Unit 4 Health and Social Care Essay

P2- explain the potential effects of 5 different life factors on the development of an individual Lifestyle factors: There is one person who chooses your lifestyle factors, which is you - Unit 4 Health and Social Care Essay introduction. Lifestyle factors are about your diet choices and nutrition, alcohol intake and use and misuse of substances. We have a guideline that shows us we should eat 5 fruit and vegetables a day, at least. A major factor that influences the food you buy is income and the price of food. A family of 4 in a high income house will not worry about the price, they are more in need of good quality.

Where as a low income family catering for 6 people will look at quantity. Some people may discover they haven’t got any way of storing the food, so they buy fresh food everyday, which is more expensive than buying frozen food in bulk. Alcohol is another lifestyle factor which can cause major effects to the human body, if abused and mis-treated. We are also given guidelines of how much alcohol you should intake a week, if you have to. The recommendations are in place to avoid harmful effects lead from alcohol. Women may intake 2-3 units and men 4-5 units.

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If alcohol is mis-used and your intake is more than recommended it could cause severe damage to your liver. Drugs are also a lifestyle factor. Most drugs that people use are illegal. You can divide drugs into 2 groups; stimulants and depressants. Depressants decrease activity in the brain e. g. alcohol is a depressant. Stimulants increase activity in the brain e. g. tobacco and ecstasy. Legal drugs are paracetomal, ibuprofen are medicines. If taken appropriately and in small quantities, this will not cause harm to you.

The impact of the drug, takes major effects on the takers body, it is causing harm to themselves and their bodies, and also they are putting themselves at risk of prosecution. Some drugs can be hallucinogens, this can be very dangerous as it can alter the way a person hears or see’s things. E. g. magic mushrooms and LSD. Some drugs can also have pain killing properties e. g. analegestics, heroin. Cocaine for example is a stimulant at first and then turns into a depressant. This makes the user depressed. With each different drug every individual will respond, react and intake whatever occurs to themselves.

Socioeconomic factors: When we look at socioeconomic factors we can look at income, education, values and attitudes, peer groups, expenditure and employment status. Income and expenditure: Throughout the lives of low income families and income most people choose poor choices and this therefore causes ill health and lower life expectancy. The people that have low income are normally lone parents, the sick or disabled, unemployed or elderly. A house is based on the area, crime rates and environment. All these factors are very important.

Housing choices are limited because of these factors, where in some low income areas they have high crime rates etc. Education; a child’s education is very important and is vital if you want to do well in your future aspirations. Schools that are in low income areas are more likely to have problems. This could have lead from not being able to have efficient learning and teaching equipment and if they cannot get teachers e. g. Teachers do not stay in the area for long they will have to go over the procedure of getting sub-teachers and replacing them.

This takes time and money. Other problems they may develop is depression, undernourishment, cannot speak English or English isn’t their first language, all this could mean the child therefore does not receive a good enough education. Some may leave school with no GCSE’s at all. In areas that are more sufficient and adapted to the criteria this leads to successful educations and the children that receive this, will want and be able to go on to further or higher education. This then leads to a better job in the future and a better standard of living.

Another socio-economic factor is values and attitudes these arise from socialisation, both types which are primary and secondary. This forms the basis of our culture. The way a child is brought up affects the child when they grow up and throughout their lives. If not taught morals and rules a child can be brought up to have very bad anti-social behaviour, this can affect many things and it could affect the life chances a child could possibly be given. Positive parenting and being set rules and guidelines throughout your childhood will help your child, as they then know their rights and wrongs.

A child needs a healthy view of society; this can be received from positive parenting, schooling and formation of sound attitudes. This will then embrace society and culture, this will therefore provide emotional and social well-being. Peer groups: can give out a major effect on children’s behaviour, it can either be from either the child’s group or out lookers and other peer groups. A child can learn many things from their peers, family, school and the media. Violence and anti-social behaviour can also be linked with being shown and exposed to violence from e. g. riends, family, a TV programme or video game. This could make the child violent and aggressive as that’s what they have seen, been taught and learnt. To have a good chance of employment and a high income an education is very important alongside experience which will fulfil these needs. Necessities can then be fulfilled. If these are not able to be fulfilled it can cause stress, anxiety and depression, which is unnecessary. Biological Factors: The foetus develops over a period of 40 weeks/ 9 months, the foetus can receive many issues and factors that could cause long and short term damage to the foetus.

Smoking, drinking and taking drugs while pregnant can cause a lot of damage to the unborn child while a women is pregnant before the child is born they have antenatal care, the purpose of this is to educate parents and to pass relevant advice and guidance about pregnancy and when the child is born. Foetal alcohol syndrome is when the pregnant mother intakes alcohol whilst pregnant, it can cause many serious and important effects on the unborn child, causing major and minor abnormalities. The baby tends to be born weighing less and can become more timid and a bit nervy and shy.

It could also make the child have bad eating habits and throughout their childhood it could cause problems with learning and behaviour, in school etc. Throughout your pregnancy it is important to be fit and healthy for it. Being ill or having an infection can have effects on the developmental and growth of the baby. Also if you have a poor diet through your pregnancy it can have negative impacts on the child/ foetus’s health. Your child could be at risk of obesity, high levels of cholesterol and raised blood sugar. Genetic factors: Each cell in our bodies contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.

Very single gene contains a set of instructions, these instructions are responsible for making us who we are, for example: what you look like and how tall you are etc. We receive half from our mother and half from out father. We are more likely to suffer diseases due to our genetic make-up. During replication of genes there could possibly be mistakes which then result in abnormalities e. g. cystic fibrosis and Down syndrome. A factor that is not determined by our genes is for example anorexia. This is a psychological disorder, this then favours the nurture side of the debate.

