Rizal’s Early Life and Education CHAPTER 1 A HERO WAS BORN The Birth of a Hero. Jose Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (“Jose” in honor of Saint Joseph) – June 19, 1861 (Wednesday) Calamba, Laguna “The delivery was exceedingly difficult, and the mother almost died. Her seemingly miraculous survival was attributed to Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage (Antipolo, Rizal). ” Baptism – June 22, 1861 by Rev. Rufino Collantes and Rizal’s godfather was Rev. Pedro Casanas Parents.
Rizal’s father, Francisco Mercado was born in Binan, Laguna on May 11, 1818. He was an educated farmer having studied Latin and Philosophy at the College of San Jose in Manila. He married Teodora Alonzo Realonda on June 28, 1848. Teodora was born in Manila on November 8, 1826. A graduate of Santa Rosa College, she was talented woman with high culture, business ability and literary gift. The Rizal Children. 1. Saturnina – married to Manuel T. Hidalgo 2. Paciano – married to a common-law wife 3.
Narcisa – married to Antonino Lopez 4. Olympia – married to Silvestre Ubaldo 5. Lucia – married to Mariano Herbosa 6. Maria – married to Daniel Faustino 7. JOSE – married to Josephine Bracken 8. Concepcion – died at the age of 3 9. Josefa – did not marry 10. Trinidad – did not marry 11. Soledad – married to Pantaleon Quintero Ancestry of Rizal. “In his veins flowed the bloods of both East and West – Negrito, Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Japanese and Spanish. Father side: Domingo Lam-co – Jose’s great-great-grandfather, a native of Chichew or China’s City of Spring Mother side: Lakan-Dula – ancestor, last Malayan king of Tondo Eugenio Ursua – Jose’s great-great-grandfather (Japanese) Manuel de Quintos – Dona Teodora’s maternal grandfather, a prominent Manila lawyer Cipriano Alonso – Jose’s great grandfather Both his father’s father and grandfather had been Capitanes (town mayors) of Binan Lorenzo Alberto Alonso – Jose’s grandfather, an engineer awarded by Spain as “Knight of the Grand Order of Isabela the Catholic” The Name Rizal.
Mercado – original family name adopted by Domingo Lam-co in 1731 which means market Governor Narciso Claveria – in 1849, he ordered the Filipino families to choose surnames from a list of Spanish family names. Since Jose’s father did not like the surnames from the list such as Cruz, Santos, Ramos, and Rivera, he chose his own surname Rizal, from Spanish word racial meaning “green field” or “new pasture” The Rizal Family. – One of the richest families.
They raised rice, corn and sugar; operated a sugar mill, flour mill and a homemade ham press; engaged in dye and sugar business and in the barter trade. Handout prepared by Group 1|B-4R PI10: Life and Works of Jose Rizal Page 1 Rizal’s Early Life and Education CHAPTER 2 CHILDHOOD YEARS IN CALAMBA Calamba ? During Rizal’s time, Calamba was a hacienda town which belonged to the Dominican friars who also owned the land around it. He loved his town with all his heart and soul so that when Rizal was 15 in Ateneo de Manila, he wrote Un Recuerdo Ami Pueblo (In Memory of My Town).
Age 7-8 ? June 6, 1868 – Jose and his father went on a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill his mother’s vow made during his birth, this was his first out-oftown visit. After playing to the shrine of antipolo, they visited Saturnina who was then a boarding student at La Concordia College in Sta. Ana. He wrote his first poem in the native language, Sa Aking Mga Kababata. He also wrote a tagalong comedy, his first dramatic work which is said to have been staged during a Calamba festival. The manuscript of the play was bought by a gobernadocillo from Paete for P 2. 00. hen I die, people will make a monuments and images of me! ” ? ? ? CHILDHOOD MEMORIES Age 3-4 ? His father built him a little cottage for him to play in during daytime because he was sickly and frail. an aya (nurse maid) was hired to look after him and often tells imaginary tales to the Rizal children; it aroused Rizal’s interest in legends and folklore In 1865, Concha (Concepcion), Rizal’s younger sister, died from sickness. Her death brought Rizal his first sorrow. ? ? The story of the moth ? The story of the moth left a deep impression on young Rizal’s mind.
