Sociology of Tourism – Pro Poor Tourism

Table of Content

Introduction We have to understand the several concepts by means of definition and its integration. •Tourism Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity. ” In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes. In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its “Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism”, which involves residents of the given country travelling only within this country; “Inbound tourism, involving non-residents travelling in the given country; and Outbound tourism, involving residents travelling in another country” •Poverty is the shortage of common things such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, all of which determine the quality of life. It may also include the lack of access to opportunities such as education and employment which aid the escape from poverty and/or allow one to enjoy the respect of fellow citizens. According to Mollie Orshansky who developed the poverty measurements used by the U. S. overnment, “to be poor is to be deprived of those goods and services and pleasures which others around us take for granted. ” Usually measured by people living on less than $1 a day Poverty and tourism is integrated in the form of pro-poor tourism and can be summarised as an approach that seeks to utilize tourism as strategic tool to alleviate poverty among the marginalized communities. Any form of tourism can contribute to poverty reduction. For this to happen, specific ways need to be identified in which tourism businesses as well as tourists can directly and indirectly generate benefits for the poor. This is what Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT) is all about.

PPT can be defined as tourism which provides net benefits for poor people. PPT is not a specific tourism product or sector. It is not the same as eco-tourism or community-based tourism, although these forms of tourism can be pro-poor; i. e. they can bring net benefits to the poor. QUESTION 1 1. 1)Discuss the forces in tourism that can alleviate poverty Tourism is a massive and growing industry already affecting millions of the poor, so a marginal improvement could generate substantial benefits. Also, tourism has advantages over other sectors in relation to poverty reduction. Tourism is a very diverse industry which increases the scope for wide participation (e. g. informal sector).

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In tourism, the customer comes to the product, offering opportunities to make additional sales (linkages). Tourism is more labour-intensive than many other sectors, such as manufacturing, and employs a higher proportion of women. Tourism products can be built on natural and cultural resources which are often some of the few assets that the poor have. Tourism may have potential in countries and areas which have little other competitive export. Figure 1. 1) The forces of tourism. Source: The competitive destination (2003) According to Ritchie and Grouch (2003:80) several forces affects tourism in various ways. Mention was made with relevance to the destination and the following forces can contribute to poverty alleviation. Geographical – tourism are not bound by geographical areas in developed countries due to infrastructural completeness. Yet remote locations in third world countries could negatively influence the community by means of restricted access. This ‘unexplored’ community can be a destination by itself due to its attraction of being undiscovered. Inventive entrepreneurs in conjunction with community leaders could promote this fact in a strategic way in order for the geographical force to be positive. •Demographical & Socio cultural – tourism can be segmented but due to an increase in diversity of lifestyles, poor communities can easily target certain specific markets such as below extracted travellers.

A large percentage of travellers is keen to explore cultural facets of aimed communities and is aware of the impact of tourism on poor cultures. Ethical consumers of tourism products •28% of holidaymakers had an understanding that tourism can have negative impacts on local cultures. •37% of holidaymakers tried to learn about the local culture before they travelled. 11% of consumers were concerned that the economic impacts of tourism for the destination’s economy were not as great as expected •Just fewer than forty percent of holidaymakers in the survey cited that experiencing ‘local cultures’ is an important enjoyment factor for their holiday. According to Mintel’s clustering: The ‘researchers’ (20%) were likely to try to learn about local culture and they were concerned about environmental impacts; they also may have sought a holiday with an ethical code. They tended to be from a wide variety of age groups (20–64), but predominantly from pre-family and empty-nester life-stages •The ‘ethically aware’ (11%) were mainly concerned with environmental impacts of tourism, but also aware of socio-cultural issues and the risk of negative impacts. They were predominantly young (25-44) & affluent Source: Mintel 2001b •Climatic & Environmental forces have a very large impact on PPT, especially European travellers, as defined by the dramatic increase over the years to (for example) beach communities.

