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Vegetable Oils Determining Degree Of Unsaturation And Viscosity Biology

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Oil is an built-in portion of everyone ‘s life. Life without oil is non possible, particularly in cooking. But there is a bound to which how much oil can be used for the intent of cookery. The wellness factors have to be considered. There are different types of oil that are used for cookery and feeding intents. But how many of them are really safe for wellness? How many of them do non do any wellness jobs like high cholesterin etc which in bend leads to diseases like bosom onslaughts?

This subject is decidedly worthy for probe because a batch can be found out by finding the iodine figure of different oils.

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For illustration, the grade of unsaturation is the chief thing that can be found out by executing the experiment of Iodine Value. From the grade of unsaturation, we can find the boiling points of the oils and their consequence on the human organic structure. Though my experiment is merely for four oils, viz.

, mustard oil, olive oil, coconut oil and canola oil, there is great range for probe even in these oils. The chief intent of this probe is to set up the relationship between the grade of unsaturation in the oil and the viscousness of the oil

Vegetable or “ Cooking ” oil is used on an mundane footing. Vegetable oil is purified fat of works beginning which is liquid at room temperature.There are many different sorts of vegetable oils, some of them are: Olive oil, Sunflower oil, Soybean oil, Sesame oil, Coconut oil, Peanut oil, Corn oil etc.

Fats and oils are esters of triglycerols and fatty acids. When an oil is unsaturated, it means that the fatty acids consist of a long concatenation hydrocarbon that have carbon-carbon dual bonds.

The grade of unsaturation can be determined by happening out the sum of mass that is used to get the better of the carbon-carbon dual bonds.The sum of I that reacts is used to happen the iodine figure of the oil and this is used to bespeak the grade of unsaturation in the oil. The higher the iodine figure the greater the unsaturation.

Unsaturated oils are less stable than saturated oils. They keep less good than the concentrated oils. This is because the C C dual bond in the unsaturated oils react with the O in the air. This may take to discolouration to the surface of the oil, lessening in the alimentary oil and they besides lead to rancidity. They are more prone to hydrogenation and to hydrolysis.

Oils are really of import to our organic structure, they provide energy because they contain proportionally less oxygen than saccharides and they release more energy when they are oxidised.They besides provide the structural constituents of the cell membrane. They besides help in the production of steroid endocrines like Lipo-Lutin and testosterone.

Unsaturated oils are really harmful to wellness. They damage the immune system, cause hormonal instabilities and many other jobs. They pose a major wellness hazard. Unsaturated oils get rancid when exposed to air ; that is called oxidization, Free groups are produced in the procedure. This procedure is accelerated at higher temperatures. The free groups produced in this method react with parts of cells, such as molecules of DNA and protein and may go affiliated to those molecules, doing abnormalcies of construction and map.

The greater the grade of unsaturation of the oil, the better it is for the organic structure. This is because, as mentioned above, the greater the grade of unsaturation the lower the thaw point. The mean organic structure temperature of the human organic structure is about 98.8.F. Any oil below this temperature is highly good for the organic structure. This is because the oil wo n’t linger in the tummy for a really long clip, because if it stays in the tummy for a really long clip, so it can do the organic structure ill. Besides, oils below this temperature helps in fade outing the fat that is already present in the organic structure alternatively of farther roll uping the sum of fat in the organic structure. These oils do non choke off up the arterias and they do non go hostile plaques.

If the oil has less grade of unsaturation or is saturated, so it has a higher thaw point, this is because the Vander Waal forces are stronger when compared to the oils that have a greater grade of unsaturation. This would necessitate more energy to get the better of the intermolecular forces doing a higher thaw point. Now, since the oil will hold to fire at a higher temperature, the organic structure temperature has to lift to above the mean organic structure temperature to that specific temperature. If it does non make to that peculiar temperature for the oil to fire, it can do dyspepsia and clotted arterias. They help raise a individual ‘s high denseness lipoproteins ( HDL ) . HDL carries cholesterin from the blood back to the liver. The liver so breaks down the cholesterin so that it can be eliminated from the organic structure. This helps the extra cholesterin from being deposited in the arterias.

