Unit 3 Apush Study Guide Essay
US Study guide for Unit 3 1. Settlers in the eighteenth century American backcountry sometimes resorted to violent protest to express their grievances. Analyze the causes and significance of TWO of the following: March of the Paxton Boys, Regulator Movement, Shay’s Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion 2. Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American politics in the 1790s. 3. Analyze the contributions of the following in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution: * John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington 4.
How did increased industrialization and mechanization during the period of the market revolution shift the social structure of society and what were the reactions to the changes occurring? 5. Analyze the causes of the “questioning” of slavery in the period of 1800 – 1840 and ways that slavery was questioned. Then, analyze the causes of the reinforcement of the slave structure during this period and ways that slavery was reinforced. 6. Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the US Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity.
In light of your knowledge of the 1820’s and 1830’s, to what extent do you agree with the Jacksonians’ view of themselves? Part II – M/C – 25 M/C questions @ 20 minutes 1. Strengths/Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 1. Strengths: Declare war and make peace, establish national postal services and regulated weights. 2. Weaknesses: Couldn’t tax people federally, couldn’t have national militia, no currency. 2. Problems facing the new nation post-Revolutionary war – know the general theme of each issue and details of Shay’s Rebellion 1. Shays’ Rebellion- 1.
Daniel Shays led farmers to stop the courts from seizing farmers’ land and enacting debt collection. 2. Citizens of Boston raised an army and suppressed the rebels 3. Americans felt pressure to create a strengthen the gov’t and avoid future violence 4. Brought people together against the Articles of Confederation 3. What were some of the key arguments Abigail Adams made in her letter to J. Adams? What was his reaction? Why was this significant? 1. Abigail urged John to “remember the ladies,” in his new Code of Laws, by not putting so much power in the hands of the men. . She wanted women to be able to achieve an education equal to that of men. 3. John Adams responds in a very patronizing and condescending way, saying that the men know better than to “repeal their masculine systems. ” 4. This is significant, because it really showcases the gender roles women were forced to adhere to. They were made to be submissive, and obedient to the will of men. 4. What were the elements of the Great Compromise? What were the VA and NJ plans? 5. Great Compromise 1.
The Great Compromise was an agreement between large and small states during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have. 2. Bicameral legislature (which was proposed by James Madison as part of the Virginia Plan) 3. Proportional representation in the House of Reps, but positions of the Senate were to be weighted equally between the states. 6. Virginia Plan 4. James Madison proposed the idea of a bicameral legislature 5. Population-weighted representation in the national legislature. . New Jersey Plan 6. Created in opposition to the Virginia Plan. 7. In support of the idea of one vote per state (meaning the number of electoral votes per state would be the same regardless of that state’s population. ) 5. What were the key characteristics/arguments of Federalists? Anti-Federalists and later Democratic Republicans? 8. Federalists: Americans who supported the new Constitution, said it was designed to prevent abuse of power. Supporters included Hamilton, Madison, Jay, and NE business groups. They had a loose interpretation of the Constitution as well. 9.
Anti-Federalists: Against ratification of the new Constitution b/c they believed it gave too much power to the central gov’t. Supporters included Mason, Patrick Henry, George Clinton. Many of them also came to oppose Hamilton’s Fiscal Policy. Later asked for a Bill of Rights, and won this. 10. Democratic Republicans: Any left over Anti-Feds were absorbed into the Democratic Republican party 6. What were the elements of Hamilton’s fiscal policy? 11. Pretty much saved the American economy at the time i. Bank of the United States ii. Federal assumption of state debt iii. Infant industry” stimulation through excise taxes and tariffs. iv. Wanted to make American manufacturers independent v.. Wanted to adopt mercantilist policies 7. What did story time on the Whiskey Rebellion show? 1. Washington and the gov’t were so fearful of rebellion/protests, willing to go to extremes to suppress (ie. putting the farmers in pigpens half naked. ) 8. What did Washington mean when he argued in his farewell address: “The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible? What is one example of how this is consistent with his actions on foreign policy? 2. Mercantilist policy- wanted to be self-sustaining, and not get involved in other country’s business. Be business partners, trade partners, but don’t get involved in policies and messy things like that. 9. What was the XYZ affair and why was it important? 3. US wanted end of French harassment of American ships, and the French wanted a bribe before beginning. Americans refused, and suspended trade with France. Resulted in the creation of American Navy, anti-French sentiments, and made Adams very popular. 10.