In South Africa there is a similar advantage of a warm climate being a major attraction. Educated travel are increasing due to the growth of the information age, impacts on the environment is more and more grasped and local communities can embrace environmental initiatives that will promote sustainability and produce upliftment; such as cleaning operations and animal preservation programmes in conjunction with government •Political: Mmatsatsi Marobe, Chief Executive Officer of the TBCSA explains “With the contribution of tourism to GDP continuing to grow, the latest statistics putting its contribution at 8% – this was surely an industry with great potential to drive economic growth, oreign investment and job creation, hence the requirement for a singularly focused Ministry. ” Favourable political weather is always a draw card. If we have to look at Rwanda and the opportunities it has from a tourism perspective to aid poverty of its citizens, versus the unstable political climate, then clear conclusions can be drawn from this •Economical force can be derived from community upliftment programmes where poor communities can benefit from tourism in that money is spent in various ways within the community through the purchase of accommodation, food, beverage, experiences and memorabilia. Local citizens are employed and products and good is supplied and/or sourced locally. Technological – small companies can be large on the internet thanks to globalisation and the web enabled world market place. Little is needed from a PPT community to have a website promoting their efforts and destination. Aside from technology in operations, the main focus should initially be marketing. 1. 2)Discuss strategies that can be adopted by a country to alleviate poverty using tourism Any one strategy requires complete information and path to the planned outcome, its key result areas and feature check points and remedial action should it derail before completion. Strategy can be defined as: “an action plan for running a business and conduction operations” Hough (2008:4).

Reducing poverty is a business on its own. According to Jamieson (2004:13) various strategies can be used to alleviate poverty through tourism such as •PPT development zones •Increased assistance for SMME’s •Reinvestment in current projects •Demonstration / training projects •Reducing foreign exchange leakage •Livelihood improvement approach With the poverty come various challenges, such as no access to information, no (or limited) financial assistance, no basic needs fulfilment and the lack of willingness as a result. Any one country can target poverty through communicating successful pilot projects. Benefit of such programmes has to be highlighted in order to get a larger buy in.

Usually rural areas are coupled with poverty and high unemployment. These areas can be the target of pilot programmes and constant monitoring after implementation is essential. Corporate social responsibility programmes can be made a minimum requirement for large companies, and instead of companies choosing their own communities, a list of communities and its area can be stipulated following training and guidance. This responsibility has to be enforced in order to be sustainable. Employment and business development as a strategy will yield the largest payoff and sound decision regarding these specific outcomes needs to be strategized. At the end of the day we want to help the poor make money.

Capacity building, training and empowerment of communities in order to pass skills that can be sold in the form of a service or product, and/or even enable people to get a regular job, even if it is outside tourism. Decentralised local leadership as a strategy driving the programmes (also called ‘champions’) to be supported and empowered. Leaders to be identified equipped with skills, knowledge and abilities to motivate the community. These leaders should act as an example of the programme’s benefits and possible future. Access to resources through local business intervention and partnerships. Small businesses can be used as an act agent to sell/promote local community products as a start, buying from local suppliers and establishing relationships to promote independent communities.

Boyd (2000) also lists some strategies aimed at economic benefits, improving living conditions, and community participation and involvement. Federated Hospitality Association of Southern Africa (Fedhasa) has successfully established itself over many years since 1949. This body has realised the possibilities of local tourism and assisted many small communities to become destinations for tourists. In its plan to expand tourism, it has uplifted many rural areas through advice, support and marketing (without ‘throwing’ money at the initiative). Today it is still a body that generates money only through annual membership fees and manage to raise funds for all its other needs. Looking at Soweto, its past and present tourist attractions is another example of tourism as an acting agent.