Word Count: 572

EXPERIMENT A- DETERMINING THE IODINE VALUE OF THE OILS

Design

2.1.1 Purpose: Finding the I figure to find the grade of unsaturation of assorted different veggie oils

Iodine Number: it is the step of the grade of the unsaturation in oils and fats. It is expressed in footings of centigrams of I absorbed per gm of sample ( per centum by weight of iodine absorbed )

2.1.2 Apparatus:

Iodine Flasks, 250 milliliter

Micro Beaker, I ml

Burette, 50 milliliter

Beakers, 250 milliliter

2.1.3 Chemicals Required:

De ionised Water

Carbon Tetrachloride

Iodine monochloride ( Wij ‘s solution )

Potassium Iodide solution

Starch Solution

Aqueous Thiosulphate criterion solution

2.1.4 Oils required:

Olive Oil

Mustard Oil

Coconut Oil

Canola Oil

2.1.5 Procedure:

One 250 milliliter I flask was labeled “ BLANK ” and the other I flask was labeled “ SAMPLE ”

A sample of oil was collected in a 50 milliliter beaker of known weight and was weighed in an analytical deliberation balance in order to obtain the weight of the oil to 4 denary topographic points

Subsequently, 20 milliliter of Carbon Tetrachloride was added to the beaker, stirred and this solution was transferred to an Iodine Flask.

5 milliliter of Wij ‘s Solution was transferred to the I flask utilizing a microbeaker

The Iodine flask was covered with an airtight palpebra and was kept off in the dark for 45 proceedingss

After 45 proceedingss, 10 milliliter of Potassium Iodide solution was poured into the palpebra of the Iodine Flask

The palpebra was easy raised leting a minimal air spread to forestall any iodine blues formed as a consequence of the old reactions, therefore leting the Potassium Iodide to drip easy into the I flask

100 milliliter of H2O was added to the flask in a similar manner and stirred so that the extra I was dissolved

The solution was so titrated with Na2A­S2O3 solution and when it turned to a straw colour, about 5ml of amylum solution was added which made the solution bend into a bluish black solution

The titration was resumed bead by bead until the solution turned colorless.

The volume of Na2A­S2O3 was noted ( both in the beginning of the titration and at the terminal of the titration )

The above process was carried out without the oil to obtain the “ BLANK ” value

The experiment was repeated thrice with the same oil

The same process was carried out with another sample of oil

Calculations

Formula for the computation for the Iodine Value of any oil

Where:

B – Volume of Na2A­S2O3 required for the “ BLANK ” sample

S – Volume of Na2A­S2O3 required by the “ SAMPLE ” sample

S – Normality of the Thiosulphate Solution ( N )

W – Mass of the oil taken ( g )

2.2 DATA COLLECTION

DATA COLLECTION

OLIVE Oil

Initial Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Concluding Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Reading 1

0

13.9

Reading 2

0

14.3

Reading 3

0

14.1

Volume of the “ BLANK ” sample = 28.6 milliliter

Mass of the oil = 0.2407 gram

MUSTARD OIL

Initial Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Concluding Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Reading 1

0

9.4

Reading 2

0

9.1

Reading 3

0

8.9

Volume of the “ BLANK ” sample = 28.6 milliliter

Mass of the oil: 0.2527 gram

COCONUT OIL

Initial Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Concluding Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Reading 1

0

26.5

Reading 2

0

27.3

Reading 3

0

26.8

Volume of the “ BLANK ” sample = 28.6 milliliter

Mass of the oil: 0.2808 gram

CANOLA OIL

Initial Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Concluding Volume ( milliliter ) A±0.05 milliliter

Reading 1

0

6.0

Reading 2

0

5.2

Reading 3

0

5.5

Volume of the “ BLANK ” sample = 28.6 milliliter

Mass of the oil = 0.2771 gram

2.3 DATA Processing

OLIVE Oil

Average Valuess

Initial Volume= = 0 milliliter

Concluding Volume = = 14.1 milliliter

Calculation of the Iodine Value

=78.98

MUSTARD OIL

Average Valuess

Initial Volume = = 0ml

Concluding Volume = = 9.1

Calculation of the Iodine Value:

= 101.2

COCONUT OIL

Average Valuess

Initial Volume = = 0ml

Concluding Volume = = 26.9ml

Calculation of the Iodine Value:

= 9.937

CANOLA OIL

Average Valuess

Initial Volume = = 0ml

Concluding Volume = = 5.6ml

Calculation of the Iodine Value:

= 108.8

Mistake Propagation

Blank Value= 28.6 milliliter

Mistake in the “ Blank ” : A±0.05 milliliter

Olive Oil:

