I. NATURAL FARMING AND NATURAL FEEDS Natural Farming Natural farming is one of the old methods of producing crops. In natural farming, crops are grown without the aid of chemical fertilizer, herbicide or pesticide. It is much better because the produce does not contain chemicals which can be absorbed by the crops with the use of chemical fertilizer, herbicide or pesticide. Natural farming does not till the land but uses earthworms, microorganisms and small animals. Natural farming does not have any standards like organic farming.
Though it does not have any body like structure to monitor natural farmers, it is better than commercial farming for it produces healthier crops for the consumers. One of the most important aspects of Natural Farming is that the farmers make what they need. Fertilizers, soil improvers, pest controllers, disease cure are all made by the farmers themselves using only natural materials. Natural Farming can be a powerful tool for the third world farmers who cannot afford to buy expensive imported farming inputs.
Natural Feeds Natural feeds are those which contain natural ingredients.
The feeds produced are cheaper than commercial feeds. It is better for animals for it contains more nutritive value from natural ingredients. Unlike commercial feeds, it is safer for the animals for it does not contain antibiotics, chemicals and the like. Mass Chief Feeds was inspired by natural feeds. The product is made up of grinded GAS with the combination of cassava. Livestock industry can become more profitable by using our product for it is specifically made for them to save on costs yet produce high yield. Source: http://www. thainaturalfarming. com II. THE GOLDEN APPLE SNAIL
Taxonomy *Records suggest that there are more than one species of Pomacea present in the Philippines. FAO and the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau-International Institute of Biological Control (CAB-IIBC) identified the GAS as Pomacea insularis (Acosta and Pullin, 1991). Based on the morphological characteristics, GAS was identified as Pomacea canaliculata at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) (Saxena et al. , 1987). According to Mochida (1987), P. canaliculata was introduced to Batangas from Taiwan in 1982. P. gigas from Florida were introduced to Makati Metro Manila in 1983.
Another Pomacea species was directly introduced from Argentina to Cebu in 1984. Pila leopordivillensis, an African snail, was introduced from Taiwan. Pomacea cuprina is also found in the Philippines (Mochida, 1987). But Golden Apple Snails were determined by PhilRICE as what is popularly known as “golden kuhol” (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck). To sum up, most of the published reports refer GAS in the Philippines to as P. canaliculata. Source:PhilRICE SCIENTIFIC FAMILY Golden Apple Snail came from the phylum mollusca, within the family of Ampullariidae. It is a genus of Pomacea and included in the specie of canaliculata (Lamarck, 1819).
Physiological Structure and Anatomy The eyes of the apple snail are located at the base of the tentacles, on top of the eyestalks. The structure of the eye does not provide detailed vision; they rather function as directional light sensors that give the snail an orientation towards light sources. Colour vision is absent as the retina does not contain colour specific photo sensors: an apple snail is colour-blind. The tentacles are very important sensory organs. Apple snails highly rely on the smell capacity and the sensitivity of their tentacles to navigate in their environment.
The osphradius is a chemosensory structure that is located in the mantle cavity, in front of the lung. The osphradius gives the snail the capability to smell chemical substances in the water. The statocysts (2) are vesicles containing a statolith (little stone like structures composed of calcium carbonate). They function as balancing organs, used by the snail to detect its position with regard to the ground. The lung/gills combination reflects an adaptation to oxygen poor water conditions often present in swamps and shallow water. Oxygen is reduced by to decay of organic materials like dead vegetation and high temperatures.
