Would you expect that adoptive children and their mothers would show different attachment patterns than children raised at home with their biological parents, assuming other variables (e. G. , age and socioeconomic status of parents) are held constant? Would you predict adoptive parents to be more responsive to their children, less responsive, or equally responsive? After you consider and record your own beliefs, you may want to do a search of the literature on this topic to review some empirical data.
Reflectively thinking about the findings of Narcotics et al. (1997), I can understand how and why the secure attachment percentages differ. There is a natural bond formed between a mother and child through the birthing process. This is often missing when adoption is chosen. Adoptive parents can achieve this bondage with time. As a mother I would predict adoptive parents would be just as responsive as maternal parents. Assuming adoptive parents have taken the time to evaluate the risk associated with adoption.
It’s safe to say this isn’t always true. Hence the return and passing on of adoptive children. According to Greening, Black & Wallace. 1987, attachment theory implies that the formation of a preferred attachment between infant and parent reflects the activity of “experience expectant” neural systems, while the type or quality of attachments a young child forms seems to reflect neural processes that are “experience dependent. ” Question #2: The reading also cites a study by Chisholm et al. 1995) that indicated that children who had lived in an orphanage at least 8 months had lower scores on attachment security measures than did children who were adopted before 4 months of age. [Full reference: Chisholm, K. , Carter, M. , Ames, E. W. , & Morison, S. J. (1995). Attachment security and indiscriminately friendly behavior in children adopted from Romania orphanages. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 283?294. ] How might this finding be related to the development of separation anxiety and fear of strangers?
As infants develop they learn and experience emotions in a predictable order. Somewhere between birth and 8 months infants are still so new to world that they have no knowledge of what is normal or what could be dangerous. Things that do occur just seem different, and not frightening. As an infant starts to become more developed and familiar with their surroundings and environment they feel safe and comfortable tit parents, family, and caregivers. Somewhere between 8 and 12 to 14 months children start to feel uncomfortable or frightened when they are in a new place, or when around new people.
The children adopted earlier on had the opportunity to bond, feel emotions, and develop during that infant stage with their adoptive parents. They have a feeling of safety when with them. Children who are adopted after the 8 months are having to get to know a stranger and may have unsafe feelings towards the adoptive parents. Question #3: Using the intergenerational transmission of attachment presented n Chapter Four, please discuss the transmission sequence as it applies to the case of Angela (page 165).
Describe two interventions you would suggest to help members of this family. Angela struggles to build attachment, bond, and a relationship with her son Adam due to the strained relationship she has had and still currently has with her mother Sarah. According to Frederick and Belittle, attachment theorists have argued that victims of unresolved childhood trauma may have particular difficulty helping their infants regulate their emotions. Angela continues to hold her mother responsible for the absence of re father in her life.
Therefore, this has caused Angela to repeat the same cycle (absent father & single mother) with her son Dam’s father. Although, Angela performs parenting duties and responsibilities for Adam, she is not connecting with him because of her own emotional detachments to both of her parents. Angela is just going through the motions. For Angela her caregivers history is marked by neglect…. And she also may have had little direct experience with effective parenting, so she has not learned strategies for managing children’s emotions or behavior from competent models (Frederick & Belittle, 2014).
As a future counselor my first intervention would be for Angela to use the reflective strategy to revisit her past upbringing. This would allow Angela to revisit her past situations and process through her feelings and emotions at that time. Hoping that this reflective time would shed light on past emotions that hinder Angela from healing and moving on. The second intervention would be counseling together for Angela and Sarah. The fact is if Angela and Sarah can’t work through their difficulties and get to a common ground, then baby Adam will suffer in the Eng run.