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Ottoman Reform and the European Model

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    Napoleon returned to France, seized power, and render himself emperor. Muhammad Ail used many French practices in effort to build up the new Egyptian state. He established schools to train modern military officers and built factories to supply his new ear-NY. Tension between the Sultanate and the Janissaries sparked a Janissary revolt in Serbia in 1805. Serbian peasants helped to defeat the Janissary uprising and went on to make Serbia independent of the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Muhammad II believed that the loss of Greece indicated a profound weakness in Ottoman litany and financial organization.

    Muhammad used popular outrage over the loss of Greece to justify a series of reforms that included the creation of a new army corps, elimination of the Janissaries, and reduction of the political power of the religious elite, Mahatma’s secularism’s reform program was further articulated in the Tanzania (reorganization) reforms initiated by his successor Abdul Mejia in egg_ The Crimean War and its Aftermath: The percussion caps and breech-loading rifles that were used in the Crimean War were the beginning of a series of subsequent changes in military technology that included the invention of machine guns, the use of railways to transfer weapons and men, and trench warfare.

    The decline Of Ottoman power and wealth inspired a group of educated urban men known as the Young Ottomans to band together to work for constitutionalism, liberal reform, and the creation Of a Turkish national state in place of the Ottoman Empire. Russia and Europe: While Russia aspired to Western-style economic development, fear of political change prevented real progress. Salespeople, opposing intellectuals who considered the Orthodox faith, the solidity of peasant life, and the tsars rule to e the hash of Russian civilization; and Westernizes debated the proper course for Russian development. The Salespeople gave rise to Pan-Slavish, a militant political doctrine advocating unity of all the Slavic peoples, Russia and Asia: By the end of the eighteenth century, the Russian Empire had reached the Pacific Ocean and the borders of China.

    In the nineteenth century, Russian expansion continued to the South, bringing Russia into conflict with China, Japan, Iran, and the Ottoman Empire. Britain took steps to halt Russian expansion before Russia gained control of all of Central Asia. Cultural Trends: Opposition to reform came from wealthy families that feared reform would bring about imperial despotism, a fear that was realized during the reign of Nicholas [The Decembers revolt was carried out by a group of reform-minded military officers upon the death of Alexander l. Their defeat amounted to the defeat of reform for the next three decades. Economic and Social Disorder: There were a number of sources of discontent in Sing China.

    Various minority peoples had been driven Off their land, and many people regarded the government as being weak, corrupt, and perhaps in collusion with the foreign recreants and missionaries in Canton and Macaw. Discontent was manifest in a series of internal rebellions in the nineteenth century, beginning with the White Lotus rebellion. The Opium War and its Aftermath: In 1939, when the Sing government realized the harm being done by the opium trade, they decided to ban the use and import of opium and sent Line Zees to Canton to deal with the matter, The attempt to ban the opium trade led to the Opium War (1839-1842), in which the better-armed British naval and ground forces defeated the Sing, with their hereditary soldiers the Banner, and forced them to sign the Treaty to Nanking.

    The Treaty to Nanking and subsequent treaties signed between the Sing and the various Western powers gave Westerners special privileges and resulted in the colonization of small pockets of Sing territory, The Tapping Rebellion: The founder of the Tapping movement was Hong Quanta, a man of Hack background who became familiar with the teachings of Christian missionaries in Canton. Hong declared himself to be the younger brother of Jesus and founded a religious group (the “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” or “Tapping” movement) to which he recruited followers from among the Hack people. The Tapping Rebellion was one Of the world’s bloodiest civil wars and the greatest armed conflict before the b,eventide century. The results of the Tapping Rebellion included 20 to 30 million deaths, depopulation and destruction Of rich agricultural lands in central and eastern China, and suffering and destruction in the cities and cultural centers Of eastern China.

    Decentralization at the End Of the Sing Empire: After the asses the expenses of wars and the burden of indemnities payable to Western governments made it impossible for the Sing to get out of debt. With the Sing government so deeply in their debt, Britain and France became active irritants in the period of recovery known as the Tonight Restoration that followed the Tapping Rebellion. Reflection: 1. What were the benefits and the drawbacks to the Ottoman Empire of the retorts adopted during the Dominant period? (BP) 2. How did the Russian Empire maintain its status as both a European power and a great Asian land empire? (CAP) 3. How did the impact to European imperialism on China dieter from its impact on Russia and the Ottoman Empire? Come,) Although the Tanzania period began with the sultan declaring a measure of equality for all Ottoman citizens, improving military performance was at the enter of the reforming effort This reform enhanced the role of the military vile other administrative changes reduced the social role and governmental influence of the religious elite Russia shared in the imperialist expansion that the other European states were engaged in even while lagging far behind in industrialization and efficient government. The course of Russian expansion into Asia made it a neighbor of Sing China, but other European powers were seen as greater threats. Britain, Prance, and the United States used ever means available to gain the freedom to exploit China economically.

    Ottoman Reform and the European Model. (2018, Jun 26). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/summary-notes/

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