Asthma, rheumatic disease, cystic fibrosis, brittle bones and celiac disease are all genetic factors. • Asthma is a disease. It affects the persons breathing passages of the lungs. It is caused by chronic inflammation of the passages and can be hard for the person to breathe. Most people who have asthma are given a pump to use when they are finding it hard to breathe. Asthma can make a person not exercise enough because of this, as they find it hard to breathe when walking too far, running or walking up stairs so they will not do this. As a result it limits the amount a person can exercise so this can lead to besity. • Rheumatic disease is a painful condition that affects millions and millions of people. The disease can cause inflammation, pain and swelling in the joints and muscles. Some rheumatic diseases like Osteoarthritis is the result of when the joints “wear and tear”. Other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis happen when the immune system attacks the linings on the joints, this causes severe pain, distructuction and swelling. • Cystic fibrosis is a disease that affects a lot of people in the UK. The mucus in your lungs and throat becomes excessively thick and very sticky.

This mucus is in the airways it then clogs up the airways and makes it extremely hard for someone to breathe. It can also affect the digestive system as your pancreas gets blocked up with mucus. The pancreas makes the enzymes that pass into your bowels, this helps the breakdown of food that you have eaten. The food cannot be digested properly as the pancreas cannot work properly because of the mucus. • Brittle bones is a genetic factor, the disease makes the persons bones very weak and not as strong as a standards person. This is lead from the abnormalities of the genes.

These genes control the production of the protein called Collagen. This is the main protein in the bone which gives it its strength which is essential within a bone. • Celiac disease is the intolerance of wheat. If a person intakes wheat it can cause inflammation of the intestines. The inflammation of this can affect the development of an individual as they will not be able to eat properly and may affect them not being able to go out and eat etc. Environmental factors: There are many factors which hinder the environment which include; dirty water, pollution, noise pollution and litter/ dumping.

The lack of clean water and appropriate cleanliness and sanitation can lead to the spread of many diseases and the spread of water borne disease which may then result in diarrhoea, being ill or even death. The water may be polluted with toxic or radioactive chemicals. There is an organisation called “WHO”- World Health Organisation. They are responsible for improving access to safe and clean water. Pollution can affect a person’s health is if bad pollution is in the air or water it could affect a person or make them ill.

Air pollution has been linked to breathing and allergy problems, this could irritate asthma or make it worse for the undertaker alongside people who have cardiovascular disease, changes in some peoples lung function and cause deaths. It is manmade substances such as the burning of fossil fuels, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and chemical vapours. It has also been found that it affects the lung development of children from a young age. Also noise pollution can cause an impact on some people socially and can be very extreme it can affect some peoples sleeping patterns and cause anxiety and depression.

Where someone lives can have a major effect on their health, a healthy individual needs a clean and healthy running household. Some people’s immune system can be poor if they live in dirty conditions as the body is more prone to receive colds and diseases. A single person needs their own space to themselves alongside their personal belongings, if they do not receive this it could lead to a negative impact on the person/s and can make them feel intimidated. If a negative and a dirty environment is in the family home it could cause family dysfunction within the family.

This can be caused if the family is under a lot of stress and anxiety. Therefore children’s needs are not met and parenting skills are not as strong and successful. Within a family at this time it could lead from a death, abusive parents, alcoholics, drug takes, bullying, deficiency and controlling parents. Bullying is seen throughout the United Kingdom in many shapes and forms, through text, physical, speech. This can provide a horrible impact on the person the abuse is being thrown at. It has many mental affects and can cause a child to be very unhappy and feel unwanted.

It can make a person have a low self-esteem and the lack of confidence within them. There are many ways that this can be stopped, you can get help from many people and charities e. g. help lines like child line. Some people may get bullied for their religion and beliefs, for example Catholic’s could bully a Muslim for having different colour skin and their outfit. A child needs to learn their rights and morals. As all people have the same rights and even if they do look different everyone is the same. It is very important for a person to have access to health and social care services e. . dentist, doctors and hospitals. If a person is ill they may need medicines to get better and these can be received from doctors and hospitals so a person needs access to this. If a person does not it could lead to someone dying or becoming really ill. The Nature Nurture debate This is a debate between theorists that argue whether genetics (nature) or environment (nurture) is responsible for our behaviour and development. The first and early theorists believed that our personality, intellect, behaviour and gender role was determined by our genes and could not be changed.

Therefore we have no control over our actions. It is now accepted that the 2 influences nature (biology) and nurture (environment) interact with each other and are virtually inseparable (interactionism). Researchers investigate the relative contributions of the nature and nurture factors in the psychology and development of a human being. I believe that our environment is responsible for our behaviour and development. I think this because the people around us, TV, magazines, books influence things throughout our lives including our behaviour, the way we dress, what we eat.

Our development can be shown as intelligence, what you learn in school, college and university influences your job and what you want to be when you’re older. P3- Explain the influences of two predictable and two unpredictable major life events on the development of an individual Throughout your life you will come across many predictable and unpredictable life events. Predictable life events are normally planned and will more often than not occur naturally. Unpredictable life events may be sudden and unplanned. I have chosen two predictable events: • Leaving home Parenthood/ pregnancy And two unpredictable events: • Illness • Bereavement These four events will cause a major difference and will affect the development of an individual. I chose the first event which is leaving home. This is a major event for an adolescent or in early adulthood. When you move out of your family home to another place which could be for example: University. Moving out of home will bring you a mixture of emotions and situations, it is a very exciting adventure within the family as they can look forward to new friends, places, neighbours etc.