Currently there are many tour operators, bed & breakfast establishments and restaurants thanks to a successful initiative. These are examples and business models that are available for use in South Africa, and similar programmes can be used in pilot projects. The outcome of various available strategies is available and can be amended to suite the specific project with ease. Management principles will always apply to all projects namely, planning, organising, leading and control. The largest obstacle will be in applying these principles prior to the project delivering positive results, in other words to keep it going even if no benefit has been achieved will be the most challenging part of the project. Question 2 2. ) Discuss the benefits from tourism with regards to PPT development We could distinguish three areas of benefit: (i) the destination, (ii) economic impact, (iii) livelihood impacts (WTTC, 2003) states that the following destination benefits will result from PPT •A safer destination – less likeliness of hostile behaviour due to uplifted environment •A more attractive destination – due to understanding that a destination has to be a pleasing experience •Overall enhanced effect of the destination – people, products or services, and physical feel improved. Earnings and economic participation •Job creation, all positions should be filled from the local community unless specific skills and expertise is needed. Training should be conducted to empower people in order for them to progress and grow. Enterprise development, through the use of local supplies, suppliers and availability of credit, resources, business advice, investment and training. •Income for whole community, via inclusion of the whole area by means of infrastructure development, land utilisation and receiving lease fees or rental income Livelihood impacts can also be noted as a specific benefit; in that people’s lives generally are improved without focussing on the financial aspects. Here notable contributors can include: •Access to water, sanitation & electricity in the case of successful zone development •Access to information and communication from participation in tourism •Access to markets through tourism especially in remote areas. Physical security due to area and people improvement usually as a result of instilled pride and optimism from successful ventures Community centre development, as explained in certain case studies, reveal the following benefits •Entrenched community ownership rights as well as formalised structures and increased legal authority. With these comes social and institutional empowerment. •Enable communities to gain access to sustainable resources to generate employment and income generating opportunities. •The centre will facilitate the building of capacity and development of skills that promote sustainable lifestyles within communities. •Job creation, in specific for the actual community in question. Income generation and informal sector employment: The income generated from day visitors as well as longer term volunteers and students will provide an income for the centres as well as for the villagers that host and accommodate these guests. •Facilitate the establishment of further community forums providing a platform for effective collaboration, co-management initiatives and information sharing between communities and stakeholders •Successful projects can give lead to new initiatives around the country. •Through the strengthening of culture, capacity building workshops, a gathering space for recreation and learning, opportunities will be created to regroup, energise and heal the communities. 2. ) Discuss the role of the government in the alleviation of poverty with regards to tourism interventions It is true that tourism is an industry that is driven by the private sector, however there is much that governments can do to shape the way in which it develops and a number of different policy measures that can be used at different levels to enhance its impact on poverty. National policy framework It is not just tourism policy that influences the development of the industry in any particular destination; in fact, many countries where tourism occurs do not have a tourism policy. Tourism influences and is influenced by broader economic development strategies and sectoral policies.

Ensuring the national policy framework supports Pro-Poor Tourism requires: •Regional economic policies, rural regeneration policies, and local land-use planning that include a realistic assessment of the potential for tourism, and identified ways to develop it at priority sites. Devolution of rights and revenue fees across levels of government that provide incentives, not discouragement, for councils and local bodies to invest in tourism. •A national economic policy framework that includes realistic assessment of comparative advantages of tourism. •Coherence and effective institutional linkages between the tourism ministry or division and economic development ministries.

Poverty reduction strategies and other elements of a poverty programme that address how to make the structure of national growth more pro-poor, and increase investment in Pro-Poor Tourism measures such as land policy in particular is critical. Communities with secure land are in the strongest position to manage tourism on their land and gain their share of benefits. Pro-Poor Tourism case studies have shown that “extent to which economic empowerment of local communities takes place is intricately linked to the nature and extent of the land rights of those rural communities. ” PP Strategies 2001:42. Land ownership, while desirable, is not essential.

There are a number of institutional arrangements whereby communities can gain rights over tourism resources without necessarily owning land. The apparent fluidity of land tenure can be as important as the current status, as uncertainty deters private investment. Appropriate regulations: Good policy must be followed up by good implementation, and this means the development of tourism regulations that (i) do not discourage development unnecessarily; (ii) are not biased against the poorer and (iii) maximise opportunities to encourage or require operators to incorporate pro-poor measures into their business practice. Pro-poor planning: There are a number of specific policy tools that national and local governments can use to maximise poverty impacts.

These include: •setting tourism development objectives that include the goals of stimulating local economic development; •product development plans that include rural/ cultural/ adventure/ community tourism, or other products suitable to development in poorer areas and by small-scale entrepreneurs and for which there is a defined market; •using tourism planning procedures that include consultation, and influence citing to increase physical access of the poor to tourism markets, infrastructure and services; •including pro-poor criteria in concession or licensing procedures for access to sites within protected areas, wildlife quotas, or other tourism development sites. Question 3 3. ) Discuss the barriers to the development of PPT Before discussion we can look at obvious barriers without much research. These barriers are regarded as general to the demise of any development in the country currently. -Ownership -Management control -Affirmative procurement -Employment equity -Skills development -Enterprise development -Social development Much has already been written on the constraints on tourism development and this area under discussion has attracted many researchers in the field of tourism. Initially Gauci, Gerosa and Mwalwanda (2002) states: “A number of factors have undermined tourism development in many African regions.