Value of the “ SAMPLE ” : 14.1ml

Mistake in “ SAMPLE ” : A±0.05 milliliter

( BLANIK-SAMPLE ) = ( 28.6-14.1 ) = 14.5 milliliter

Mistake in ( BLANK- SAMPLE ) = A± ( 0.05+0.05 ) = A±0.1 milliliter

Percentage mistake in ( BLANK – Sample ) = 0.69 %

Percentage mistake in mass = 0.02 %

Therefore % mistake in Iodine Value: 0.02+0.69 = 0.71 %

Value of Iodine Number = 78.98

Mistake in Iodine Number = A±0.56

Iodine Number of Olive Oil = 78.98A±0.56

MUSTARD OIL

Value of the “ SAMPLE ” : 9.1ml

Mistake in “ SAMPLE ” : A±0.05 milliliter

( BLANK-SAMPLE ) = ( 28.6-9.1 ) = 19.5 milliliter

Mistake in ( BLANK- SAMPLE ) = A± ( 0.05+0.05 ) = A±0.1 milliliter

Percentage mistake in ( BLANK – Sample ) = 0.51 %

Percentage mistake in mass = 0.02 %

Therefore % mistake in Iodine Value: 0.02+0.51 = 0.53 %

Value of Iodine Number = 101.2

Mistake in Iodine Number = A±0.54

Iodine Number of Mustard Oil = 101.2A±0.54

COCONUT OIL

Value of the “ SAMPLE ” : 26.9

Mistake in “ SAMPLE ” : A±0.05 milliliter

( Blank-Sample ) = ( 28.6-26.9 ) = 1.7 milliliter

Mistake in ( Blank- Sample ) = A± ( 0.05+0.05 ) = A±0.1 milliliter

Percentage mistake in ( Blank – Sample ) = 5.8 %

Percentage mistake in mass = 0.02 %

Therefore % mistake in Iodine Value: 0.02+5.8 = 5.82 %

Value of Iodine Number = 9.937

Mistake in Iodine Number = A±0.59

Iodine Number of Olive Oil = 9.937A±0.59

CANOLA OIL

Value of the “ SAMPLE ” : 5.6ml

Mistake in “ SAMPLE ” : A±0.05 milliliter

( Blank-Sample ) = ( 28.6-5.6 ) = 23 milliliter

Mistake in ( Blank- Sample ) = A± ( 0.05+0.05 ) = A±0.1 milliliter

Percentage mistake in ( Blank – Sample ) = 0.43 %

Percentage mistake in mass = 0.02 %

Therefore % mistake in Iodine Value: 0.02+0.43 = 0.45 %

Value of Iodine Number = 108.8

Mistake in Iodine Number = A±0.49

Iodine Number of Olive Oil = 108.8A±0.49

EXPERIMENT B- DETERMINING -THE VISCOSITY OF THE VEGETABLE OILS

3.1 Design

3.1.1 Hypothesis: To find the viscousness of the undermentioned oils:

Olive Oil

Canola Oil

Mustard Oil

Coconut oil

3.1.2 Apparatus required:

Viscometer

25ml denseness bottle

Weighing balance

Pipet

3.1.3 Chemicals Required:

Olive Oil- 25 milliliter

Mustard Oil- 25 milliliter

Canola Oil- 25 milliliter

Coconut oil- 25ml

Distilled water- 25 milliliter

3.2 Procedure:

Part A: Determination of the Density

The oils were added up to the lip of a 25 milliliter denseness bottle of a known weight. The bottle was covered utilizing a palpebra. And the extra oil was dipped off from the side of the palpebras. The denseness bottle was so cleaned. The bottle and the oil together were weighed in order to acquire the mass of the oil that is traveling to be used in the procedure of the experiment

With the aid of this deliberate weight and a preset volume of 25 milliliter, the denseness of the oil could be calculated.

The above procedure was carried out for all the oils and the H2O every bit good

Part B: Determination of clip taken in order to flux down a viscosimeter

A Viscometer consists of a U-Tube with 2 reservoirs. 100 milliliter of the oil was added to the gap as indicated

The oil was so pipetted up on the other side until the lower semilunar cartilage reached the degree marked as A.

It was held at this point by utilizing a finger which covered the gap.

Equally shortly as the finger was released the oil flowed down and the at the same clip a timer was started.

The oil flowed through the reservoir and every bit shortly as the lower semilunar cartilage reached the degree marked at B, the timer was stopped and the clip was noted.

The above process was carried out for all the other oils and was carried out for H2O every bit good

With the aid of the above informations, the viscousness of the oil, relation to the viscousness of the H2O could be calculated.