Most families find that their young adult moving out of home often brings them closer together and stops arguing and stress within the family home. Although it can be physically and emotionally stressful for a young adult as there could be confusion and disorder within the move. It can take a toll on the adult’s energy as they have to pack, move and clean everything they own and want to take with them. It can cause emotion stress as they sort through their stuff they could find memorabilia’s and old photographs, this ould take a toll on the adults emotions, as they could find this quite upsetting. No matter how eager the person is to move into their new environment, they will find that there will be places, things and people they will miss dearly. If the move is because of a divorce, death or job loss this can also make the adult emotionally stressed and upset as this could be the sense of loss and cause sadness. It can produce many emotions and this could lead to confusion, which could lead to good days and bad days (emotional ups and downs).

At first it will be a challenging and difficult experience for the family but after a while the child should begin to feel comfortable within their own environment and get used to the atmosphere (without their family and surroundings. ) The second event i chose is Pregnancy/ Reaching Parenthood. This is a major event for the Mother and Father. This can be from adolescents through to adulthood. Pregnancy causes a lot of emotions and changes for everyone. The mother has to prepare herself emotionally, physically and mentally to accept her unborn child.

There are many physical changes while pregnant from aches and pains to heartburn and many more. Pregnant women cannot fulfil the needs of a healthy adult as they have to be careful of what they carry and to make sure they do not trip or tumble as this could hurt the baby. There are a lot of affects after the birth of the child which includes stretch marks. While pregnant the mother will receive many mixed emotions, this is linked with her hormones and can result in many different mood swings. While pregnant the 9 months the mother waits for the child to develop is a very daunting time for some.

When having a baby you have to change your lifestyle massively, also throughout your pregnancy smoking, consuming alcohol and taking drugs is very bad for the unborn baby and can cause major defects to the baby including a miscarriage and the baby being underweight and many more consequences. For example you cannot go out socialising with your friends all the time as you have a baby that needs 24 hour care, which is very important. A baby is also really expensive and has a lot of necessities including food, nappies, a pram, changing mat, clothes, toys etc.

The mother may develop “the baby blues” which is a term used for after a couple of days of the baby being born the mother may become depressed and stressed. This will normally go after a couple of days. You have to prepare that you will have to look after your child for many years and they will have needs and necessities you have to fulfil. Throughout your life you will also have many unpredictable events occur. The two I have chosen to explain is illness and bereavement, these can both cause major effects and changes to your life if they happen. Having an illness e. . cancer can affect your lifestyle completely in the worst cases, alongside your family and loved ones. This is a very serious illness which can disrupt your life and put a stop to many things. If you are ill it could mean you have to leave your place of work as you are too ill to undertake the jobs and hard work. It can cause major affects to your life and with your family. It causes emotional stress and can cause worry confusion and depression alongside many other mixed emotions and from family members. You have to adapt to the loss of your good health.

This could cause anger or depression and failure to adapt to the illness and changes. You may have to endure hospitals and doctors for a short or long period of time. When you are placed here for check up’s, treatment or consultations. This could also be stressful as you could have young/ children who need looking after. So a babysitter/ family or friend is needed to fulfil this need. All this could cause a major interruption within the family and cause major disruptions and upsets throughout the family. The illness could cause defects to the physical body and this could be very upsetting.

These are seen by outsiders e. g. with cancer, radiotherapy may be used which could lead to the loss of your hair. This can be covered by a scarf or hat. This could cause upset if people stare at the undertaker. The other predictable life event a person may have in their life is bereavement. This could be of a family member or of a loved one. The death of one of these could be expected or unexpected.. For example, a person could be ill for a very long time and be told how long they have left to live because of the illness or a person could be run over and left to survive their life.

Either way it’s a very stressful event for any individual it causes physical problems which can include physical exhaustion, crying, sleep deprivation, high blood pressure, headaches, hair loss, loss of appetite. It is important to maintain your healthy lifestyle and not develop a need for alcohol or drugs at this time When a loved one or family member dies your emotions can be mixed and you can receive many of them throughout this time, it could cause some people to be depressed and feel unworthy.

This can be a very hard time if the individual that dies is the person you rely on for example: if an elderly person has lived with their partner all their life and their whole life has been situated and included the person that dies this has a major effect on the person emotionally, physically, intellectually and socially. Because of this the person will have to recover and adapt their situation e. g. move into a smaller house or employ a carer to do the jobs that need to be fulfilled but cant.

Many people develop psychological problems which are very common during grief because the mind and body are linked it therefore causes physical problems and depression can disrupt your sleeping pattern and appetite as it causes the body to slow down. Alongside depression some people may develop anxiety this can cause a loss of appetite, poor sleep, hot sweats and racing pulse. You can receive help and counselling from certain groups that specialise in bereavement and will try and help you through this hard time. P4: To explain two theories of ageing Theory 1- Activity theory:

It is believed that with this theory if people keep actively involved with others and in a social networking scheme they will be more satisfied with their life. Helping your physical and mental health could help by being an active member of society. Robert J. Havighurst in 1963 looked at The Office Of National Statistics and saw that it indicated that one third of the labour force will be over fifty years of age by the year of 2020. Some businesses should start to recognise that there are benefits of age diversity in the workplace. If you keep actively involved with others there are many strengths and weaknesses these include:

Strengths; Working together with others will keep you involved and help you socialise together as you are never too old to socialise, go out and have friends. It is believed that people’s health will be and get better as they get older and if they still have the chance to work as this keeps people stimulated and motivated. You could develop friends and improve your social life while working as you may have to spend every day with the same people and will become to know them and work with them. It could keep an elderly persons fitness up by exercising during work if it contains labour or walking for instance.