These factors include poor infrastructure, such as roads, electricity and water supplies; insufficient accommodation; unsatisfactory public health services; poor telecommunication facilities, and in a number of cases security problems”. Christie and Crompton (2001) advanced: “the quality of Africa’s resource endowment for tourism is exceptional, but most countries have only barely developed their tourism potential”. The same authors continue that, there is a situation in many African countries where a low percentage of tourism revenues stay in the local market due to imported goods and services because sometimes of the poor quality, reliability and competitiveness of local products in the market. This amount subtracted from the revenue of the destination produces a leakage to its tourism industry.

If African countries are to be successful in competing in the international tourism market, standards of excellence must be introduced for its products, particularly for infrastructure, accommodation and services. Another important issue affecting tourism as predicted by Edgell (1995 quoted in Eccles and Costa; 1996) on politics and tourism notes that many countries are using the industry as a generator of income and employment and that these variables could actually be enhanced further if barriers to international tourism can be reduced or eliminated. It is possible to identify a number of issues relating to the development of tourism in Africa the issues are really of two kinds: those for the tourism industry itself and issues for African governments (Dieke, 2001: 291). The same researcher states that the problems in Africa’s tourism are closely related to structural imbalances in its overall development pattern. There are no clear strategies for development in general or for tourism in particular, and tourism has not been integrated with other economic sectors”. Many potential tourists think that Africa suffers from a poor security and that destroys the quality image of the continent. Whereas many countries are safe to visit, the global image about Africa is still to be changed. According to Gauci et al (2002) the regional conflicts that sporadically break out and the insecurity in some countries are also affecting those nations that are not directly involved; many destinations are thus mistakenly caught up in this negative perception.

They added that income, institutions, the political environment and human capital have been identified amongst the critical contributors to Africa’s development, to help the continent to achieve its development goals, i. e. poverty reduction, social development, real per capita income growth, health improvement, equity distribution of resources, political stability. The WTO (2006) maintains that Africa suffers from a poor security and quality image. The level of economic and statistical measurement is still wholly inadequate in many African countries and often confined to a simple count of the number of arrivals at airports or a few hotels. It continues saying that heads of States and governments, financial institutions and the general public are still insufficiently aware of tourism’s economic importance for their countries.

But extremely meagre resources are therefore allocated to national tourism administrations which are not regarded as having priority. By the same token, the tourism sector accounts for a small part of the technical and financial assistance that the African countries receive, because financial backers attach little importance to it. Another major weakness is the lack of a business environment able to set up a financial system suited to cater for the special needs of SMME businesses, like the tourist ones. The development of tourism, especially in a previously undeveloped part of a country, requires the existence of infrastructures, hotel accommodation and other facilities specific to tourism (Archer & Cooper 1994: 76).

As tourism continues to grow in the country, the infrastructures and other facilities like transport should expand proportionally. According to the charter for sustainable tourism development, “tourism must be based on the diversity of opportunities offered by the local economy. It should be fully integrated into and contribute positively to local economic development. ” Brown (1998: 69) argues that the major issues affecting the development of the tourism industry in many African countries include: •massive debt burdens; •ecological sustainability; •natural resource management; •infrastructure •impact monitoring; •eco tourism education; •integrated regional planning; •marketing; •And involvement of local citizens.

According to Keyser (2002: 304), the development of tourism in a country or region can be constrained by economic and non-economic factors which follow: •limited access to financial markets, to mobilize investment funds for developing tourist facilities and services; •limited confidence of international and domestic investors in making the necessary investments in tourism; •fiscal considerations; complicated taxation requirements and procedures on tourism enterprises; •the availability of labour; •limited budgetary allocations to the tourism sector; •piracy of skilled labour from existing enterprises by new operations; •lack of integration and fragmentation in the tourism industry; •limited promotion of tourism both internally and internationally; •limited statistical data on tourism, which deters conducting detailed •analysis of tourism; and •Lack of market intelligence; not understanding which tourist is ‘high value’.

The organisation of the African tourism sector has been inadequate, which has contributed to a lack of profitability in many operations, and promotion prospects are poor, with massive reliance on expatriate staff (Dieke 2003, 291). The same author affirms that another major challenge is the need to develop human resources, both for reasons of delivering quality services for tourists, as well as enhancing general skills of the local workforce. The lack of skilled tourism professionals, both from the public and the private sectors, is one of the main barriers for the tourism development in many countries. Human resources are also crucial in developing tourism potentials, here we mean qualified personnel in tourism and hospitality.