3.3 Data Collection and Processing

Density of the Samples:

Name of Sample

Mass of 25ml gravitation bottle ( A± 0.00005 g )

Mass of 25 ml denseness bottle + sample ( A± 0.00005g )

Mass of the Sample ( A±0.0005 g )

Density of the sample ( Mass of the sample/25 )

Olive Oil

17.2358 g

40.2675

23.0317

0.9213

Canola Oil

17.2358 g

40.2872

23.0514

0.9221

Mustard Oil

17.2358 g

40.0860

22.8502

0.9140

Coconut Oil

17.2358 g

40.2733

23.0375

0.9215

Water

17.2358 g

42.3569

25.1211

1.0048

Time Taken

Name of the Sample

Time Taken ( A± 0.5 sec )

Olive Oil

8659

Canola Oil

6144

Mustard Oil

7628

Coconut Oil

9952

Water

151

Calculations

Formula for the computation of the comparative speed

AS1 = D1 A- t1

— — — — — — — — — —

AS2 D2 A- t2

Where,

Where:

AS1 = Viscosity of Oil

AS2 = Viscosity of H2O

Clearly,

AS1 = Relative Viscosity of Oil with regard to H2O

— — — — –

AS2

D1 = Density of oil

D2 = Density of H2O

t1 = Time required for the oil to flux between 2 marked points on the viscosimeter

t2 = Time required for H2O to flux between 2 marked points on the viscosimeter

3.4 Calculation

From the above observations we can happen the viscousness of the oils.

Olive Oil = [ 0.9213 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 8659 A± 0.5 ) = 52.27 A± 0.2

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

[ 1.0048 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 151 A± 0.5 )

Canola Oil = [ 0.9221 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 6144 A± 0.5 ) = 37.33 A± 0.2

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

[ 1.0048 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 151 A± 0.5 )

Mustard Oil = [ 0.9140 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 7628 A± 0.5 ) = 45.95 A± 0.2

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

[ 1.0048 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 151 A± 0.5 )

Coconut Oil = [ 0.9215 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 9952 A± 0.5 ) = 60.44 A± 0.2

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

[ 1.0048 A± ( 2 A- 10-6 ) ] A- ( 151 A± 0.5 )

Analysis

From the above graphs, we see that there is an reverse relationship shared between the grade of unsaturation and the value of the viscousness

Unsaturated oils are those that have carbon C dual bonds because it lacks H atoms. Poly unsaturated oils are those that contain more than one C dual bond. They are besides called the polyunsaturated fatty acids or PUFA ‘s and sometimes, they are besides known as “ Essential fatty acids ”

The grade of unsaturation can be found out by happening out the sum of mass that is used to get the better of the carbon-carbon dual bonds.The sum of I that reacts is used to happen the iodine figure of the oil and this is used to bespeak the grade of unsaturation in the oil.

A C dual bond consists of one I? bond and one Iˆ bond. I? bonds are formed by the “ terminal on ” interaction of the negatrons in a s-orbital. When they react they produce a bond in which the negatron denseness is at its greatest on the internuclear axis ( fanciful line fall ining the karyon ) and is symmetric about it.

Iˆ bond is formed by the “ side on ” interaction of the negatrons of the p-orbitals at right angles to the internuclear axis. This bond has low electron denseness on the inter atomic axis. The negatron denseness for this type of bond is at the highest on the sides opposite to the internuclear axis.

The presence of the dual bond in the hydrocarbon concatenation makes the short. And therefore there is greater figure of negatrons doing greater sum of abhorrent forces. This is called the Bayer ‘s strain. The more the figure of dual bonds the greater the strain and shorter the length of the hydrocarbon. These types of hydrocarbon concatenation undergo add-on reactions faster when compared to those that are longer with less figure of dual bonds. When they undergo add-on reaction they get relived of the emphasis and the strain doing the length of the hydrocarbon to spread out. Hence, the greater mass of Iodine usage, the greater the figure of C dual bonds and greater the Iodine figure and greater the grade of unsaturation.

Therefore, greater the I figure greater the grade of unsaturation

The C in the dual bond is sp2 hybridized. Hence the form is rhombohedral planar and the molecule comes into one plane. Therefore, the molecules in a dual bonded C are spaced out. When the C bond is saturated, that is, holding merely individual bonds, the bonds are sp3 hybridized. The form therefore is tetrahedral and hence molecules become spread in two planes. As a consequence, the molecules become more tightly packed, therefore going denser. Therefore, lesser the sum of dual bonds, the more tightly it will be packed when it becomes saturated and hence it will go more denser. This brings out a relationship between the I value, the grade of unsaturation and the viscousness. Greater the I value, greater the grade of unsaturation and lower the value of the viscousness.