What were the Alien, Alien Enemies, Naturalization and Sedition acts and why were they created (know both literal and hidden intentions)? 4. Alien- Authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous to peace and safety of US 5. Alien Enemies- Authorized the president to deport any aliens if their countries were at war with the US 6. Naturalization- changed years of residency from 5 to 14 years to get citizenship 7. Sedition- heavy fines and imprisonment for anyone convicted of writing, publishing, or speaking anything of a “false, scandalous, or malicious” nature against the gov’t or its officers. *War was considered likely between US and France** 11. Significance of Midnight Judges and resulting court case? 1. Midnight Judges- Newly created judges, signed in at midnight before his last day as president. 2. Court Case- Marbury v. Madison 12. Key characteristics of Jefferson’s political philosophy of republican agrarianism 3. Favored states rights, strict interpretation of the Constitution, supported by frontiersmen and the South, ideal of the yeoman farmer 4. Federal gov’t only given powers expressed in the Constitution 13. Defining features of Hamiltonian vs.
Jeffersonian thought and actions 5. Hamilton: Wanted a more federal, central, unified gov’t, industrial 6. Jefferson: Favored states rights, agrarian/rural focus 14. Cause and impacts of Jefferson’s Embargo Act and definition of peaceable coercion 7. Embargo Act: Declared that US wouldn’t do any foreign trade, no ships leaving. 8. Causes: The British taking American ships into their navy. 9. Impacts: Imports and exports declined, increased reliance on domestic manufacturing, hurt the economy, and did not affect the British as intended. 10. Peaceable Coercion: To gain compliance in a peaceful matter. 5. Causes, events and impacts of War of 1812 11. Causes: 1. The United States suspected the British were encouraging Native American rebellion 2. American frontiersmen wanted more western land 3. United States sided with French against British 12. Events: 4. Early victories at sea by the United States, then overcome by the British 5. Opened the way for William Henry Harrison to invade Canada and defeat the British and Native American forces 6. Andrew Jackson led the American charge through the Southwest 13. Impacts: 7. Increased American nationalism . High foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco 9. Turn form agrarian origins towards industrialization (beginning of industrialization) 10. Depression in 1819 due to British good; Bank responded to tightening credit (wanted country to use hard money) 11. Business slump 16. Know definition and significance of Hartford Convention 14. Definition: 12. Federal reps of the five New England states met to complain about the war (War of 1812) and wanted states to be able to do something about laws that they felt were unconstitutional) 15.
Significance: 13. Federalist party lost any weight that they had before hand. 17. Know all of J. Q. Adam’s diplomatic achievements under Monroe 16. Settled the borders between U. S and Canada, and this resolved conflict between Britain 17. Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 14. Spain ceded Florida to the U. S and dropped any claims on the Louisiana Territory and Oregon 15. In return, the U. S relinquished Texas and assumed responsibility for 5 million dollars in claims the the U. S had against Spain. 18. Developed Monroe Doctrine 19. U.
S was the first country to recognize that Latin America was independent of Spain 18. Know parts of Monroe’s American system 20. Following a program of economic development which included the national bank, a tax on imported goods to protect American manufacturer, and a national system of roads and canals 21. Ideas were proposed by Hamilton in the 1790’s but were shot down by the Jeffersonian Republicans 22. Madison and Monroe supported these ideas 19. Know the definition and significance of the corrupt bargain 23. Definition: 16. In the 1824 election- Henry Clay gave his vote to J.
Q Adams and became his Secretary of State, causing Jackson to lose the election 24. Significance: 17. It determined who became president. Since Henry Clay was in the house of representatives, he basically helped john Quincy Adams win the presidency. Also in return JQA made Henry clay the secretary of state (back then secretary of state was more powerful than the vice president and usually ended up being president). 20. Know defining features of Jacksonian democracy 25. Emphasized states’ rights 26. Wanted a strong executive who liberally used the veto 27.
Relied on the party system 21. Jackson’s Bank War would be most supported by which groups? Why did Jackson oppose the banks? a. It would be supported by self-employed farmers, more of the poorer classes. b. Jackson was scared of big corporations and the power that they held over the government and the general public as well. Big, huge, faceless machines, pretty much. 22. Know causes/impacts of the Panics of 1819 and 1837 1. Panic of 1819: Depression of market b/c GB flooded the market with goods. The bank wanted people to pay back in hard cash, which they didn’t have. 2.
