Name the specific type of plant tissue or cell that performs the following functions: a) waterproofing the surface layer Endodermos b) rapidly dividing into new cells Mitosis c) transporting sugars throughout the plant Phloem 40)Maple syrup is produces from the sap moving in the xylem of maple trees in the early spring. How would taking too much sap in the spring harm the maple tree? That sap is an energy store to give it a strong start in spring. If you take too much, that is less energy for the tree to use. 1) A number of plants are currently being stydies for use in cleaning up land sites contanining toxic substances. a)name the technique of using plants for this purpose Phytoremediation b)describe one way plants can clean up toxic substances Phytoextraction (or phytoaccumulation) uses plants or algae to remove contaminants from soils, sediments or water into harvestable plant biomass (organisms that take larger-than-normal amounts of contaminants from the soil are called hyperaccumulators). Phytoextraction has been growing rapidly in popularity worldwide for the last twenty years or so.
In general, this process has been tried more often for extracting heavy metals than for organics. At the time of disposal, contaminants are typically concentrated in the much smaller volume of the plant matter than in the initially contaminated soil or sediment. ‘Mining with plants’, or phytomining, is also being experimented with. The plants absorb contaminants through the root system and store them in the root biomass and/or transport them up into the stems and/or leaves. A living plant may continue to absorb contaminants until it is harvested.
After harvest, a lower level of the contaminant will remain in the soil, so the growth/harvest cycle must usually be repeated through several crops to achieve a significant cleanup. After the process, the cleaned soil can support other vegetation. c) list two advantages and two disadvantages of this technique. Advantages: The main advantage of phytoextraction is environmental friendliness. Traditional methods that are used for cleaning up heavy metal-contaminated soil disrupt soil structure and reduce soil productivity, whereas phytoextraction can clean up the soil without causing any kind of harm to soil quality.
Another benefit of phytoextraction is that it is less expensive than any other clean-up process. Disadvantages: As this process is controlled by plants, it takes more time than anthropogenic soil clean-up methods. 42) a) Is the plant an angiosperm or a gymnosperm? Explain. b) Based on these five features, explain whether you think it came from a desert island or a tropical rainforest jungle. see its an angiospermic plant and it is a mono cot which is a sub type of angiospremic plant and it is a desert plant because the tough waxy epidemal cells are there in desert plant only!!
The epidermis serves several functions, it protects against water loss, regulates gas exchange, secretes metabolic compounds, and (especially in roots) absorbs water and mineral nutrients. Woody stems and some other stem structures produce a secondary covering called the periderm that replaces the epidermis as the protective covering. An angiospermic plant has a taproot !! 43) State three reason the rate of climate change could be reduced by protecting large areas of natural forests in Canada. 1) The exchange of C02 into Oxygen would continue to happen. ) Wildlife species would be preserved 3) The trees provide stabilization for the ground underneath. If you were to clearcut the forests, there would be flooding downhill, and huge amounts of erosion, 44) Describe three ways human activities affect soil in urban environments. 45) a) explain how the solution ranked in relation to the other two; b) state the evidence that supports your answer, and c) explain why the plant grew the way it did 46) What plant structures does each of these plant hormones act on? a) auxins Auxins are root promoting hormones synthesized in shoot tip and trans located to the downward direction.
IAA, IBA are common auxins. 2,4-D is synthetic auxin when used in higher concentration acts as a weedicide. Mostly used to control Parthenium plants and other dicots. b) gibberellins Gibberellins are shoot elongating hormones mostly used to spray on grapes to get a food size and good distribution of the berries on the peduncle. 47) List three factors that are contributing to the decline of pollinator populations. Possible explanations for pollinator decline 1. Pesticide misuse 2. Rapid transfer of parasites and diseases of pollinator species around the world 3. Loss of habitat and forage 4.
Nectar corridors 5. Hive destruction 6. Light pollution 7. Threat by invasive honey bees 8. Air pollution I would probably name pollution and pesticides, predators (destruction) and loss of foraging as the three main factors 48) From an agricultural perspective, describe two advantages of vegetative propagation. . Only one parent is required which eliminates the need for special mechanisms such as pollination, etc. 2. It is faster. This helps the organisms to increase in number at a rapid rate that balances the loss in number due to various causes. 3. Many plants are able to tide over unfavourable conditions.
