION QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Personal details Age: Gender: male female Job positions: 2. Does KARI experience employment turnover? And why? 3. Do you experience work related stress? 4. Which are the moderating variables? 6. How has stress at work affected your productivity as an individual? 7. What do you suggest should be done to deal with stress at work? 8. Any other comment or remark?

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