The Civil War And The Reconstruction Sample Essay
The southern economic system. one factor of losing the Civil War. was much less adaptable to the demands of a entire war. Because of the failing of its industrial base the South depended on the outside universe for most of its manufactured goods. When the Union’s encirclements became effectual. the Confederacy had to rely more on authorities plans to derive war stuff. These encirclements created a deficiency of points the forces needed to keep. such as nutrient. And with Southerners declining to exchange stable harvests for nutrient it was a formula for catastrophe. David Donald wrote. “the Southern society put excessively much accent on single freedom in clip of war” ( Donald. 1973 ) . The job was much less in the North. because of the strength of the overall economic system. War revenue enhancements were much easier to roll up and bond issues were more successful. As the Confederate authorities fell deeper and deeper into debt and printed more and more paper money. its rate of rising prices soared out of sight. By August 1863 a Confederate dollar was deserving merely eight cents in gold ( McPherson. 1982 ) .
Diplomacy should be looked at as another factor for the South losing. Norman A. Graebner wrote that diplomatic negotiations reflects the position of power and Europe insisted that the Confederacy would non acquire any acknowledgment until it showed the power required to set up and keep its independency this was something that lacked economically for the South ( Donald. 1973 p. 61 ) . The most critical period of diplomatic negotiations during the Civil War was between 1861 and 1862. During this clip the South was seeking to derive major foreign powers to see its demand for independency and to interrupt the Union Blockade. There was hope that England and France could be persuaded to affect themselves in the war on the Confederate side. Confederate’s used the fact that these states depended on the South for three quarters of their cotton supply as purchase. but still it did non work.
The 3rd ground. I believe to be a immense factor was Lincoln’s liberation of the slaves. The last two and a half old ages of the conflict there were more extremist war steps used that were instrumental in the win for the Union. The most dramatic and of import of these was the North’s attempts to follow through on Lincoln’s determination to liberate the slaves and convey the black population into the war on the Union Side. This was a enormous aid for the North. The conflict turned in the summer of 1863. but the South continued to defy for two more old ages until they were eventually overcome by the North’s advantages in work force and resources ( McPherson. 1982 ) . Andrew Johnson endorsed Lincoln’s emancipation policies and helped to do it a world and shortly he would be responsible for the Reconstruction of America after the Civil War.
Andrew Johnson. who became President after Lincolns blackwash tried to set the Union back together on his ain authorization in 1865 ( McPherson. 1983 ) . It was so that his policies got him into problem with Congress and the Republican Party that started the most serious crisis in the history of dealingss between the executive and legislative subdivisions of the federal authorities. Extremist Republicans foremost welcomed Johnson’s Presidency because of his trueness to the Union and he besides agreed with the Groups that ex-Confederates should be badly punished. Johnson seemed likely to penalize southern treasonists and forestall them from deriving or recovering political influence. Merely after clip did we get down to see dissensions between the President and the Republican bulk in Congress ( McPherson. 1982 ) .
The Reconstruction policy in the North that Johnson initiated on May 29Thursday. 1865 ( McPherson. 1982 p. 521 ) . created some edginess among the Radicals. but most other Republicans were willing to give it a opportunity. Johnson placed North Carolina and finally other provinces under appointed probationary governors chosen largely from among outstanding southern politicians who had opposed the sezession motion and had rendered no service to the Confederacy. The governors were responsible for naming constitutional conventions and guaranting that merely loyal Whites were permitted to vote for delegates.
You see Johnson was a ardent white supremacist. Once these conventions met. Johnson urged them to make three things ; declare the regulations of sezession illegal. disown the Confederate debt and sign the Thirteenth Amendment that abolished bondage. Johnson was forcing for province liberty and this would non go on because of the race public violences go oning in New Orleans. This gave an gap for the Republican bulk in Congress to increase to two tierces in both houses and the extremist wing of the party gained strength. Congress was now in a place to implement its ain program of Reconstruction. The first was in 1867 passing Acts of the Apostless that nullified the President’s enterprises and reorganized the South. This was referred to as Extremist Reconstruction and was a via media between echt Radicals and the more moderate members within the party ( McPherson. 1982 p. 270 ) .
The chief principal to these policies was that even the poorest and most underprivileged would hold entree to the ballot box. The job was how to implement it under conditions so bing in the postwar South. Johnson did non O.K. of this new policy and tried to halt this by disregarding officers who sympathized with Radical Reconstruction. Congress so passed Torahs that limited presidential authorization over Reconstruction. Johnson objected smartly to these limitations on the evidences they violated the constitutional philosophy of the separation of powers. When it became clear that the President was resolute in contending for his powers and utilizing them to defy the constitution of Radical governments in the southern provinces. some congresswomans began to name for his impeachment ( McPherson. 1882 p. 531 ) . The failed impeachment attempt was an embarrassment to congressional Republicans. but it did do sure that Reconstruction in the South would continue as the bulk in Congress intended. During the test Johnson helped act upon the finding of fact by assuring to implement the Reconstruction Acts and he did what he promised during the balance of his clip in office.
Economic growing for the state after the Civil War was slow and painful. “Because the South remained chiefly agricultural. deceleration in that sector slowed development of the remainder of the region’s economy” ( McPherson. 1982 p. 582 ) . On the other manus the Northern agribusiness and fabrication increased. Inventions in engineering and selling didn’t take clasp for 15 old ages after the war. But it was the railway system that developed economic growing. Over 35. 000 stat mis of railroads were laid between the old ages 1830 and 1865 ( McPherson. 1982 p. 585 ) . But with the railroads there was labour agitation and industrial force that disrupted the state once more and gave Americans renewed frights. But with Grants re-election in 1872 there was a renewed sense of strength in America.
Grant’s leading in the Civil War gave a major Union victory when he captured Vicksburg Mississippi. In March 1863 he crossed the west bank North of the metropolis and moved his forces to a point South of it. where he joined up with navel forces. The bold move Grant made cut himself off from his beginnings of supply and marched into the inside of Mississippi. His military personnels still won several conflicts with two separate Confederate ground forcess before traveling on to Vicksburg from the E. The Union had secured control of the Mississippi and had won a major conflict in the East. But Lincoln shortly wasn’t happy at all when he had heard that his generals had missed the opportunity to capture Lee’s ground forces and convey a quicker stoping to the war ( Donald. 1973 p. 42-43 ) . Grants abilities as a general and his triumphs in the West earned him a publicity to general in head to all the Union ground forcess. And after taking that place in March 1864 he ordered an violative to complete off the Confederacy. After the war Grant was the lone president to function two full and back-to-back footings. He had corruptness in his disposal that some looked at as being a failure in office. He has besides been condemned for the incompatibility and failure of his southern policy. But all in his full presidential term was considered a failure ( McPherson. 1982 p. 596 ) .
The North won the war chiefly because it had shown a greater capacity than the South to form. innovate and overhaul. Its triumph meant that the state was a whole would now be ready to encompass advancement. The progresss were non merely in scientific discipline and engineering. but besides in conveying together and pull offing big Numberss of work forces and adult females for economic ends. So to state that the Civil War transformed American society from an individualistic society to a more integrated America would be right.
Donald. D. ( Ed. ) . ( 1973 ) . Whythe north won the civil war.Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press.
McPherson. J. M. ( 1982 ) .Ordeal by fire: The civil war and Reconstruction.New York: Princeton University.