Panic of 1837: Made worse by large debts in states, overexpansion of canals and railroads, unfavorable balance of trades (imports were larger than exports), crop failures, loss of gold/silver. Impact on land speculation. 22. Know causes of questioning of and reinforcement of slavery 1. Causes of questioning 1. Market Revolution and the shift of questioning of slavery because of the economic boom (ironic, because cotton was cheap because of the slaves in the South. ) 2. Global pressure (slavery was beginning to be frowned upon in the rest of the world. ) 3. Influence of free African-Americans . Propaganda and literature 1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe 5. Founding documents 2. The Declaration of Independence (What does, “all men are created equal really mean? ”) 6. Second Great Awakening 7. Women against slavery (Awkward, because male African-Americans were able to vote way before women. ) 8. Rise of the middle class- social activism 9. Abolitionist movement 2. Reinforcement of slavery 10. Growth of the cotton industry (it was so cheap using use slave labor. ) 11. Internal trading and breeding (not needing to import slaves from Western Africa. 12. 1860- 60% of American exports were cotton 13. Westward Expansion and the removal of Native Americans 14. Nat Turner (led riots and revolts) 15. Alabama Fever 16. Lower class (Generally tried to reinforce slavery) 17. Mental reinforcement (blacks were made to believe that they were inferior to whites since birth) 18. “Cradle to grave”- life-long labor system 19. Religion- Many white sermons (the only sermons slaves were allowed to attend) were geared towards speaking about obedience to one’s masters 20.
Missouri Compromise 21. Ensured segregation 22. Gag Rule- Rule that slavery was not to be discussed in Congress for fear of disputes between state representatives 23. What was the 1st African American church and why is this significant? 3. The first African American church was the African Methodist Episcopal. 4. It is significant because black christianity was an enabling religion, it helped slaves survived as active components of an oppressed system, they expressed a spiritual freedom that was so strong that it couldn’t be destroyed by the whites. 4. Know definition and significance of Alabama Fever, Yeoman farmers, Prosser, Vesey and Turner and defining features of Natchez 5. Alabama Fever- 23. Land rush that occurred as settlers came to claim land in Alabama: started moving into the South because they wanted cotton and land. 6. Yeoman farmers- 24. Farmers that owned one or two slaves. Wanted slaves to remain enslaved, because they were worried that the slaves, if free, would achieve the same status, and the yeoman farmers would have more competition. 7. Prosser- 25. 800- Literate slave who planned slave revolts in Richmond. Discovered Vesey’s plot. 1000+ slaves to attack Richmond, but canceled at the last minute. He and 35 other slaves were hanged. 8. Vesey and Turner- 26. Slaves: Best examples of organized slave rebellions (but not the only ones) 27. Nat Turner- Leader in the slave community, he and five other slaves killed 55 white people 28. Denmark Vesey- Plan was to evade lax city patrol and steal weapons and attack the white people. 9. Natchez 29. It was a very wealthy Southern slave owning plantation area. 5. Know definition and significance of Lowell, Slater, putting out system, market revolution, “American System of Manufacturing,” free labor, GTU and Workingman’s Party; Dorthea Dix, Charles Finney, Transcendentalism (and key transcendentalist thinkers), Sentimentalism, Millerites, Zip Coon, Grimke Sisters, Seneca Falls, middle class, Five points, penny papers, free African Americans, Tammany Society, American Colonization Society, Temperance, William Lloyd Garrison 1. Lowell- Lowell system- hiring of rural women, rotating labor supply 1.
Dependent on technology to increase production rates 2. Slater- Mill- 2. Most advanced cotton mill 3. Most workers in the mills were young children to decrease costs 4. British apprentice that fled England to work in America. 3. Putting out system- 5. People still produced goods at home, but under the direction of a merchant, who “put-out” the raw materials to them, paid them a certain sum per finished piece, and sold the completed item to a distant market. 4. Market revolution- 6. Rapid improvements of transportation (canals, RR, steamboats) 7.
Commercialization- Replacement of household self-sufficiency to the production of goods for a cash market 8. Industrialization- use of power-driven machinery to produce goods that used to be produced by hand 5. “American System of Manufacturing”- 9. The use of interchangeable parts (revolutionary for the time) making copies of parts, rather than an entirely new piece. (Nails made from a mold)- 10. Created by Eli Whitney 11. Led to mass manufacturing of clocks. 6. Free labor- 12. Workers could leave when they desired 13. Workers- Opposed government action 7.