David Blanton (1981: 117) stated that ‘the industry workers should be presented with a coherent approach which creates an awareness of the rationale for the industry, the influence of culture on behaviour, the logic behind rules, and the ethics behind responsibilities’. Bressers and Rosenbaum (2000: 532) noted three interrelated challenges to implementing sustainable development strategies: •gaining legitimacy for the new policies/ changes especially when their rationale is not fully understood or seen as incompatible with societal and cultural norms; •developing integration of the changes within a body of policies priorities; •Developing the requisite capabilities to mobilise support and power •resources to formulate and implement the new policies.

Tourism development has resulted in a wide range of social and structural transformations of tourism destinations. Tourism accelerates economic development and social improvement in many countries including African countries. However, if not well managed brought a profound impact on sustainable tourism. To reach this sustainability there are barriers that need to be overcome. From a global perspective, many tourism destinations are confronted with these challenges of balancing the benefits and adverse effects from tourism development and its impact on residents. In response to these challenges, there is a need for an effective planning to sustainable tourism 3. ) Discuss the type of organisations that are involved in the alleviation of poverty In any tourism sector there are usually three main entities involved in alleviation of poverty as follow: -Government – the largest organisation with regard to the ability to enforce poverty assistance, usually through legislation such as national qualification framework through Seta’s. -Private sector (including corporate companies) – accommodation providers, tour operators, travel agents, training institutions, transportation providers, through social responsibility programmes, learnerships, and community projects. -Non-governmental organisations (NGO’s), usually partially funded companies with zero profit aims.

Other subsector organisations can include -The Development bank of South Africa -International development agency -Tourism organisations -Donor funded government programmes -Suppliers and partners to the three main entities listed above. Careful consideration must be given to the extent of the involvement of companies. Reason for this is that questions may be raised as the true reason for any company’s involvement – whether they (companies) are only complying due to legislation, or (unseen) profitability through undue influence on community suppliers / services. A real poverty alleviating contributing company has to comply and unconditionally, and have a pro poor strategy.

The following linkages could help to explain the above statement. Figure 1. 2) Linkages between companies and local communities. Source:www. propoortourism. org. uk The “COMPANY” above in the centre refers to one of many organisations that can be involved in poverty alleviation, and can link to them in the following ways: (i)Local tourism enterprises – examples could include township tours, craft producers, curio shops and home stays. The linkage can be through enabling the local enterprise market access and assist them in product development such as assistance to cheaper raw materials. (ii)SMME Businesses – agricultural businesses (fruit & vegetable), arts and crafts.

Assistance/link to the company through product development, such as cheaper and more effective production process and procurement. (iii)Local staff – using people from the immediate area through effective interviewing and recruiting, by matching the skill to the job. Training initiatives is imperative to enable people to grow, and promoting their skills and ultimately their livelihood. Skills development programmes can be facilitated by the company as a link, and people can spend some time at the company to observe, learn and implement at their village (iv)Residents, neighbours – the local community can establish forums such as neighbourhood watch, or security that will enhance the area, this can benefit residents, businesses and visitors.

The company can link and assist by sharing services in that the forum covers the company’s interests as well. Training on the issues can be facilitated by them company as we as assistance with the planning and implementation phase. (v)Community organisation – such as working with a tribal authority or developing a community trust. The company can assist through joint ventures, or equity and revenue share. To conclude we can see there is an array on companies involved and almost any type of company can adopt a PPT strategy and link to them. The links will vary depending the stakeholders involved and the approach taken by the company. Question 4 4. ) Discuss whether the future tourism development agenda should also focus on alleviating other problems in society in addition to poverty. 4. 2) Discuss why tourism can be a beneficial force in society I will attempt to answer the two questions together as the one leads to the other, thus development of tourism focussing on a broader context other than tourism itself, will lead to beneficial forces in society addressing social problem alleviation other than poverty. Therefore yes, the future tourism development agenda should focus on alleviating other problems and by doing so it can be a positive force in society. I shall motivate as follow: Today, tourism is one of the largest and dynamically developing sectors of external economic activities.