Their lungs prove very useful to survive in these harsh conditions. Source: http://www. applesnail. net/content/anatomy/senses. php Growth requirements •Temperature range: 23 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius •Sexual maturity: at the size of 2. 5 cm/1 inch •Reproductive rate: a clutch of egg every four to seven days •Average number of eggs: 200 to 600 per clutch •Hatching of eggs: within two weeks Characteristics of adult golden apple snails •The golden apple snail lives for 2-6 years with high fertility. •Shell is tight brown; flesh is creamy white to golden pinkish or orange. •Size depends on the availability of food. Most destructive stage is when the length of the shell is from 10 mm (about the size of a corn seed) to 40 mm (about the size of a pingpong ball). * •Female golden apple snail operculum (a1) is concave white it is convex in male (a2). •The shell of the female adult snail (b1) curves inward; the male shell (b2) curves outward. * *Based on the study conducted by MS Dela Cruz, RC Joshi, and AR Martin. Life cycle Eggs •Eggs are laid at night on any vegetation, levees, and objects (e. g. twigs, stakes, stones, etc. ) above the water surface. •Egg masses are bright pinkish-red and turn light pink when about to hatch. Eggs hatch in 7-14 days. Hatchlings and adults •Hatchlings grow and mature fast. They are voracious feeders. •Adults mate for 3-4 hours anytime of the day among crowded plants where there is continuous water supply throughout the year. •Golden apple snails reproduce rapidly. They can lay 1000-1200 eggs in a month. Thus, egg destruction is a very effective control strategy. Where they live •Ponds, swamps, irrigated fields, canals and water-togged areas. •They bury themselves in moist soil during the dry season. They can aestivate for 6 months, then become active again when the soil is flooded. They can survive harsh environmental conditions such as pollutants in the water or low oxygen levels. Feeding habits and host range •Golden apple snails feed on a wide range of plants such as algae, azolla, duck weed, water hyacinth, rice seedlings, and other succulent leafy plants. •They prefer young plant parts that are soft because it feeds by scraping plant surface with its rough tongue. •They also feed on any decomposing organic matter. Naturally occurring biological control agents •Red ants feed on the eggs. •Ducks eat the flesh and young snails. •Human beings eat the flesh when it is properly cooked. Field rats bite on the shell and eat the flesh. Integrated management scheme based on rice growth stages Pre-establishmentCrop establishmentPost production Land PreparationVegetativeReproductiveMaturityAfter harvesting AB and CDE A = Duck pasturing, handpicking, constructing canalets, use of plant attractants and destruction of egg masses B = Handpicking, duck pasturing, screen trapping, staking, and destruction of egg masses C = Water management, handpicking, use of plant attractants, and destruction of egg masses D = Sustain handpicking and destruction of adults and eggs E = Duck pasturing, dry Land preparation
Competitive advantage in terms of nutrients Research results showed that fresh golden snail meat could replace 10 percent commercial mash for growing-finishing pigs or 37. 5 and 60 percent soybean oil meal in formulated grower and finisher rations, respectively. It could possibly replace meat meal or fishmeal in animal diet. The protein content of 62. 5% is comparable to the value of Peruvian fish meal (61. 2%) but a little bit lower than the meat meal (66%) (Gerpacio and Castillo, 1979). GAS is also a good source of mineral as indicated by the contents of calcium (35%) and phosphorous (1. 2%) and high source of energy (3,336 kcal kg-1). Feeding trials on Nile tilapia in aquaria showed that GAS meat meal at 75-100% of the diet mixed with rice bran is beneficial (Cagauan and Doria, 1989). In cage culture of Nile tilapia, fish grown in snail-meal based diet was superior to that obtained with fish fed with fishmeal based diet (Reazo, 1988). For freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae, 60% GAS meat meal in dried form mixed with rice bran, shrimp meal and fish meal gave good growth (Lansangan, et al. , 2002). GAS in rice fields is good food for mallard ducks.
Actually, it is a common practice by duck farmers to herd their flocks in the fields after rice harvest, in this way they can economize on feeds. Duck herding and with little feed supplementation during confinement can yield up to 60-70% egg production (Tacio, 1987). The utilization of the fresh golden snail meat as feeds for swine not only improved the growth performance of swine but also increased the profit per pig. Values for 100 g fresh apple snail meat Food energy83 calories / 347 Joules Protein12. 2 g Fat0. 4 g Carbohydrates6. 6 g Fiber0 g Ash3. 2 g Phosphor61 mg Sodium40 mg
Potassium17 mg Riboflavin12 mg Niacin1. 8 mg Vit C. , zinc, copper, manganese, and iodinesmall amounts CASSAVA Locally known as kamoteng kahoy or balinghoy Cassava (Manihot esculenta), also called yuca or manioc, a woody shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) native to South America, is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Unknowingly, it is a good source of calcium and ascorbic acid. Cassava or tapioca is an annual tuber crop grown widely in the tropics and sub-tropics.
It can easily thrive in sandy-loam soil with low organic matter, receiving low rainfall and high temperature. It is therefore a cash crop cultivated by small-holder farmers within the existing farming systems in many countries. Cassava is the third-largest source of carbohydrates for meals in the world. Nigeria is the world’s largest producer of cassava. It is classified as sweet or bitter, depending on the level of cyanide content. (However, bitter taste is not always a reliable measure). Cassava is used worldwide for animal feed.
Cassava hay is produced at a young growth stage at three to four months, harvested about 30–45 cm above ground, and sun-dried for one to two days until it has final dry matter of at least 85%. (Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Cassava) The use of cassava as livestock feed in the country has been investigated. Studies at the University of the Philippines at Los Banos (UPLB) have shown that cassava meal can be used as a substitute for feed grains in compounded animal rations. On the other-hand, cassava leaf meal contains 18-20% protein, so that it is a good livestock feed not only for poultry but also for other livestock.