He justified the noble death of the young moth who “died a martyr to its illusion,” by asserting that sacrificing one’s life for a noble ideal is worthwhile – which in turn became his fate also. ? Age 5-6 at the age of 5, he knew how to read their Spanish bible and also active in participating in novenas and procession, because of this, he was called Manong Jose by the Hermanos and Hermanas Terceras. ? He used to visit the scholarly and esteemed town priest, Fr. Leoncio Lopez, to listen to his opinions on current events and life philosophy. He began to make pencil sketches, and mould clay and wax objects. ? An anecdote is told about his sisters teasing him for spending too much time making wax and clay images rather than playing. He kept silent as they laughed but as they were departing, he told them: “All right laugh at me now! Someday Handout prepared by Group 1|B-4R PI10: Life and Works of Jose Rizal ? Influences on the Hero’s boyhood 1. ) Hereditary influence – the inherent quality which a person inherits from his ancestors 2. Environmental influence – environment affects the nature of a person. It includes the places, associates, and events. 3. ) Aid of Divine Providence – a person may have everything in life but without the aid of Divine providence, he cannot attain greatness. Page 2 Rizal’s Early Life and Education CHAPTER 3 FIRST SCHOOL BRAWL EARLY EDUCATION IN CALAMBA AND BINAN Calamba and Binan – early education Illustrado – characterized by reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion ? Rizal was born a physical weakling, but rose to become an intellectual giant ? ? Pedro, his classmate, laughed at Rizal’s answer in class and later on challenged by Rizal to a fight Rizal defeated Pedro in the fight due to having learned the art of wrestling from Tio Manuel On the same day, his classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match Rizal lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk FIRST TEACHER ? Dona Teodora – mother and first teacher who is patient, conscientious, and understanding who encouraged Rizal to write poems which stimulated his imagination and further memorize ABCs. PAINTING LESSONS IN BINAN ? Rizal and his classmate named Jose Guevarra spent many hours at the studio of the painter Juancho and they became the favorite painters of the class “My mother taught me how to read and to say haltingly the humble prayers which is raised fervently to God” ? ? Maestro Celestino and Maestro Lucas Padua – private tutors at home Leon Monroy – instructed Rizal in Spanish and Latin but died five months later ? DAILY LIFE IN BINAN Rizal’s life was methodical BEST STUDENT IN SCHOOL ? In academic studies, Rizal surpassed all Binan boys in Spanish, Latin, and other subjects His older classmates were jealous of his intellectual superiority which led them to tell lies to discredit him before the teachers’ eyes and punish him JOSE GOES TO BINAN ? ? Paciano accompanied him in leaving Calamba for Binan and acted as his second father Both of them proceeded to Rizal’s aunt’s house where they lodged for the night FIRST DAY IN BINAN SCHOOL ? ? Paciano accompanied Rizal to his former teacher, Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz Justiniano taught Rizal in the house of the teacher which was located 30m from the house of his aunt
END OF BINAN SCHOOLING ? Before the Christmas season in 1870, Rizal received a letter from his sister Saturnina, informing him of the arrival of steamer Talim which would take him from Binan to Calamba Before completely leaving Binan, he bade farewell to his teachers and classmates and collected pebbles in the river for souvenirs It was the first time that Rizal rode a steamer and on board was Arturo Camps, Frenchman friend of his father ? ? Handout prepared by Group 1|B-4R PI10: Life and Works of Jose Rizal Page 3 Rizal’s Early Life and Education CHAPTER 4 MARTYRDOM OF GOMBURZA ?
In 1872, Filipino soldiers and workmen of the Cavite arsenal rose in violent mutiny because of the abolition of privileges and forced labor by Governor Rafael de Izquierdo Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, leaders of the secular movement to Filipinize the Philippine parishes, were executed in spite of the archbishop’s plea for clemency Rizal knew the heroic story through his younger brother Paciano and he was inspired to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people RIZAL STUDIES AT ATENEO DE MANILA 1872: Rizal enters Ateneo de Manila ?
Four months after the martyrdom of GomBurZa and with Dona Teodora’s imprisonment, Jose was sent ot Manila and studied in Ateneo Municipal, a college under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits. Accompanied by Paciano, he took the entrance exams on Christian doctrines, arithmetic, and the reading at the College of San Juan de Letran. ? ? 1872-1873: First Year in Ateneo ? The class was divided into two groups, the Roman empire and the Carthaginian empire, who were in constant competition for supremacy in class.
Being a newcomer and knowing little Spanish, Rizal was placed at the bottom of the class and was assigned to the Carthaginians, occupying the end of line. INJUSTICE TO HERO’S MOTHER ? Before June of 1872, Dona Teodora was suddenly arrested on a malicious charge that she and her brother, Jose Alberto, tried to poison the latter’s perfidious wife The lieutenant and the Calamba’s gobernadorcillo, Antonio Vivencio del Rosario, who both frequently visited Rizal’s house arrested Dona Teodora The Spanish lieutenant forced Dona Teodora to walk from Calamba to Santa Cruz (capital of Laguna Province), a distance of 50km and imprisoned her there. 1873-1874: Second Year in Ateneo ? Nothing unusual happened to Rizal during his second year except that he repented having neglected his studies the previous year simply because he was offended by the teacher’s remarks. He studied harder and received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold at the end of the school year. ? 1874-1875: Third Year in Ateneo ? Rizal’s grade remained excellent in all subjects but failed to received a medal in Spanish because his Spanish speaking skill was not that impressive. 1875-1876: Fourth Year in Ateneo Handout prepared by Group 1|B-4R PI10: Life and Works of Jose Rizal Page 4 ?