Its high growth and development rates, considerable volumes of foreign currency inflows, infrastructure development, and introduction of new management and educational experience actively affect various sectors of economy, which positively contribute to the social and economic development of the country as a whole. Most highly developed western countries, such as Switzerland, Austria, and France have accumulated a big deal of their social and economic welfare on profits from tourism. According to recent statistics, tourism provides about ten percent of the world’s income and employs almost one tenth of the world’s workforce. All considered tourism’s actual and potential economic impact is astounding.

Many people emphasize the positive aspects of tourism as a source of foreign exchange, as a way to balance foreign trade. Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. These can include violence, pollution, injustice, suppression of human rights, discrimination, crime and religious matters to name a few. Social issues are related to the fabric of the community, including conflicts among the interests of community members, and lie beyond the control of any one individual. Socially tourism has a great influence on the host societies.

Tourism can be both a source of international amity, peace and understanding and a destroyer and corrupter of indigenous cultures, a source of ecological destruction, an assault of people’s privacy, dignity, and authenticity. Here are possible positive effects of tourism: •Developing positive attitudes towards each other •Learning about each other’s culture and customs •Reducing negative perceptions and stereotypes •Developing friendships •Developing pride, appreciation, understanding, respect, and tolerance for each other’s culture •Increasing self-esteem of hosts and tourists •Psychological satisfaction with interaction Social contacts between tourists and local people may result in mutual appreciation, understanding, tolerance, awareness, learning, family bonding respect and liking.

Residents are educated about the outside world without leaving their homes, while their visitors significantly learn about a distinctive culture. Local communities are benefited through contribution by tourism to the improvement of the social infrastructure like schools, libraries, health care institutions, internet cafes, and so on. If local culture is the base for attracting tourists to the region, it helps to preserve the local traditions and handicrafts which maybe were on the link of the extinction. On the other side tourism can increase tension, hostility, and suspicion. Claims of tourism as a vital force for peace are exaggerated. “Indeed there is little evidence that tourism is drawing the world together’ (Robinson 1999).

In this context economic and social impacts on the local community depend on how much of the incomes generated by tourists go to the host communities. In most all-inclusive package tours more than eighty percent of traveller fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and workers. On the other hand large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing local farmers and workers from reaping the benefit of their presence. Tourism has the power to affect cultural change. Successful development of a resource can lead to numerous negative impacts. Among these are overdevelopment, assimilation, conflict, and artificial reconstruction.

While presenting a culture to tourists may help preserve the culture, it can also dilute or even destroy it. The point is to promote tourism in the region so that it would both give incomes and create respect for the local tradition and culture. There are also both negative and positive impacts of tourism on the local ecology. Tourism often grows into mass-tourism. It leads to the over consumption, pollution, and lack of resources. However, from the ecological point of view tourism is often more acceptable and preferable than any other industrial production, as it is environmentally friendlier. The problem is that it is not easy to change the traditional way of life of the local communities.

It often creates pseudo conflicts. Undoubtedly in some regions or countries the alternative industries are even more harmful to the environment than tourism. Besides that in many countries of Asia and the Pacific, for example in Cook Islands, Samoa and others, tourism is the main source of income or the friendliest to the environment. It is at least better than chopping down the forests or destroying coral reefs. Thus, the preceding paragraphs show that the impact of tourism on local communities can be both positive and negative, whether it comes to economic, social, or environmental effects. It depends to which extent tourism is developed in a particular region.

Every region has its bearing capacity, that is to say the limit of the incoming influence that does not harm the host community. If we overcome that limit negative impacts of tourism will follow. In order to decrease the negative effects on local societies we can check the following points when arranging a tourism activity in a region or taking part in it: •Are local people involved in the tourism industry as employees? •Does the organization cooperate with the local businesses? •Does it have a respectful attitude to the local culture? •Is there respect to nature and how is it protected? •How much economic benefit will the local population get from tourism? •Are tour operators concerned about ecological hotels, transport, and restaurants?