You will not become lonely within old age as you will always have people around you. Weaknesses; as people grow old their bodies start to decrease they may not be able to undertake some of the tasks they would be able to throughout their younger years. If people are unable to fulfil the needs of the job this could lead to slacking of their work or not completing their work properly which can be time consuming and cost money. As you age you cannot move about as quickly and going out into society could lead to them becoming tires, unwell and could cause panic, frustration, exhaustion and stress.

If an elderly person develops an illness leading from their workplace or society this could lead to retirement and quitting their job because of this. As you cannot have poor health and work with others and society. A major problem will be if people are retiring later and can fulfil the needs of the job to an elderly age this could become a problem for the younger generation as they may not be able to get jobs as employers are looking for people who have a lot of experience and knowledge in the sector of workplace. Others may want to stay at home and retire at a younger age if possible for them.

Theory 2- Disengagement Theory: The disengagement theory is our social structure encourages people especially elderly people to withdraw from society, this is so the younger generation can take their place and fulfil the needs that were by the older generation. This theory was discovered in the 1960;s by Cumming and Henry who described it as the disengagement theory, in the 1960’s it was known for the women’s role in society is finished when their husband dies. A good example of this is that the decline and decrease in family sizes and the break up and splits of families leads to more isolation within society.

As the elderly grow old they begin to loose contact with their family and loved ones which can include their grandchildren if a divorce or separation has been undertook. Ageing is known as a negative factor and can become withdrawn from society and this mainly happens to people when they stop working. If you keep actively involved with others there are many strengths and weaknesses these include: Strengths; it is very important for all ages to have a good social network between others, even for the elderly this should carry on to a very old age. Society gives us the figures of 1 in 2 marriages end up in a divorce.

This could lead to the grandparent losing contact with a grandchild because of the separation. Society does encourage the younger generation to replace the older generations work, labour and jobs. This shows that disengagement is vital and it does make sense. Weaknesses; there are many weaknesses for this theory also which includes, society changes all the time and throughout the years has changed massively. Tis means many retired and older people do play an active part in their community and can also continue to work part time if they can cope with this.

This shows that they are not disengaged as they continue working even though it’s part time. Some famous stores such as Tesco and Morrison’s do employ and have a good reputation as employers of the older generation. This causes criticism of the disengagement theory. Most people that work do have a clean and safe environment so that when they retire they are not worn out and so their work does not affect their health over the years of working. Also protective clothing etc. should be used if labour work is needed.

If this clothing is not provided it could lead to the worker developing illnesses or diseases and becoming ill or even death. The disengagement theory de-values the older generation by saying they should leave the work when they are elderly for the younger generation. Since the first of October 2006 it was set that it is illegal to discriminate on the grounds of someone’s age if applying for a job etc. M1: Discuss the nature- nurture debate in relation to the development of an individual. The nature and nurture debate relates to the development of an individual.

The theory is based on and is a debate between theorists who believe out behaviour and development is responsible for this because of genetics which is nature or it is based on the environment we grow up in and our surroundings. Basically some philosophers say that we are born to be the way we are and others believe that get brought up and influenced by the environment and surroundings that make us. The first theorists believes that our intellectual, personality, behaviour and gender role is determined by our genes and can not be changed because of anything especially our environment and we have no control over our actions.

It is not accepted in the twenty first century that there are two influences which is our nature including our biology and nurture including environment which interacts with each other and they are inseparable which is interacionism. This is researched through the psychology and the development of a human being and they consider how much each side contributes. The debate particularly considers the education of a human being if a persons education achievements are influenced more by their inherited intelligence from their genes from their parents or if it is from the individual’s upbringing.

Also you can consider crime, whether crime is committed because of their inherited or because of the environment they have been brought up in you can consider factors such as if they have no money within the family so they commit a crime such as thieving out of shops to get what they want. Also their gender if there is unequal opportunities for genders because of the behaviour and achievements of the individuals or because the individual has genetically determined this is also a factor you can consider and so do researchers to balance the debate.

Sociologists believe and tend to take the environment/ socialisation (the nurture) debate more than the nature debate when explaining the differences between individuals. An English Victorian called Francis Galton came up with the phrase of the nature versus nurture debate and the terms came from such plays such as Shakespear’s play called “The Tempest” where Galton was influenced by the book called On the Origin Of Species which was written by his cousin called Charles Darwin.

From when the phrase appeared it was heavily criticised by a lot of people, an example of this is because the environment of a wealthy person or family and with this entails social and education privileges for them because of their wealth which is passed down through their children because of the money not because of their genetics. A philosopher called “John Locke” said that humans get their behavioural and actions from nurture called “Tabula Rasa” which means blank slate which says that humans only develop from influences they have from the environment.

It is a hard debate to take a side because there are factors which base on both sides. Now psychologists consider also the question of ‘Naive’ which is the knowledge which is outdated in the 21st century. In my opinion I believe that this debate is equal as the environment is responsible for our behaviour because a lot can influence us including our peers and the people around us including our family. Also TV, magazines, and books that have been made and illustrated which individuals like and make them their favourite which can include celebrities which you could base your life or influence you to e. . wear the same clothes as the celebrity to be like them and because you like the clothes. Also our development especially intellectually we can learn in school, college or university where we could study further and specialise in a subject whilst family members have not had the opportunity to and cannot take part in more education because they did not get the correct grades throughout their schooling. On the other hand our intelligence could get passed through our genes and give us the brains to pass through schooling easily.