Greater the grade of unsaturation, lower the thaw point. This is because in unsaturated oils there are carbon-carbon dual bonds. The presence of these dual bonds makes the hydrocarbon concatenation less directly. This weakens the strength of the Van Der Waal ‘s forces because there is less contact between the ironss. Therefore, greater the grade of unsaturation, lower the thaw point.

Besides, unsaturated oils are less stable than those that are saturated. Therefore, greater the grade of unsaturation, the less stable it is.

Decision

From the above experiment and analysis, we observe assorted figure of things. Greater the Iodine value of the oil, greater the grade of unsaturation and lower the viscousness. Using this analysis, we can state that Canola Oil has the highest I value, that is, and the least Viscosity value, that is. This means that Canola Oil is the safest to cook and utilize because it provides a batch of wellness benefits when compared to the sample of the other oils. Mustard oil, which has an iodine value of and Viscosity value of is the comes 2nd in the four oils that have been used for the experiment. Olive oil, that has an iodine value of and a viscousness value of is non recommended to utilize because out of the four oils that are were used for the experiment this falls under the 3rd class. Coconut oil is really risky for the wellness because its I value is and the viscousness value is. It is recommended non to utilize coconut oil for cookery intents.

Beginnings of Mistake

Mistake might hold occurred when reassigning the oil from one beaker to another. This might hold lead to minor mistakes happening in the procedure of the experiment

The analytical balance did mensurate the mass of the oil to an truth of four important figures, but there were few perturbation like noise and the shaking of the tabular array around the analytical balance that made the figure in the balance to hesitate between one figure to another.

There might be some ICl ( Iodine Monochloride ) left behind when it was transferred from the beaker to the Iodine Flask.

After the one hr in the dark, KI was to be added to the I flask by opening the lid slowly and doing the KI to drip easy into the flask. During this short period where the palpebra of the flask was opened, there might hold been opportunities where the I bluess could hold escaped from the reaction in the Iodine Flask doing mistakes in the experiment.

During the procedure of titration, there are opportunities that there was extra sum of Sodium Thiosulphate was added for the colour to turn colorless. This might hold caused the incorrect reading being taken which in bend can take to the incorrect computation that can increase the difference between the original Iodine value and by experimentation calculated Iodine Value

While mensurating the sum of amylum solutions, Wij ‘s solution etc, to be added in the procedure of the experiment, there are opportunities of parallax mistakes that could hold caused mistakes in the procedure of the experiment

There are opportunities that the setup had some bantam unwanted atoms that might hold been mixed with the other chemicals doing mistakes in the experiment

While mensurating the volume of the Na thiosulphate used for the experiment from the burette, there are opportunities that there was a bantam difference between the reading that was recorded and the existent reading.

The solution degree Fahrenheit Potassium Iodide was prepared in the lab by thining the KI pulverization into H2O. Therefore, there might hold been an mistake in the thining the Potassium Iodide like for illustration, adding excess Potassium Iodide pulverization or adding excess sum of H2O.

In some of the setup, there were readings that were non really clear. This might hold caused mistakes in the experiment.

For the experiment to find the Viscosity of the oils, the experiment had to be carried out in similar atmospheric conditions. There could hold been fluctuations in the chemical science lab hence taking to mistakes in the experiment.

Evaluation:

To cut down the deliberation mistake, the sample should be weighed repeatedly. This will cut down the random mistakes caused because of the deliberation. This will besides give an accurate mass that will cut down the mistakes in the experiment.

While reassigning chemicals, attention should be taken so as to avoid the chemicals from sloping

Repeated measurings could hold been conducted while mensurating the “ BLANK ” value and the “ SAMPLE ” value. This would hold reduced the random every bit good as systematic mistakes that are caused by wrong readings and ill-defined readings in the setup.

The setup used in the lab for the procedure of experimentation should be of good quality so as to minimise the mistakes and increase the truth in the experiment.

Cite this Vegetable Oils Determining Degree Of Unsaturation And Viscosity Biology

Vegetable Oils Determining Degree Of Unsaturation And Viscosity Biology. (2017, Jul 14). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/vegetable-oils-determining-degree-of-unsaturation-and-viscosity-biology-essay/

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