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The history of biological control in Malaysia

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    Introduction

    Biological control refers the usage or encouragement of natural enemies to cut down and command insect pest population ( Waterhouse, D. F. , 1992 ) . Biological control can be parasites, marauders and pathogens to stamp down population of the insect plague in agribusiness. Therefore, biological control is of import to maintain the plagues in cheque.

    Biological control classified into four signifiers, viz. ; classical biological control, natural biological control, inundative biological controls and augmentation of biological control.

    Classical biological control is the control of the alien species by the alien natural enemies ( Townsend, 2008 ) . Classical biological control is the importing of biological control agents to occupy the pest country. This signifier of biological control involve in the hunt, choice and debut of natural enemies from the country of beginning of the plague. Example in 1977, classical biological control apply in the eruption of diamond back moth ( DBM ) ,Plutella xylostella( Linnaeus ) in Cameron Highlands by importing hymenopterous parasites such asDiadegma semiclausumandDiadromus colaristo maintain the DBM population depression ( Ooi,et Al. , 1979 ) . To command weed, Larva ofMetrogalerucabeetle provender onCordiafoliages to command the weed job in Malaysia’s coconut plantations ( Ooi, P. A. C. , 2000 )

    Natural biological controls involve in the debut of native natural enemies to the invasive insect plagues. This method by conserve the natural enemies by maintain the natural nutrient concatenation in balance. The usage of pesticides causes the population of natural enemies decreasing. This causes high frequence of plague eruption and opposition towards pesticides. This is due to the husbandman do non aware of natural enemies until accompanied Farmer Field Schools ( FFSs ) . This proved that the husbandman halt utilizing chemical pesticides shows rice stemborers pest kept at low populations by natural enemies ( Ooi, P. C. A. & A ; Shepard, B. S. , 1994 )

    In the instance of augmentation biological control is the method to present natural enemies during the clip when the population of insect plague edifice up. Reared natural enemies are released into the field in augmentation. Encouraging black emmet,Dolichoderus thoracicus( Smith ) to pull off chocolate mirid plague ( Khoo, K. C. & A ; Chung, G. F. , 1989 ) and cocoa cod bore bit ( Liew, V. K. ,et Al. , 1999 ) by set uping nests of the emmets in chocolate workss.

    As for flood biological control, the usage of this method to bring forth big Numberss of natural enemies and released them repeatedly on the harvests where the pest exists ( Chong, K. K. ,et Al. , 1991 ) and its frequently involves in the usage of insect pathogens like Fungis and viruses. This method is used when the preservation and importing of biological control is non effectual. The periodic released ofTrichogrammatoidea bactrae fumata( Nagaraja ) to command the chocolate cod bore bit were used flood method ( Lim, G. T. & A ; Chong, T. C. , 1987 ) .

    History of biological control in Malaysia

    Before the debut of DDT pesticides during World War II, nonpesticide methods were implemented to command agricultural plague in Malaysia. The methods of commanding plague in the olden yearss of agricultural were physical and cultural methods. Physical method such as commanding white ant go oning harm on gum elastic trees by delving 2.5-3 pess and 10 pess off from attacked tree ( Ooi, P. A. C. ,et Al. , 1981 ) . Another method besides create unfavourable environment for plagues to habitat by taking engendering land, healthy seedling and immune assortment. This method has been done by Wood ( 1971 ) whereby the planting screen harvests able to extinguishRhinocerossbeetles engendering sites and decreased beetling infestation in coconut plantation.

    The success of implementing chemical pesticides as a plague control agent caused terrible eruption of plague and this has been proven Brown Plant Hopper,Nilaparvata lugens( BPH ) eruption in Tanjung Karang Irrigation Scheme Malaysia in 1977 caused hopper burn after several pray of chemical insect powders ( Ooi, P. A. C. , 1977 ) which ab initio this insect was minor herbivores which chiefly served as a function of nutrient for the marauders. The success of presenting chemical pesticides promoted diamond back moth,Plutella xylostella( L. ) ( DBM ) opposition to pesticides ( Ankersmit, M. , 1953 ; Henderson, G. W. , 1957 ) caused terrible eruption in Cameron Highland, Malaysia due to inordinate usage of chemical pesticides ( Carson, R. , 1962 ) .

    After cognizing the effects of usage of chemical pesticides caused pest eruption, the lone manner to command pest eruption by biological control agents. In the past success of utilizing biological control agents, the pest can be controlled by presenting suited natural enemies to hold effectual pest direction. The alien plagues outbreak can be besides suppressed by import the alien natural enemies as a biological control scheme ( Ooi, P. A. C. ,et Al. , 1979 ) . Besides, research on the development of plague immune harvest assortment was besides developed to contend against plague. However, above all the past successes of utilizing biological control agents in Malaysia were still under studied and the failures of some biological methods are still trying in Malaysia.

    In current position, there are many attempts of happening for more methods to be able to replace or minimise chemical pesticide use to cut down pest harm. The most promising and effectual consequence through Integrated Pest Management ( IPM ) and this method has adopted in many agricultural pest population control throughout the universe ( Chin, H. ,et Al. , 1991 ; Syed, A. R. ,et Al. , 1997 ; & A ; Mah, S. Y. ,et Al. , 2001 ) . Research is ongoing to better the effectivity of biological agents such as compare the local and alien biological control agents in the effectivity in plague control. Example localCotesia plutellaeand alien natural enemiesDiadegma semiclausumcontrol on DBM ( Ooi, P. A. C. ,et Al. , 1979 ) . Another current successful biological method by mulching and intercropping to cut down 85 % winged aphid on seting bed of chili ( Mohamad Roff M. N. & A ; Ong, C. A. , 1991 ) .