GTU- 14. General Trades Union of New York- helped organize strikes- after Panic of 1837, GTU collapsed. 8. Workingman’s Party 15. The Socialist Labor Party of America (SLP), established in 1876 as the Workingmen’s Party, is the oldest socialist political party in the United States and the second oldest socialist party in the world still in existence 16. Belief in a fundamental transformation of society through the combined political and industrial action of the working class organized in industrial unions. 9. Dorothea Dix- 17. Created the first asylum 10. Charles Finney- 18.
Evangelist during the Second Great Awakening 19. Dramatic revival meeting to increase church attendance 20. Focused on women 21. Focused on optimism, and one’s individual character 11. Transcendentalism 22. Movement to transcend the bounds of the intellect and to strive for emotional unity with God 23. Capable of unity without the help of the institutional church 24. Saw church as reactionary and stifling to self-expression 12. Sentimentalism 25. Nostalgia for the imagined security of pre-industrial times 26. Simple life 13. Millerites 7. Followers of Miller who believed that the second coming of Christ which was to take place 14. Zip Coon 28. Sung to the same tune as “Turkey in the Straw” is a well-known American folk song dating from the early 19th century. The song’s tune was first popularized in the late 1820s and early 1830s by blackface performers, notably George Washington Dixon, Bob Farrell and George Nichols. 15. Grimke Sisters 29. Sarah and Angelina Grimke were members of a SC slaveholding family > rejected slavery > joined a Quaker community (near Philly). 30. Changed social norms on two grounds: . Anti-Slavery was widely disapproved 2. Criticized for speaking since they were women 16. Seneca Falls- 1848- City in New York where women held a convention to rally support for women’s rights 17. Middle class 31. Stereotypes of men and women and women assumed ,major new responsibilities. 18. Five Points- 32. Worst NY slum (blacks and convicts) 19. Penny Papers 33. Newspapers that cost a penny — signifies that people had easy access to media which helped in the spread of sharing news. 20. Free African Americans 34. African Americans that aren’t slaves?? 21.
Tammany Society 35. A fraternal organization which revolutionized politics by bringing voters to the national democrat through rallies and media. 22. American Colonization Society 36. A group of Quakers who attempted to solve slavery by purchasing slaves and sending them Africa = ineffective > only sent 1400 African American slaves back to Africa. 23. Temperance 37. A religious movement disapproving of alcohol 24. William Lloyd Garrison 38. Head of an Anti-Slavery reformer group. 39. Wrote the Liberator — anti-slavery paper 26. Know in-depth details of Temperance movement . The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance- largest reform organization of the period. 2. Founded in 1826 3. Strongly disapproved of alcohol 4. Reasons to support temperance: 1. Drinking men hurt their family economically by spending their wages on alcohol 2. Drinking led to violence in the home and in larger society 3. The new middle class (preoccupied with respectability) found drinking to be unacceptable 4. Most of the new equipment used in factories was very dangerous, so workers needed to remain sober to stay safe 27.
What did the development of the early nineteenth-century concept of “separate spheres” for the sexes encourage? *application ? 5. Encouraged strict adherence to gender roles 6. It might have made women’s rebellions stronger because the separation of sexes was so drastic 28. How did living patterns in urban America change in the early to mid 1800s? 7. Division of middle class 8. Increase in neighborhoods 9. Mansions 29. Who were the leaders of the earliest strikes? 10. Rural women who worked in factories 11. 824- Women workers at a Pawtucket, Rhode Island textile mill led their co -workers out on strike to protest wage cuts and longer hours 12. Most famous strikes were led by Lowell Mill women 30. Know the significance of Erie Canal 13. Canal linking New York City and the Great Lakes through the Hudson River 14. Connected the east to the west (Albany to Buffalo was where the canal was) 15. Drew settlers from the east 31. Know key ideas from “Story of US” clip on the market revolution 16. The Erie Canal opened up big economic opportunities as it created more communities and the expansion of city life. 7. The expansion of the Cotton with the invention of the Cotton Gin grew big in the South as it improved the technology and the efficiency of cotton. Also added to the need of slavery. 18. The Power Loom became a big factory of the technology growth in the North as it was primarily used for the role of women to gather and work. 19. Whaling became a big opportunities for African Americans where they could work as equals and not be worried about being caught. *Monroe Doctrine- The U. S would not allow foreign powers to lead new colonies in the western hemisphere or allow existing colonies to be influenced by outside powers.