Key Concept 2.1 The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Answer
Concepts & Relevant Factual Examples in Underline
2.1.1 How did religions help strengthen political, economic, and cultural ties within societies? Religious and political authority often merged as rulers, some considered divine, use religion, along with military and legal structures, to justify their rule and ensure its continuation.
2.1.2 How did religions promote a sense of unity?
Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by. -Religion presents a sense of unity in the U.S in the present day 2.1.3 What are the characteristics and core teachings of Judaism? The association of monotheism with Judaism was further developed with the codification of the Hebrew scripters which also showed Mesopotamian influences. -Torah
2.1.4 What are the characteristics and core teachings of Hinduism(s)? The core beliefs outline in the Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the verdict religions often known as Hinduism that show some influence of Indo-European traditions in the development of the social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple manifestations of the Brahma to promote teachings of reincarnations. -Brahma
2.1.5 What is a “universal religion?” Where did universal religions exist by 600 CE? A religion that spreads worldwide and its main mission is to diffuse. New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths. -Christianity is an universal religion.
2.1.6 What are the characteristics and core teachings of Buddhism? The core
beliefs preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were in part a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia, first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Asoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings. -Buddha
-Dominant in South Asia
2.1.7 How and where did Buddhism spread by 600 CE?
Buddhism spread to Nepal, Tibet, and China where it grew slowly alongside Chinese religions, by the ninth century, Buddhism was well established in China and spreading to neighboring countries, too!. It reached Korea in the fourth century, and then it spread to Thailand, Cambodia, Japan. -Spread to East and South Asia
2.1.8 What are the characteristics and core teachings of Confucianism? Confucianism’s core beliefs and writings originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciple who’s sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China including the rulers. -Chinese religion during time of instability
2.1.9 What are the characteristics and core teachings of Daoism? The primary belief is in learning and practicing “The Way” (Dao) which is the ultimate truth to the universe. Also known as Taoism, Daoism traces its roots to 6th Century BC Chinese philosopher Laozi wrote the iconic book Dao De Jing on the tenets of the Dao. -Also known as Taoism
2.1.10 What are the characteristics and core teachings of Christianity? The core beliefs preached by Jesus of Nazareth drew on the basic monotheism of Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic influences. -3 subsets; Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant 2.1.11 How and where did Christianity spread by 600 CE?
Despite initial Ramon imperial hostility, Christianity spread though the efforts of missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support by the time of the emperor Constantine. -Universal religion as it spread worldwide
2.1.12 What are the main characteristics of Greco-Roman philosophy and science? The core ideas in Greco-Roman philosophy and science emphasized logic, empirical observation and the nature of political power and hierarchy. -Maps, political science etc.
2.1.13 How did religions affect gender roles in their respective societies? Belief systems affected gender roles (such as Buddhism’s encouragement of a monastic life and Confucianism’s emphasis on filial piety). -Gender roles and the caste system were present
2.1.14 What other religious and cultural traditions were common by 600 CE? Other religious and cultural traditions and continued parallel to the codified, written beliefs systems in core civilizations. -Yom Kippur for Jews means you can’t eat all day. From Sunset to Sunset 2.1.15 How did humans’ reliance on the natural word influence religion? Shamanism and animism continued to shape the lives of people within and outside of core civilizations, because of their daily reliance on the natural world. -Animism present in Africa
2.1.16 How did humans relate to their deceased ancestors?
Ancestor veneration persisted in many regions (such as in Africa, the Mediterranean region, East Asia or the Andean areas). -Buddhists believe in reincarnation.
2.1.17 How did art and cultures develop to 600 CE?
Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments. -The arch was developed by the Romans
2.1.18 What literary works influenced later eras?
Literature and drama acquired distinctive forms (such as Greek tragedy or Indian epics) that influenced artistic developments in neighboring regions
and in later time periods (such as in Athens, Persia, or South Africa). -Dante wrote many Roman comedies
2.1.19 How did different societies’ architectural styles develop? Distinctive architectural styles can be seen in India, Greek, Mesoamerican, and Roman buildings. -The Parthenon
2.1.20 What examples of syncretism reflect the Classical Era to 600 CE? The convergence of Greco-Roman culture and Buddhist beliefs affected the development of unique sculptural developments, as seen in the Gandharan Buddha’s, which exemplify a syncretism in which Hellenistic veneration for the body is combined with Buddhist symbols. -The mixing of Greco-Roman and Buddhist Beliefs in present day Turkey
Key Concept 2.2 The Development of States and Empires
Concepts & Relevant Factual Examples in Underline
2.2.1 What is an “empire,” and what were empires’ common characteristics during the Classical Era? As the early states and empires grew in number, size and population, they frequently competed for resources and came in conflict with one another. In quest of land, wealth, and security, some empires expanded dramatically. In doing so, they built powerful military machines and administrative institutions that were capable of organizing human activities over long distances, and they created new groups of military and political elites to manage their affairs. As these empires expanded their boundaries, they also faced the need to develop policies and procedures to govern their relations with ethnically and culturally diverse populations: sometimes to integrate them within an imperial society and sometimes to exclude them. In expanding boundaries to far, they created political, cultural and administrative difficulties that they could not manage. They also experience environmental, social and economic problems when they over-exploited their lands and subjects and permitted excessive wealth to concentrate in the hands of privileged classes.