Cassava can also help control erosion. Farmers can grow cassava and control – even prevent – hillside erosion by following simple methods. This can only be attained if farmers shift their method of farming to minimum or no tillage, “and protect the soil with live, permanent mulch like a forage legume. ” Farmers can also fertilize cassava to make it grow faster, and to cover and protect the soil from rain. Cassava is an easy-to-grow crop. The crop grows well on poor soils found on eroded hillsides because it resists adverse conditions such as drought.
When farmers can’t grow corn or beans in depleted soils, cassava is their only choice. In the Philippines, cassava is best grown in deep soil with friable structure such as light sandy loams of medium fertility. Top soil should be 30 centimeters in depth. Successful use of almost all soil types is possible, provided that they are not waterlogged, shallow or stony. Growing cassava entails simple farm operations such as land preparation, planting, replanting, weeding, fertilization, irrigation, and harvesting. By: Henrylito D. Tacio (Source: Department of Agriculture) YIELD OF CASSAVA HAY:
The whole cassava crop can be harvested in the dry season, three months after planting for the first cut and two times thereafter. The first cut at three months yields 20,410 kg/ha (fresh) or 10,200 kg/ha (dried). The combined second and third cuts were estimated to be equal to the first cut. Therefore estimated total yield of cassava whole crop (fresh) and cassava hay will be 40,820 kg/ha and 20,410 kg/ha, respectively. (Source: http://www. lrrd. org/lrrd9/2/metha92. htm) As a natural feed and/or supplement, our product is quite competitive compared to other naturally used feedstuffs. See Tables in the next pages) The entire production process is of great help not only for the farmers but also for the livestock raisers as well. In order to make our product more appealing to the market, we will initiate a strategic alliance with a livestock raiser (a partner of the firm or a major customer) who would like to promote the use natural feeds and natural farming, and its connection with high-quality meat. Thus, we will be promoting the said concept also, and have the farm animals of our strategic alliance partner as the living proof of the high nutritive value of our product thereby giving better image to our company.
The change will not be easy as one-two-three, but we will do our best to search for and coordinate with those who will want to start the switch – to handpicking of GAS from the misuse of molluscicides, and to using of our product and other natural feeds, partially, and from the use of pure conventional commercial feeds or from the use of pure soybean meal. Proximate composition of commonly used feed ingredients: Energy FeedstuffDry MatterCrude ProteinCrude FatCrude FiberAshNFECaPReference Alpha starch85. 500. 400. 030. 470. 1099. 01–2 Banana meal (fruit, dehydrated)87. 003. 902. 704. 704. 6071. 040. 10. 156 Barley (malt cleanings)89. 0011. 501. 905. 002. 5068. 100. 070. 363 Breadflour87. 3614. 311. 120. 380. 3883. 580. 600. 132 Brewer’s spent grains, dried92. 0018. 504. 3018. 304. 3046. 170. 30. 56 Cassava flour95. 5612. 457. 066. 535. 2167. 490. 030. 612 Cassava leaf meal86. 5030. 407. 609. 806. 3032. 40–4 Cassava meal, unpeeled93. 002. 400. 803. 602. 7083. 820. 120. 103 Copra cake90. 2817. 538. 7512. 196. 1246. 63–1 Copra meal cake92. 4019. 2012. 2011. 505. 4047. 00–4 Copra meal, expeller process89. 7219. 324. 5111. 886. 7546. 200. 080. 601 Corn, yellow, USA87. 008. 303. 802. 401. 2071. 30–4