    How does biological command contribute to sustainable agribusiness? :

    Why is biological control of import in Malaysia?

    To command plague

    The preoccupation with chemical control resulted in many studies of insecticide opposition in DBM ( Ankersmit, G. W. , 1953 ; and Henderson, M. , 1957 ) . This was found that more concentration of chemical pesticides relative to the addition of insecticide opposition in DBM.

    How does it impact agribusiness sustainability?

    Biological control method able to procure the sustainability of agricultural production this is because chemical pesticides is the chief cause of terrible eruptions of BPH,Nilaparvata lugensdue to the break of natural biological control ( Kenmore, P. E. ,et Al. , 1984 ) . Insecticides killed both plagues and natural enemies and frequently pest revival higher population than earlier. As reported by Ooi, P. A. C. ( 1986 ) , the insect powder intervention ensuing in fewer marauders in the rice field as compared to field that without any insect powders intervention in Sekinchan, Malaysia. This contributed to higher ratio of BPH to predator in sprayed countries.

    Many of the successful IPM plans are due to the solid foundation contributed by biological control ( Lenne, 2000 ) . Biological control agents are comparatively cheap and able to command over big country compared to command by chemical pesticide which merely control the given country treated ( Hunter, D. G. , 2005 ) . Furthermore, autochthonal natural enemy population will increase as no application of insect powders ( Lim,et Al. , 1978 ) . The natural enemies are free and helpful in suppress plague compared to chemical pesticides. This shows that chemical pesticides are non sustainable and comparatively expensive.

    How do we advance biological control?

    It is of import to advance biological control for the husbandman and halt the usage of chemical pesticides method in pest direction. With this, some of the action should be done to implement biological control method.

    The husbandman should affect in biological control and originate the of import of biological control in pest direction ( Ooi, P. A. C. , 2005 ) . Farmers would non halt utilizing chemical insect powders if they do non understand what biological control is. Educate the husbandmans about ecology in pest direction plan to guarantee a sustainable and successful plan.

    Ecological attack can be initiated through classical biological method to command the population of DBM by importing some parasitoids ( Ooi, P. A. C. & A ; Lim, G. S. , 1989 ) . This can efficaciously cut down the usage and spend of money on chemical insect powders for the husbandman to command the DBM.

    Besides, authorities should censor the usage of insect powders. Outbreaks were reduced as the authorities banned 56 insect powders from the rice field ( Ooi, P. A. C. , 2005 ) . The reiterate eruption ofN. lugensin Indonesia was due to the extended usage of insect powders sing to full support by authorities in subsidising pesticides ( Wardhani, M. A. , 1992 ) . The local husbandman experienced harder to extinguish pest each clip application of pesticides. A strong policy should be done by the authorities to guarantee no illegal merchandising of risky chemical pesticides to the husbandmans.

    Promoting IPM husbandmans to go on research on DBM is critical to the realisation and understands more of the potency of a biological control agent ( Ooi, P. A. C. ,et al. ,2001 ) . The better apprehensions of non-chemical pesticide methods have helped husbandmans to believe the right stairss in forestalling eruptions.

    Another manner we can advance biological control is by doing plagues engendering country risky. Pest job was successful controlled by autochthonal disease,Rhabdionvirus oryctes( Huger ) to commandRhinocerusbeetles infestation ( Ooi, P. A. C. ,et Al. , 1979 ) . With this thought, the virus infected beetles are quarantine in the engendering site such as icky bole. During copulating season, theRhinocerusbeetles will garner at the genteelness land. The healthyRhinocerusbeetles will be infected by the virus and finally the population ofRhinocerusbeetles will be suppressed.

    Singh ( 1976 ) suggested that the importing of works should be quarantine and the seeds should be cleaned to forestall the alien plague invent into local agricultural system.

    Yahaya,et Al. ( 1995 ) were recommended the remotion of harvest residue to command baccy plague.

    What sort of research is required to back up biological control of insect plagues?

    The husbandmans should go on to analyze and experiment even after FFS plan. Harmonizing to the study by Warshiyah,et Al. ( 1999 ) , the survey of nonpesticide method to command the white root bore bit is continued by the husbandmans in Kalensari even after FFS plan and Ooi ( 1998 & A ; 2000 ) had followed up husbandmans in these surveies to guarantee the husbandmans practising IPM after FFS. This confirms that husbandmans are able to transport out experiments and develop advanced nonpesticide methods of commanding plagues ( Chambers,et al. ,1989 )

    Biological control agents able to maintain the pathogen population below an acceptable threshold degree or under the barrier of infection of pathogen ( Hunter, D. G. , 2005 ) . Biological control of works pathogens such as fluorescent pseudomonads bacteriums successfully control fungous root pathogensRalstonia solanacearumcaused of blood disease in banana in Indonesia ( Subandiyah, S. ,et al. ,2001 )

    What countries of modern scientific discipline can promote biological control in Malaysia?

    Adverse conditions and migration of insects have been responsible for the development of some eruptions, the most common cause of eruption of native plagues in Malaysia is indiscriminate usage of insect powders ( CITE )

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