Rizal was inspired by Fr. Francisco de Paulo Sanchez, a great educator and scholar, to study harder and to write poetry. By this, Rizal Rizal’s Early Life and Education resumed his study with vigor and zest. He topped in all subjects and won five medals. 1876-1877: Last Year in Ateneo ? The most brilliant Atenean of his time, he was truly “the pride of Jesuits”; finished his last year at Ateneo in a blaze glory. He obtained the highest grades in all subjects – philosophy, physics, biology, chemistry, languages, mineralogy, etc. He graduated with highest honors and received a Bachelor of Arts at the age of 16. CHAPTER 5
COLLEGE LIFE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF STO. TOMAS (1877-1882) ? ? Rizal’s mother, Dona Teodora, opposed the idea of letting Rizal study in college, she’s afraid that her son might have the same fate as the Gomburza had. Don Francisco encouraged Rizal to pursue his study and secretly sent him to Manila. ? FRESHMAN YEARS (1877-1879) April 1877- Jose was enrolled at the University of Sto. Tomas with the course on Philosophy and Letters ? Reasons for taking the course: * Don Francisco liked the course for him * Jose Rizal, at that time, was still not sure what career path to take ? ? He simultaneously studied in Ateneo and UST.
He took a vocational course in Ateneo and entitled to be a perito agrimensor (expert surveyor) on Nov. 25, 1881. Extra-curricular activites in Ateneo ? He was active in extra-curricular activities. An “emperor” inside the classroom, he was a leader outside. He was an active member of the following organizations: Marian Congregation (religious organization) and the Academy of Natural Sciences (exclusively for those gifted in literature and sciences). ? Rizal cultivated not only his literary talent, through writing poems and dramas, but also his skill in fine arts by engaging in painting and sculptures. 878 – he transferred from Philosophy and Letters to Medical course. ? Reason for transferring: Cure his mother’s growing blindness RIZAL’S LOVE INTERESTS ? “Miss L” ? He courted this young woman from Calamba but eventually stopped his romance with the girl because of two reasons: *Don Francisco did not like Miss L’s family *Rizal still had feelings for Segunda Katigbak ? Her identity is still unknown because Rizal did not reveal the identity of this woman from his journals. ? Handout prepared by Group 1|B-4R PI10: Life and Works of Jose Rizal Leonor Valenzuela (Orang) Page Rizal’s Early Life and Education ? Daughter of Capitan Juan and Capitana Sanday Valenzuela from Pagsanjan, Laguna He courted Orang and secretly sending his love letters written in invisible inks. Organization/Societies ? Companerismo (Compradeship) ? This is a secret society founded in 1880, with Rizal as the chief and his cousin Galicano Apacible as secretary. An organization that fought against Spanish students who insulted and discriminated the Filipino students. ? ? Leonor Rivera (Taimis) ? Rizal’s cousin from Camiling, Tarlac; daughter of his uncle Antonio Rivera ? ?
LITERARY PIECES HE WROTE DURING HIS COLLEGE LIFE ? ? During his college life, Rizal spent his time writing poems, novels, and other literary pieces. A La Juventud Filipina – The poem got the first prize from the literary contest of Liceo-ArtisticoLiterario The first ever poem written by a Filipino and was recognized by Spanish literary authorities El Consejo de los Dioses – This allegorical drama also bagged the first prize in a literary contest. The Spaniards contested the decision, but still, Rizal was awarded the first prize and he was given a golden ring on which Cervantes’ bust was engraved.
Junto al Pasig – It is a zarzuela staged by the students of Ateneo in line with the celebration of the Feast day of Immaculate Concepcion. A Filipinas – A sonnet written in 1880. In this sonnet, he encouraged all Filipino artists to glorify the Philippines. Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma – A poem written in 1879, declaimed by Manuel Fernandez, an Antenean, in honor of the Ateneo’s Patroness Al M. R. P. – He wrote this poem as an expression of affection and thanksgiving to Father Ramon for his unending help during his college days.
Father Pablo Ramon – Ateneo Rector who gave advices to Rizal during his college days. He Encouraged Rizal to take medical course in UST. Why is he “unhappy” in UST? * Dominican professors unfavored him or being hostile to him; * Filipino students were discriminated by Spanish students * Teaching method was obsolete and repressive Main Reference: Zaide, G. F. & Zaide, S. M. (2012). Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and Writing of a Genius, Writer, Scientist, and National Hero. 2nd ed. 1-56 pp. ? ? ? ? ? Handout prepared by Group 1|B-4R PI10: Life and Works of Jose Rizal Page 6