Corn, yellow, China86. 608. 304. 202. 101. 2070. 80–4 Corn, white, Philippines85. 808. 303. 702. 201. 5070. 10–4 Corn meal, white86. 517. 310. 450. 740. 5176. 590. 010. 061 Corn meal, yellow88. 198. 372. 101. 000. 7373. 820. 020. 121 Corn bran, coarse, white85. 8910. 647. 415. 514. 7757. 570. 041. 031 Corn bran, fine, white85. 2010. 577. 265. 073. 9357. 760. 040. 801 Corn bran, yellow, coarse84. 1810. 687. 265. 434. 6055. 840. 051. 061 Corn bran, yellow, fine88. 128. 252. 911. 862. 0273. 690. 040. 391 Corn starch87. 650. 540. 001. 060. 0598. 350. 020. 126 Molasses, cane79. 251. 862. 500. 025. 9068. 880. 450. 46 Rice bran, cuno, 1st class86. 5911. 6411. 937. 208. 8946. 850. 081. 711 Rice bran, cuno, 2nd class87. 238. 113. 5718. 7715. 7040. 880. 110. 641 Rice bran, cuno, 3rd class87. 977. 823. 3220. 9416. 1939. 700. 090. 461 Rice bran, kiskis, 1st class85. 717. 503. 8021. 7714. 7038. 130. 080. 411 Rice bran, kiskis, coarse89. 063. 771. 8330. 1616. 1736. 550. 060. 361 Rice middlings, cono85. 299. 692. 662. 973. 3366. 730. 040. 551 Rice middlings, kiskis85. 548. 010. 931. 180. 9074. 520. 020. 141 Rice bran, D188. 0011. 8011. 308. 809. 7046. 200. 81. 76 Rice bran, D288. 1010. 8012. 8011. 20-43. 50–4 Rice bran, D387. 77. 823. 3213. 9816. 1946. 610. 060. 363 Sorghum, grain87. 929. 292. 542. 461. 5972. 090. 050. 331 Soybean meal, China88. 0042. 305. 604. 505. 3030. 30–4 Wheat bran, soft88. 6511. 322. 127. 533. 9063. 780. 190. 982 Wheat flour88. 6316. 271. 761. 361. 0179. 700. 040. 242 Wheat pollard, hard88. 1817. 153. 798. 675. 1553. 690. 261. 341 Wheat pollard86. 7016. 104. 507. 404. 7053. 40–4 Wheat bran, hard89. 1415. 443. 1110. 074. 9055. 610. 120. 951 Wheat pollard, soft88. 3212. 954. 517. 385. 9858. 220. 120. 731 Whey, dried94. 0012. 000. 70-9. 7071. 600. 900. 753 Source: 1 – Gerpacio and Castillo (1979) – SEAFDEC Central Analytical Laboratory (unpublished data) 3 – Philippine Society of Animal Nutritionists (1990) 4 – Yamazaki, Lopez and Kaku (1988) 5 – Manufacturer’s/supplier’s product brochure 6 – PCARRD (1984) http://www. fao. org/DOCREP/003/W6928E/w6928e1l. htm#TopOfPage PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF COMMONLY USED NATURAL FOODS FeedstuffDry MatterCrude Prot. Crude FatCrude FiberAshNFECaP Artemia sp. 92. 4261. 826. 101. 9013. 4316. 74– Artemia, biomass92. 8262. 836. 492. 4913. 2814. 91– Azolla sp. 91. 7011. 67—— Brachionus plicatilis92. 1242. 508. 326. 3425. 1817. 66– Chaetomorpha brachygona93. 713. 643. 168. 3244. 2730. 62– Enteremorpha sp. 95. 0411. 381. 004. 0449. 7833. 80– Gracillaria sp. 96. 347. 400. 285. 6441. 9943. 03– Snail (Ampullaria sp. )94. 0040. 811. 771. 5820. 9322. 905. 841. 20 Lablab77. 778. 261. 101. 7619. 6069. 30– Lumot (filamentous algae)91. 8915. 722. 309. 7827. 3044. 90– Moina macrocopa93. 6857. 486. 9210. 249. 3016. 07– Mussel meat (Perna viridis)94. 2761. 1411. 263. 0510. 4014. 160. 710. 85 Digman (Najas graminea)87. 3218. 022. 0420. 0038. 6921. 30– Kusay-kusay (Ruppia maritima)8. 0814. 193. 3117. 4819. 8145. 29– Skeletonema costatum, Taiwan strain, dried86. 127. 102. 681. 0851. 8417. 33– African snail,without shell (Achatina fulica)89. 9145. 918. 570. 007. 7527. 68– Squid meat95. 1072. 067. 312. 149. 069. 440. 390. 90 Source: SEAFDEC Central Analytical Laboratory (unpublished data) http://www. fao. org/DOCREP/003/W6928E/w6928e1m. htm#TopOfPage Perception of public today Golden Apple Snail (GAS) is considered by many as a pest. It all started when these species escaped into waterways and became a threat for the farmers for it invaded the rice fields. Since then, the public perceive that GAS is the root of great nuisance in many crops throughout the world.
Prevention from the introduction of GAS has been suggested as the primary strategy for those regions which have not been infested and threatened by GAS. To lessen the population of these species, farmers are using molluscicides. GAS can escape from the effect of the molluscicides by burying themselves into the mud. GAS made to the list of the Top 100 invasive species (ISSG 2004). GAS is increasing (DA-FAO, 1989), and GAS continues to threaten the promotion of hybrid rice and direct-seeded rice cultures. Therefore there is a need to develop environment-friendly GAS management options.
Cite this The Wonders of Golden Apple Snail
The Wonders of Golden Apple Snail. (2019, May 01). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-wonders-of-golden-apple-snail/