-Alexander the Great had a large empire that spanned most of the Middle East
2.2.2 How did the number & size of Classical empires compare to the Ancient Era?
The number and size of imperial societies grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where there had previously been competing states. -Empires grew larger as technology improved
2.2.3 What were the most influential of the Classical Era empires? A. Southwest Asia: Persian Empires (such as Achaemenid, Parthian or Sassanid) B. East Asia: Qin and Han dynasties
C. South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires
D. Mediterranean region: Phoenician and Greek colonization, Hellenistic and Roman Empires E. Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya city states
F Andean South America: Moche
-Many empires spanned the world at the same time
2.2.4 What techniques did Classical empires create to administer their territories? Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms. -Conquest or military takeover was primarily used
2.2.5 What new political methods were created in order to rule the larger empires in the Classical Era? In order to organize their subjects the rulers created administrative institutions including centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies (such as in China, Persia, Rome or South Asia). -New political methods were used worldwide
2.2.6 How did imperial governments let their population know that the government was “in charge?” Imperial governments projected military power over larger areas using a variety of techniques including: diplomacy; developing supply lines; building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads; and drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from the local populations or conquered peoples. -Laws and regulations were present
2.2.7 What role did trade play in creating and maintaining empires? Much of the success of empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic
integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies. -Trade helped the economy of the empire grow
2.2.8 What unique social and economic characteristics existed in empires? Imperial societies displayed unique social and economic dimensions. -The Spice Trade
2.2.9 What function did imperial cities perform?
Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires (such as Persepolis, Chang’an, Pataliputra, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople, or teotihuacan.) -Imperial cities were a source of trade and wealth
2.2.10 What social classes and occupations were common in empires? The social structures of all empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, and caste groups. -Social hierarchies were present
2.2.11What labor systems provided the workers for Classical Empires? Imperial societies relied on a range of labor systems to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites including corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities and family and household production. -Peasantry or slavery was the job for the poor.
2.2.12 Describe the gender and family structures of Classical Era empires. Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period. -Male-dominated societies
2.2.13 What caused Classical Empires to decline, collapse, or transform into something else? The Roman, Han, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse and transformation into successor empires or states. -Empires were too hard to manage
2.2.14What were the environmental and social weaknesses of Classical
Empires? Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial government caused environmental damage (such as deforestation, desertification, soil erosion or silted rivers) and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites. -Too many enemies, or overexpansion of empires led to the decline
Key Concept 2.3 Emergence of Trans-regional Networks of Communication and Exchange Answer
Concepts & Relevant Factual Examples in Underline
2.3.1 How did Classical era trade networks compare to Ancient era networks? With the organization of large-scale empires, the volume of long-distance trade increased dramatically. -Trade increased which means more money and wealth for the empire 2.3.2 What forces contributed to the changes between the two eras? Much of this trade resulted from the demand for raw materials and luxury goods. -Spices and gold were traded
2.3.3 What was commonly traded along these trade networks?
Land and water routes linked many regions of the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the peoples and societies of the Americas. Exchanges of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed alongside the trade in goods across far-flung networks of communication and exchange -Exchange of people and items were common
2.3.4 How did trade & communication networks develop by 600 CE? Land and water routes created trans-regional trade, communication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the peoples and societies of the Americas. -Maps and new ships helped trade
2.3.5 What technologies enabled long-distance overland and maritime trade? New technologies (such as yokes, saddles or stirrups) permitted the use of domesticated pack animals (such as horses, oxen, llamas or camels) to transport goods across longer routes. -New animals such as horses helped in
2.3.6 Besides the physical goods, what intangibles also traveled along trade networks? Alongside the trade in goods, exchanges in people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange. -Domestication of animals and plants helped the empire
2.3.7 What crops spread along Classical Era trade networks?
A spread of crops, including sugar, rice, and cotton from south Asia to the Middle East encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques (such as the development of the qanat system). -Sugar and rice were commonly traded
2.3.8 What effects did diseases have on Classical empires?
The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires (such as Rome or China) -Diseases spread with trade
2.3.9 How did religions spread along trade networks, and how did the trade networks affect the religions? Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread including Chinese culture, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism. -Religions separated trade only by beliefs