We can see it is a great challenge to make a profitable business running tourism in an area without some negative effect to the local communities. It is possible for the tourism industry to cooperate with other industries and bring benefits to both the tourism organizations and local businesses. The first step to achieve it is to understand the needs and desires of both the host community and the tourists. Cape Town city tourism development framework has successfully rolled out since 1996. We see amongst many awards received by the city, one for second most desirable world (tourism) destination (www. sagoodnews. co. za), and the world mayor of the year award in 2008 received by Helen Zille. (www. outhafrica. info). The framework did not only address tourism, but looked at all facets making tourism work for the province. The overall objective was to provide a framework that will enable public and private sector to “take the city to new heights”. An important lesson learnt from discussions with representatives of destinations such as Melbourne, Miami, Dublin and Barcelona, is that balance between tourism and other objectives such as encouraging investment, commercial development, socio-economic upliftment and poverty alleviation is possible. It requires drive, prioritisation, co-operation, alignment and integration, but it is achievable.

Certain sociological improvements were identified such as: •the creation of a vibrant environment rich in affordable opportunities and choices; •economic growth, prosperity and job creation; •social well-being through providing for basic needs of housing, health, education and welfare; •the protection and enhancement of the city’s beauty and unique natural, built and social environments; •the creation of an adaptable urban structure; •increasing levels of safety, comfort and confidence; •openness and accountability in decision-making; •the efficient use of all resources; and •the management of natural and built environment to meet the needs of existing and future generations.

Economic growth of approximately three percent per annum is predicted over the next five years, supported by increasing strength in the construction, tourism, industrial niches and the financial services sectors. The following sectors are seen to have significant growth potential: •tourism and the convention and events industry; •high-technology industries and services; •film, video, and media; •medical services and equipment; •financial services; and •manufacturing (specifically – beverages, printing and publishing, quality clothing, crafts, petro-chemical products, electronic components) Tourism can be seen as a long arm to uplift all spheres of a destination.

The wide range of positive effect, if deployed widely, can reach further than just a hotel room with breakfast. Conclusion In essence, PPT is an overall approach to tourism development and management aiming at unlocking opportunities for the poor to obtain benefits from tourism. There is overlap between PPT and sustainable tourism. The latter refers to tourism that leads to the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. The main thrust is on environmental sustainability.

Social benefits are just one aspect of sustainability, whereas for PPT poverty is the core focus and environmental sustainability is a means to that end Challenges usually includes the sustainability of any project, and the lack of monitoring the accompanying issues that third world countries bring, such as corruption and unequal distribution of wealth. Bibliography •Apostolopoulos, Y. , Leivadi, S. , Yiannakis, A. , (1991) The sociology of tourism: theoretical and empirical investigations. New York: Routledge Unknown Author (Unknown date) Finally another useful definition of the scope of LED policy [online]. Available from www. sacities. net/downloads/PROpoorLED. d. [Accessed 2 August 2009. ] •Arch, G. , Woodside, M. , (2008) Business & Economics Tourism management: analysis, behaviour and strategy. Boston College: Boston. •Ashley, C. , Boyd, C. , Goodwin, H. (2000) Pro Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the heart of the Tourism Agenda. [online].

Available from www. propoortourism. org. [Accessed 31 July 2009. ] •Brent Ritchie, J. R. , Crouch, G. I. , (2003) The competitive destination: a sustainable tourism perspective. Cambridge: CABI Publishing. •Jamieson, W. , Goodwin, H. , Edmunds, C. , (2004) Contribution of tourism to poverty alleviation: pro poor tourism and the challenge of measuring impacts. Conference UN ESCAP. •Karch, C. A. , Dann, G. H. S. , (1961) Close encounters of the third world. University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados. •Rogerson, C. M. , (2002) Pro-Poor Interventions for local economic development. Unpublished dissertation. University of the Witwatersrand: Johannesburg. Unknown Author (February 2007) City of Cape Town: Tourism Development Framework and situation analysis. [online]. Available from www. capetown. gov. za. [accessed 3 August 2009. ] •Unknown Author (October 2008) Cape Town Mayor voted as best in the world. [online]. Available from www. southafrica. info/about/democracy/zille-mayor2008. htm. [Assessed 14 August 2009. ] •Unknown Author (October 2008) Cape Town voted as world’s top conference destination. [online]. Available from www. sagoodnews. co. za/tourism/cape_town_voted_as_worlds_top_conference_destination. htm. [Accessed 15 August 2009. ] •Unkown Author, (unknown date), Pro-Poor Tourism Pilots in Southern Africa. [online]. Available from www. pptpilot. org. za, [accessed 1 September 2009]

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