Also we could get passed down our characteristics which could provide our personality and the way we think. We are born the way we are meant to be and are not influenced by our environment because our genes have decided this. M2: discuss two major theories of ageing in relation to the development of the individual. There are two major theories of ageing in relation to the development of the individual, the first one I looked at is: • The social Disengagement theory This theory focuses on the amount individuals are involved in e. g. activities, social groupings or outing with friends.

Disengagement means withdrawing from involvement. There are two authors who that put forward a theory that older people naturally tend to withdraw from social involvement with olders as they grown older. It is important for the younger generation to take the place of the elderly individuals which leads to the social construction. For example: An individual could move away with their husband and retire to a place which could also be abroad to spend their retirement years at their favourite setting. Unfortunately if something goes wrong e. g. heir partner is taken ill and has to go to a care setting or passes away. This leaves the individual on their own to cope. For some this can be a very hard time especially balancing their finances, emotionally, physically, and especially socially. If they have moved away from their friends and relatives they will have no one to rely on and to gain support from. It relates to the development of the individual because through the social effects on the individual because the theory says that once we grow older we begin to disengage from our social lives this can be because of a result of the ageing process.

In some cases it could be because they have an illness or disease that affects their legs e. g. Arthritis which means they cannot walk or walk as far as they used to. Therefore they cannot travel far to get to places they need to because of their arthritis. It can also be through poor hearing or vision which then makes it harder to interact and communicate with people. They may not be able to get to the bus station, get the bus to their place they want to commute to.

This could also become isolation for an individual which will then affect them emotionally because they will then have low self-esteem and self-confidence because they feel like they have been isolated by the people around them and their local community. They could have also retired from their place of work because of their age or disease/illness this will mean they have less contact with their colleagues and not be able to go to work and socialise there. If you have friends the same age as you they may have the same problems e. g. isabilities or mobility and not be able to travel to see you, so that will reduce social contact. Also through technology some may not be able to use the internet or mobile phones. Some individuals may find it better to be on their own because they may have hobbies which they can complete without any distractions. If an elderly person likes to paint pictures and they could find they have more time to complete the painting and be able to focus on something they love doing. They also may be able to find a part time job or a voluntary job they can complete and enjoy which means they can socialise with people and make new friends.

It also affects a person emotionally because if the individual does disengage themselves from their social grouping or from their family and groups that they normally attend this can make a person feel very lonely. Especially if they have no one to talk to or see every day which can therefore make them feel worthless and not needed, if they have no family or friends to rely on also will affect them because as their children if they have any will grow up and become adults themselves who have commitment’s to their own family, job etc.

This can affect an elderly person if they have brought up a lot of children who have needed them throughout their life and as they begin to get older they do not need their parents anymore. If the individual begins to think they are worthless, this can then lead to low self-esteem which can also make the individual depressed. If depression occurs it could later end up in a bad mental health status. This can be helped with counselling and if you go and see your doctor. The counsellor can talk through your problems and worries and give you the best advice they have, this can be through a one to one session or within a group.

Some may find it better to talk within a group so they can share their emotions and problems with others who have the same issues. If your body is less able to do activities and manoeuvre’s you may start to ‘give up’, some individual’s may have the function but not the facilities within their body and vise versa. It will affect them physically because there body is ageing and growing older which means they will be much weaker and not able to motivate themselves. This can take a major effect to their weight, fitness and exercise.

If they cannot walk far or do any exercise they will not be able to keep fit and exercise but they still need to eat which can make an individual put on weight. As an individual grows older they can have any illness or disease and there are loads within society. An elderly person may begin to develop arthritis in their hands which means there hands may get so painful they cannot even move their hands or use them, which will prevent them even doing the simplest jobs such as writing down an address. An individual could get even more ill because there is no one there to help.

They may have trouble getting to doctors/ hospital appointments, getting their medicine and finding the money to have someone to deliver this service or be able to care for you. They are already prone to illness/s because of their age and their bodies function. Also they need the right food to keep them fit and healthy and do to so you need to go to the shop. If fruit and vegetables (fresh) are needed you can buy these from the local supermarket or market, there may be a problem if there is no way of travelling to the supermarket to get fresh food.

If this is the problem some individual’s may have to use the corner shop and buy frozen and ready meals. Which are cooked in the microwave or oven, this is not good for a person’s fitness and healthy lifestyle. to purchase the appropriate food it may be necessary to pay someone to collect your food and be able to cook it for you, but this could come at an expensive price if you have no family or friends to help. Lastly it will affect them intellectually because as they grow older and have disengaged themselves they could begin to forget things due to poor memory and ageing.

This can be very important when elderly because you may begin to forget where you live, or your name. This can be linked with the disease Dementia which is a disorder which is common when ageing. There are statistics that say approximately five per cent of people over the age of 65 have dementia. The individual could struggle to complete and enjoy their hobbies because of their body function or condition for example: some elderly people want to do puzzles such as Sudoku to keep challenging their brain but they may find it hard to think properly and get the correct answer.

If they forget how to cook, their own food and dinner and they are self-reliant they now need to find a way to eat and this means to have their dinners cooked for them because they cannot cook because they have forgotten due to old age or their condition and also it is a very dangerous for health and safety risks. As there is a lot of electrical equipment that is used including microwaves, ovens (either gas or electric), the hob. This can be very dangerous especially if the individual has forgotten how to use it properly. The next major theory is: • The Activity Theory

This theory says that older people need to disengage but they need to remain active in order to prevent disengagement from going too far. Also that there needs to be facilities that are provided for them so they can use and are educated in using them and being able to contact with them or travel. One of the theorist’s “Bromley” claimed that it is important to remain mentally active and maintain an interest in life and enjoy the company of others. He also says that if disengagement does occur it would lead to a worse mental, health and physical state.