This is because of the presence of organs of asexual reproduction like the tubers, corm, bulbs, etc. 4. Vegetative propagation is especially beneficial to the agriculturists and horticulturists. They can raise crops like bananas, sugarcane, potato, etc that do not produce viable seeds. The seedless varieties of fruits are also a result of vegetative propagation 49) For a plant colonizing a remote island, describe one advantage and one disadvantage of: a) cross-pollination Would result in more diverse plants, but would require one or more different species besides itself to work. )self-pollination Would always result in the same type of plant, but higher chance of survival because it can reproduce by itself rather than having to have other plants around. 50) 51) A botanist wanted to see if a new strain of corn could germinate in soil that was too salty for regular corn. She conducted a study on the germination success of seeds from the new strain that were exposed to various levels of salty soil, from zero to normal (100mg/L) to high (200 mg/L) to very high (400 mg/L) to normally lethal (800 mg/L) a) Write a formal hypothesis for this study. ) Does her data support or reject the hypothesis? Explain. If the answer is love then corn definitely doesnt love normally lethal concentrations :). On a more serious note: Lets say a valid hypothesis will be: The new strain of corn is able to germinate successfully and tolerate salt concentrations which are normally lethal for regular corn plants. Now, in order to actually measure this hypothesis, you would need results for salt tolerance of regular corn as well because only with these results you don’t have anything to compare it against.
However, if we assume that as it say concentrations of 800 mg/l are normally lethal for regular corn, then our outcome is the following: The data supports our hypothesis that the new strain of corn is able to germinate when exposed to salt concentrations, considered normally lethal for other plants. The data shows that 35% of the seed planted actually germinated, so the new strain of corn possess certain tolerance for growth in salty soils (in regular corn there should be 0% germination rate).
You can also see from the study that the new corn strain has indeed a higher tolerance because the germination rates are the same – 90% in both normal and high salt content – therefore it is definitely more resistance to higher salt concentrations in the soil. 52) List four reasons that plants are important ) They are producers in a life cycle, this means that they convert solar energy from the sun into glucose. This provide energy for the animals that eats it 2) They provide a habitat for a lot of animals/ insects 3) They produce oxygen during photosynthesis.
At the same time getting rid of carbon dioxide which is poisonous. 4) They have a lot of fibre, so when you eat it, it helps your digestive system 🙂 53) The table shown below represents the number of species growing in an area that was logged using clear-cutting 45 years ago in Temagami, Ontario. Data was collected periodically over 45 years. this is a clear case of secondary succession. secondary succession and not primary succession because the soil was still valid after the clearcut. new soil did not have to be formed. econdary succession works like this: no vegetation present- grass seeds blow in and germinate- these low nutrient requirement (N is the most devoid nutrient normally in this case) grasses grow and begin cycling nutrients back into the system- once there are enough nutrients back in the soil more complex plants come in, shrubs and bushes ect- they continue to cycle nutrients and develop the soil quality- then the larger plants (trees and the like) come in once there are enough nutrients to support their growth.
A) describe the changes occurring in the vegetation type and species diversity over the 45 years. Vegetation moves towards higher seral stages e. g shrubs and trees. And species diveristy increases since only 1 species at start and 3 at the end. B) what does the pattern of change tell you about what is happening in this area Immediately after logging the species diversity decreases. However over a time period of around 45 years it begins to return to what it was c)Explain how the data supports your conclusion 54)a) why is it important to protect the genetic diversity of plants?
Nature always changes, and unfortunately it often uses those changes to allow an attack by one species on another. When you have genetic diversity, the harm usually happens only to one sub-species, not to all. One will prove to be resistant. Humans then often think it would be smart just to continue with that one sub-species. Well, this is wrong, because the next biological attack may be against that very sub-species, and if it’s the only one you have, it will be wiped out. Better to always retain diversity, because then something will always survive and you can work to diversify it again.
This is why we have seed banks in various locations, to retain old genetic varieties in case the currently popular ones get wiped out. b) List three things we can do to preserve the genetic diversity of plants. . Establish and maintain seed banks 2. When reforesting, plant the natural mix of trees instead of a monoculture of “newspaper pulp pine” 3. Establish large nature reserves that people don’t mess with 4. Where feasible encourage the planting of locally developed “land races” of crops, instead of having everyone planting the latest monoculture from Monsanto*