3. Why did Britain consider India its “jewel in the crown”?
a. The industrial revolution had turned Britain into the world’s workshop, and India was a major supplier of raw materials for that workshop. Its 300 million people were also a large potential market for British made goods. It is not surprising, then, that the British considered India the brightest jewel in the crown, the most valuable of all of Britain’s colonies.
4. Why didn’t Indians untie against the British in the Sepoy Mutiny? a.
The Indians could not unite against the British due to the weak leadership and serious splits between Hindus and Muslims. Hindus did not want the Muslim Mughal Empire restored. Indeed, many Hindus preferred British rule to Muslin Rule. 5. What form did the British rule take under the Raj?
a. The British government took direct command of India. The term Raj refers to British rule after India came under the British crown during the reign of Queen Victoria.
A cabinet minister in London directed policy, and a British governor-general carried out the government’s orders. After 1877, this official held the title of viceroy
6. Making Inferences How did economic imperialism lead to India’s becoming a British colony? a. The British were much more powerful than Indians so it was easy for the British to take over. Once the British had control, they let the Indians have as little money and power as possible.
7. Evaluating Decisions What might the decision to grease the Sepoys’ cartridges with beef and pork fat reveal about the British attitude towards the Indians? a. The British did not care for the Indians. They disrespected the Indian and Muslim religions by greasing the cartridges with cow and pig fat. The Indians believed that cows were sacred and the Muslims did not eat pork.
8. Synthesizing How did imperialism contribute to unity and to the growth of nationalism in India? a. The Indians resented the British so much because of the power they had over the British country. The Indians eventually grew tired of British rule and wanted to rid India of British rule in the name of Nationalism.
9. Writing Activity Empire Building Write an editorial to an underground Indian newspaper detailing grievances against the British and Calling for self government. a. At first, the British Treasured India more for its potential than its actual profit. The industrial revolution had turned Britain into the world’s workshop, and India was a major supplier of raw materials for that workshop.
Its 300 million people were also a large potential market for British made goods. It is not surprising, then, that the British considered India the brightest jewel in the crown, the most valuable of all of Britain’s colonies. The British set up restrictions that prevented the Indian economy from operating on its own. British policies called for India to produce raw materials for British manufacturing and to buy British goods. In addition, Indian competition with British goods was prohibited. India became increasingly valuable to the British after they established a railroad network there. Railroads transported raw products from the interior to the ports and manufactured goods back again. On the negative side, the British held much of the political and economic power. The British restricted Indian-owned industries such as cotton textiles. The emphasis on cash crops resulted in a loss of self sufficiency for many villagers. The conversion to cash crops reduced food production, causing famines in the late 1800’s. The British officially adopted a hand off policy regarding Indian religious and social customs. Even so, the increased presence of British missionaries and the racist attitude of most British officials threatened traditional Indian life. By 1850, the British controlled most of the Indian subcontinent. However, there were many pockets of discontent. Many Indians believed that in addition to controlling their land, the British were trying to convert them to Christianity.
The Indian people also resented the constant racism that the British expressed towards them. As economic problems increased for India, so did the feeling of resentment and nationalism. In 1857, gossip spread among the sepoys, the Indian soldiers, that the cartridges of their new Enfield rifles were greased with beef and pork fat. To use the cartridges, the soldiers had to bite off the ends. Both Hindus, who considered the cow sacred, and Muslims, who do not eat pork, were outraged by the news. The quote “It is this consciousness of the inherent superiority of the European which has won for us India. However well educated and clever a native may be, and however brave he may prove himself, I believe that no rank we can bestow on him would cause him to be considered an equal of the British officer.” – Lord Kitchener. This quote shows just how ignorant the British were. There was no, and is no difference between British and Indian people except for their religious beliefs but that doesn’t make a British officer any better than in Indian.
The mutiny increased distrust between the British and the Indians. A political pamphlet suggested that both Hindus and Muslims “are being ruined under the tyranny and oppression of the treacherous English.” In the early 1800’s some Indians began demanding more modernization and a greater role in governing themselves. Ram Mohun Roy, a modern thinking, well-educated Indian, began a campaign to move India away from traditional practices and ideas. He believed that if the practices were not changed, India would continue to be controlled by the outsiders. Roy’s writing inspired other Indian reformers to call for adoption of Western ways. Roy also founded a social reform movement that worked for change in India. Besides modernization and Westernization, nationalist feelings started to surface in India. Indians hated a system that made them second class citizens in their own country.
They barred from top posts in the Indian Civil Service. Those who managed to get middle level jobs were paid less than Europeans. A British engineer on the East Indian Railway, for example, made nearly 20 times as much money as an Indian engineer. Indians were treated poorly in their own country. They faced racism, unfair working conditions that went against their religion, and very little pay. The British outsourced the Indians by taking over the economy, agriculture, and appointing themselves to the highest ranking jobs that were available. The British were arrogant and ethnocentric; they seized Indian land and imperialized quickly and without mercy.
Cite this Review questions for “Britain vs. India”
Review questions for “Britain vs. India”. (2016, Sep 29). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/review-questions-for-britain-vs-india/