For example: An individual could start to disengage from their family and friends as their family begins to grow and get older and develop into their own families and do not need to rely on the guardian for their help anymore. Even though this has happened the individual could still stay fit and active by joining local groups that are available for example; in community centres they can hold different groups such as bridge where they have lots of elderly people playing cards and they run the group with people around the same age as them.

Also there are groups which hold different groups such as bowls and coffee mornings which are sometimes free or a little amount of money. It relates to the development of the individual because there are social effects on the individual because the theory says that once we have reached a certain age it is important to carry on with activities and maintain the interests we have in our lives.

It is important to carry on with your life and using your body to its full potential even with a disability or illness, you can do this by finding ways around it and staying in touch with your local community, charities, the council and benefits to help you to do so. If you have social interaction with people every day it can prevent such problems as depression and loneliness because you have someone to talk to. If you have a group you can join then you will be able to make friends and be able to learn new things about a person and get to know them.

You could make a new friend who is more able then you and would be able to help you with doing activities, groups and daily jobs that you may find hard on your own. There may also be an advantage of getting a part-time or voluntary job in a setting which you could help others by completing tasks such as selling food in a hospital canteen, this will also keep you socially interacted even more so because you will be able to meet different people every day that you work in the setting and could possibly help others.

This can mean a lot of value to the individual, especially if they know they can help others. It also affects a person emotionally because if they are attached to a certain social grouping or activity or a hobby they are interested in this can make the individual feel wanted and have a purpose in their older years. If an individual becomes lonely in their own home with no relatives or friends this could be a very hard time for someone especially if they have an illness also and have little money.

There are so many factors that you have to encounter when looking at what an elderly person can do to fit activities in and be able to interact with others when they are older, but if you see that they can join in activities, do volunteer work, go for coffee mornings and this extends to making new friends. All these factors affect your emotional status because it looks at how you are feeling and if individuals begin to feel they have no meaning, nothing to live for and no expectations about what they want to do for the rest of their lives this can be a very daunting and upsetting time.

You can find work that is suitable for your needs especially if you have bad knees and cannot walk far. An example of this is; if you have Arthritis and find it challenging to walk far, you may be able to find a part time job or a voluntary job working with animals or within what your favourite area is. It could be as little as feeding your next door neighbours cats and making sure they have water while they are away. This can still be a very important role to play within your neighbourhood and especially for your next door neighbour.

It could even extend with you becoming very good friends with them and exchanging favours such as; taking you shopping every week, which you cannot manage to do by yourself. It also affects a person physically because they can try and stay fit and healthy by exercising and getting out of their house or case setting especially if they are lonely and by themselves. An individual may be able to walk perfectly fine but have no reason to walk anywhere, to get to your location you may have to walk to the bus stop, get on the bus and walk to he place you need to go to. This will give you exercise even the littlest of exercise will be able to keep your body going and moving, this theory explains that is not good for your body to just stop, be pulled out of society and not being challenged. You may be able to lose weight and keep fit if you keep your muscles and joints moving daily or even weekly. Even if you struggle you could buy equipment that is made specifically for your needs e. g. a zimmer frame, this helps a lot of people to walk even if it’s only a short distance it is still exercise.

Lastly it affects people intellectually also because if they challenge their brain every day it is known that this is good for your mental health status. There are puzzles such as Sudoku that some elderly individuals use to help their brain carry on working and challenging it every day. Their memory will begin to deteriorate due to the ageing process but it could be such things as names, ages and dates which are in general quite hard to remember because of ageing. If it gets severe you can be helped by your doctor who will be able to help you, give you advice and be able to lead you on to the next step of help. ven if you have disengaged from peers, friends and family you may be able to find someone who can help you by even talking to you daily or finding you challenges to do to keep your brain interacting and working. M3: Discuss the effects on self-esteem and self- confidence of the physical changes associated with ageing. Self- esteem- Is how you feel or value your self. Individual’s who are vulnerable have low self-esteem because they may not have emotional security also if the individual feels dominated or threatened by someone/ a group of people of something this could develop them to have low self-esteem.

If individuals are discriminated against this can lead to people losing their self-worth. Also within adults they could have problems and troubles trying to maintain their self-esteem because they are or do not feel like they are valued. Also they could have low self-esteem because they are ageing and many elderly people do not feel comfortable with the way they look compared to what they used to and the effects of ageing. An elderly person can also have and develop low-self esteem because they have to start using health and social care services and have to become more dependent on others and their services.

The person that has low-self esteem will experience the feeling of depression and worthlessness because of this. There is a way that health and social carers can help the individuals who have low self esteem and worthlessness by ensuring the individual’s esteem is maintained and improved so they can help within the situation. Self-confidence- is the assurance of yourself. Individuals also have self-confidence which is where individuals have assurance of themselves and feel confident in the way they look, behave, what they are doing and power.

Being confident is a good way to present yourself and makes others want to follow in your foot steps as you are confident. Some individuals may feel so confident within themselves this could turn into ignorance which sometimes can be nasty and can make the individual feel that they are better than other individuals. There are many physical changes when ageing towards the body. A good example of this is: • Wrinkles: this is a process which appears due to ageing and is a fold or crease in the skin. This can be caused from facial expressions, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration and other factors.

It is when the outer layer of skin starts to absorb water and the skin doesn’t expand causing it to wrinkle. This can cause an effect to an individuals confidence as your body starts to wrinkle and you get older it begins to show that to others and can make a person feel old. It also can effect their self esteem negatively because a person could feel there only feature is their facial features and when wrinkles start to effect them it could cause them to begin to feel depressed because they cannot prevent the ageing of skin to occur. • Bones: The bones in the body can become less dense and more likely to fracture or break.

This could mean that the body cannot move as well as it used to and could cause the body to move slower and use services such as wheelchairs, walking frame or crutches. To some people this could cause a major effect negatively to their self-esteem because they have to rely on an object to help them walk which they have done all their life and now have to use. They could lose their independence because of this and their self worthless because they may not be able to take part in activities with their friends and family or they may not be able to do some jobs a younger individual would find easy.

This could frustrate them and make them feel unneeded, which could lead to depression. It could also mean they find it embarrassing they have to use objects to help them walk so they may not want to go out side or walk far and let anyone see them, it will affect their self-confidence negatively. • Joints: The joints in the body become stiffer and could become painful because of the cartilage on the bone ends become thinner. This could also make an individual use services such as wheelchairs etc. As they might not be able to walk as well as they use to.

This could take a major effect on an individuals self confidence because they will feel like they have to rely on someone or something else to walk. Especially when they have been doing this so easily throughout their life. It must be really frustrating. This could therefore effect their self esteem because they know the are ageing and in pain with their joints as they are stiffer which is the reason for making it so hard to walk. It could take a toll on your socialisation and maybe if an elderly person has a job they may have to be sacked or leave if they cannot perform as well.

This could take a massive toll on the individuals money, housing, food etc. • Muscles: As the body ages the muscles become weaker. These all will affect the individuals ability to walk. It may also effect your arms and fingers etc, this can be a massive downfall because it could prevent an individual from completing tasks that they used to be able to complete • Height: A person can also lose height because of their cartilage that separates the vertebrate and backbone becomes compressed and also the spine could become more rounded. This may be tragic for an individual who is very all or even short because they are made to be shorter when this occurs. If a human being loves their height and are proud of it this could be a very big nock to an individuals confidence because they have always been proud of their height and the way they look which will affect their confidence because if they are conscious of their height and the way they look it could lead to them not wanting to leave the house and make themselves paranoid about their own image. • Vision: Whilst ageing your vision could become worse and deteriorate because of many problems within your body and due to your body ageing.

If this occurs you need to go to the opticians who will check your eyes and see if you need glasses. If so they will pick the perfect specification for them and there will be a range of glasses to pick from. An individual who has never worn glasses before and has always had good eyes and vision. It could make the individual not like the glasses they have to wear and be embarrassed to wear them. This could make your vision worse because some may choose to only wear them at home or whilst reading because they do not want to be seen with glasses on.

This may affect a person’s self-confidence because they have to wear glasses to see properly and do not like them. • Hearing: whilst ageing your hearing could also begin to deteriorate because of many reasons. You can get your hearing tested at a specialists who will produce a hearing aid to your specification. This will help you and increase your hearing and make it overall good and how it is meant to be. Individuals may feel embarrassed to wear a hearing aid as to some people it shows ageing. So they may choose not to use it/ properly or at all. It could make an individual paranoid if they go outside and people see them with it on.

An example of this is my father has a crushed ear lobe and its internal which makes him deaf in one ear and partially deaf in the other, but he will not wear a hearing aid because it shows to him that he is ageing and needs to rely on something so he can hear, he really doesn’t like it so refuses to wear a aid to help him. This therefore takes an effect to his self-confidence because he is embarrassed to wear it and especially his peers to see it. • Fertility reduces- Another issue that enters when ageing is the fertility reduces, this could be in a woman or man.

In a woman there is an age where they reach the menopause which is when they cannot have any more children because they cannot produce an egg so it cannot be fertilised, this could affect the individual a lot especially if they are trying or still want a baby/s. This could make an individual feel worthless and unneeded because they cannot produce anymore. When a man ages he may not be able to produce a high sperm count or high enough to get a woman pregnant. This will take a massive toll on a man’s confidence and some men feel they have had their dignity taken away.

D1: evaluate how nature and nurture may affect the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of two stages of the development of an individual. Childhood; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for physical development; During the stages of development whilst being a child there is a lot of physical features that change. A major change is the physical development of a child as there is a growth of weight, height and also hair growth. There is a maturation process which occurs in an orderly manner; it includes certain skills and abilities which will occur before the child reaches certain milestones.

The rate that the child reaches these milestones vary from child to child. Strengths of the nature side of the debate is depending on the child’s genes of their parents will show what weight or height there child is. As a result of this we can look at the parent’s genetics to see why the child has the certain features. Strengths of the nurture debate is children’s legal requirement in school is to take part in physical education (P. E). A certain type of sport in school e. g. Football or tennis. This makes sure that at least the child gets an hour exercise per week.

This therefore looks at their environment and effects their physical development in a good way. Childhood; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for intellectual development; Childhood; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for social development; Childhood; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for emotional development; Adolescence; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for physical development; Adolescence; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for intellectual development Adolescence; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for social development;

Adolescence; strengths and weaknesses of nature nurture for emotional development; D2: Evaluate the influence of two major theories of ageing on health and social care provision. There are two major theories of ageing that impact on health and social care provisions. The two theories are: 1. The activity theory 2. The disengagement theory The activity theory benefits the health and social care provisions and benefits it. The theory shows that the elderly need to socialise and carry on completing their daily tasks if possible, this will help them socially, entally and physically. It is important for an elderly person e. g. in a care home. To go outside in the fresh air and be able to go for a walk, most care homes have a garden which the elderly can enjoy and sit in. they can also socialise which is important to the elderly. This is a strength because the elderly benefit from this as it helps them socially, mentally and physically. It is keeping the elderly involved with society. In care homes they have many ways that they fulfil the needs of the elderly, this can be affected by the ability the elderly person is at.

Most care homes have many activities throughout the day that an elderly person can take part in. this includes such activities as; Bingo, Chess, Bridge and card games. As you have to work in either groups or in pairs this also means that the individual gets the chance to socialise with their friends and others in the care home, they can talk, gossip, discuss politics and their interests. Overall it makes the activity theory benefit because in health and social care provisions it has a good effect with the elderly within the care homes.

In a hospital they have a choice that you can have a newspaper delivered to your bed daily, this means that everyone has the choice to know what is occurring in society and what is around them. This will give the individual a topic to talk about with others in their care provision, also if they enjoyed a hobby in their younger age e. g. supporting a football team and going to every match and watching their matches. They could still feel part of it by reading the newspapers and magazines that have the sport part in, they would then feel that they are still part of the football team and supporting them.

They could also in a hospital setting have the mini television they have by their bed and watch the live match. This may have its costs but they have Freeview on that any individual can watch, this could be a major part of an individual’s life because they like watching television or documentaries, soaps or sport. This means they are still enjoying on of their activities. As a result of this they can talk to others about what they have seen and it shows that it can help them socialize with others. This is also a strength because it is a positive part of an elderly persons life as they are still involved with society.

There is also a negative impact that the activity theory could have on the health and social care provisions, it could cause a negative impact such as; a patient could be harmed or could be at risk from other patients or themselves. If in a care home setting they have a daily plan that the staff have to follow that benefits the individuals in the care home as I explained for a positive within the activity theory that an elderly person could go outside and it would be good for the individual to socialise with others and also get fresh air. he negative impacts are that the individual may be ill and not feel up to going outside especially if it’s cold it could make the individual really ill or they could even injure themselves, for an elderly person there could be many hazards outside that they could trip or slip on and make them fall over and hurt themselves, this could be very dangerous especially if they hit their head they could fracture their skull and be in serious danger. This is therefore not making the elderly healthier and fit, or even mentally fit because they have to go through a trauma and may get hurt as a result this is a negative impact and a weakness.

By an individual tripping up or hurting themselves especially if they cannot walk as fast and it takes a lot longer to go to the bathroom for instance then this may involve negative thoughts for the individual as they feel they are no use within society and have no purpose. This is another weakness as it affects the individual mentally (negative). An individual may not want to socialise with others and may feel more comfortable in their own home with no one else around that are not their own friends or family.

This also impacts on society negatively because it means the individual is not socialising and people do not want to leave their rooms as a result of that. Elderly go into care homes because they cannot manage on their own and need 24/7 care which they can get from a care home and the specialist nurses and carers they have there. Also if they go into hospital this is because they are not well and need treatment, care and this is 24/7 also. This means that not all individuals are up to and physically fit enough to socialise with others and this means that the theory can only benefit the health and care rovisions depending on the individual and to a certain extent. Next theory is the disengagement theory this reflects on the individual and their disengagement from society. The individuals in care homes, hospitals and other care settings that the elderly still disengage from society. A individual in a care home may be terminally ill and cannot get out of bed for example. They could not want to out of choice leave their room because they do not feel comfortable with others and if they can get everything they need brought to them this means the individual is disengaging from society.

Many individuals do not have a choice because if they are ill and cannot physically leave their room, this could have negative impacts on the individual because they may want to leave the room and see others and talk to other individuals. Therefore they are disengaging from society and this supports the theory. The individuals in the health and social care provisions that it could make the individual isolated because if they do not choose to disengage from society but have to because they have no way of looking after themselves and providing medicine for themselves with the correct medication every day.

This could mean they may have to stay in hospital for days, weeks or months. They are being looked after by other people cause they cannot do it themselves, this means they are prevented from society for no fault of their own, this is a strength of the activity theory. The individuals who have carers at home this means they cannot engage in society on their own because they cannot look after themselves on their own and needs the carer to look after them and give them food, medication, clean the house and bath them etc. his is done by the carer because the individual cannot look after themselves so they cannot go into society and socialise with others because they do not have the capability to do it. I believe that the disengagement theory is very judgemental and is based on the general public of elderly people and not for individual’s. there are many places where the elderly can engage and socialise with others. For example; at my place of work at a Community centre. We have many different lubs and classes that the elderly can attend including classes for individuals with Dementia, circle 50 ( cards), exercise class for the over 50’s, Bridge (cards). These provide many classes for elderly people to attend and they can make new friends, talk to people and get out of their flat or house with a new atmosphere. There are also places such as Hospitals which provide jobs for elderly people, they can do jobs such as working in the canteen serving food. This could make the individual have a more positive concept about themselves because they are helping people by providing them with food.

There are helplines that an elderly person can ring if they need help or care. It shows to individuals and society that some elderly people are more than capable in working and volunteering to help other people. People have to work till their 65 which means there are still elderly people who can work, this proves the disengagement theory of being slightly wrong and is a weakness. The elderly are still encouraged to work and be involved with society because people take their own time to run groups and help them by doing voluntary work for the elderly, this is another weakness.

It is also known that elderly people when they have retired have a lot of time on their hands as they do not have to work and have a job, many desire to fostering children which is helping society. It benefits the child and the elderly person because it means they have to socialise all the time and they have a priority and responsibility of looking after the child. It will give the elderly person motivation and self-esteem to carry on with their lives as they are giving back to society and helping by being responsible for someone who does not have to stay in care and will be able to have a stable and loving home.

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