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    U. S. History Study Guide and Review Aligned with Bailey’s American Pageant – 13th edition – This book is available in print, online at: www. lulu. com/content/310851 * “AP” is a registered trademark of the College Board AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 Notes • Don’t use this review instead of reading the text. Use this as a supplement, not a substitute. Be sure to practice free-response questions as well as studying the facts in this review. Be sure to practice essays and DBQ’s. • Sources • • • The American Pageant, 13th edition, by Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey http://www. hostultra. com/~apusnotes served as a resource for the outlines. http://www. course-notes. org served as a resource for the vocabulary. 2 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 Chapter 1 New World Beginnings I. The Shaping of North America i. Recorded history began 6,000 years ago. It was 500 years ago that Europeans set foot on the Americas to begin colonization ii.

    The theory of “Pangaea” exists suggesting that the continents were once nestled together into one mega-continent. They then spread out as drifting islands. iii. Geologic forces of continental plates created the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. iv. The Great Ice Age thrust down over North America & scoured the present day American Midwest. II. Peopling the Americas i. “Land Bridge” 1. As the Great Ice Age diminished, so did the glaciers over North America. 2. The theory holds that a “Land Bridge” emerged linking Asia & North America across what’s today the Bering Sea.

    People were said to have walked across the “bridge” before the sea level rose and sealed it off and thus populated the Americas. 3. The Land Bridge is suggested as occurring an estimated 35,000 years ago. ii. Many peoples 1. Those groups that traversed the bridge spread across North, Central, and South America. 2. Countless tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages. Notably… i. Incas – Peru, with elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire. ii. Mayas – Yucatan Peninsula, with their step pyramids. iii. Aztecs – Mexico, with step pyramids and huge sacrifices of conquered peoples. III. The Earliest Americans i.

    Development of corn or “maize” around 5,000 B. C. in Mexico was revolutionary in that… 1. Then, people didn’t have to be hunter-gatherers, they could settle down and be farmers. 2. This fact gave rise to towns and then cities. 3. Corn arrived in the present day U. S. around 1,200 B. C. ii. Pueblo Indians 1. The Pueblos were the 1st American corn growers. 2. They lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and pueblos (“villages” in Spanish). Pueblos are villages of cubicle shaped adobe houses, stacked one on top the other and often beneath cliffs. 3. They had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from rivers to grown corn. ii. Mound Builders 1. These people built huge ceremonial and burial mounds and were located in the Ohio Valley. 2. Cahokia, near East St. Louis today, held 40,000 people. iv. Eastern Indians 1. Eastern Indians grew corn, beans, and squash in “three sister” farming… a. Corn grew in a stalk providing a trellis for beans, beans grew up the stalk, squash’s broad leaves kept the sun off the ground and thus kept the moisture in the soil. b. This group likely had the best (most diverse) diet of all North American Indians and is typified by the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw (South) and Iroquois (North). . Iroquois Confederation 1. Hiawatha was the legendary leader of the group. 2. The Iroquois Confederation was a group of 5 tribes in New York state. 3. They were matrilineal as authority and possessions passed down through the female line. 4. Each tribe kept their independence, but met occasionally to discuss matters of common interest, like war/defense. 3 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 5. This was not the norm. Usually, Indians were scattered and separated (and thus weak). vi.

    Native Americans had a very different view of things as compared to Europeans. 1. Native Americans felt no man owned the land, the tribe did. (Europeans liked private property) 2. Indians felt nature was mixed with many spirits. (Europeans were Christian and monotheistic) 3. Indians had little or no concept or interest in money. (Europeans loved money or gold) IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World i. The 1st Europeans to come to America were the Norse (Vikings from Norway). 1. Around 1000 AD, the Vikings landed, led by Erik the Red and Leif Erikson. 2. They landed in “Newfoundland” or “Vinland” (because of all the vines). . However, these men left America and left no written record and therefore didn’t get the credit. 4. The only record is found in Viking sagas or songs. ii. The Christian Crusaders of Middle Ages fought in Palestine to regain the Holy Land from Muslims. This mixing of East and West created a sweet-tooth where Europeans wanted the spices of the exotic East. V. Europeans Enter Africa i. Marco Polo traveled to China and stirred up a storm of European interest. ii. Mixed with desire for spices, an East to West (Asia to Europe) trade flourished but had to be overland, at least in part.

    This initiated new exploration down around Africa in hopes of an easier (all water) route. iii. Portugal literally started a sailing school to find better ways to get to the “Spice Islands,” eventually rounding Africa’s southern Cape of Good Hope. iv. New developments… 1. caravel – a ship with triangular sail that could better tack (zig-zag) ahead into the wind and thus return to Europe from Africa coast. 2. compass – to determine direction. 3. astrolabe – a sextant gizmo that could tell a ship’s latitude. v. Slave trade begins 1. The 1st slave trade was across the Sahara Desert. 2.

    Later, it was along the West African coast. Slave traders purposely busted up tribes and families in order to squelch any possible uprising. 3. Slaves wound up on sugar plantations the Portuguese had set up on the tropical islands off Africa’s coast. 4. Spain watched Portugal’s success with exploration and slaving and wanted a piece of the pie. VI. Columbus Comes upon a New World i. Columbus convinced Isabella and Ferdinand to fund his expedition. ii. His goal was to reach the East (East Indies) by sailing west, thus bypassing the around-Africa route that Portugal monopolized. iii.

    He misjudged the size of the Earth though, thinking it 1/3 the size of what it was. iv. So, after 30 days or so at sea, when he struck land, he assumed he’d made it to the East Indies and therefore mistook the people as “Indians. ” v. This spawned the following system… a. Europe would provide the market, capital, technology. b. Africa would provide the labor. c. The New World would provide the raw materials (gold, soil, lumber). VII. When Worlds Collide i. Of huge importance was the biological flip-flop of Old and New Worlds. Simply put, we traded life such as plants, foods, animals, germs. ii.

    From the New World (America) to the Old 1. corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc. 2. also, syphilis iii. From Old World to the New 1. cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc. 2. devastating diseases – smallpox, yellow fever, malaria as Indians had no immunities. a. The Indians had no immunities in their systems built up over generations. 4 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 b. An estimated 90% of all pre-Columbus Indians died, mostly due to disease.

    The Spanish Conquistadores i. Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 – Portugal and Spain feuded over who got what land. The Pope drew this line as he was respected by both. 1. The line ran North-South, and chopped off the Brazilian coast of South America 2. Portugal – got everything east of the line (Brazil and land around/under Africa) 3. Spain – got everything west of the line (which turned out to be much more, though they didn’t know it at the time) ii. Conquistadores = “conquerors” 1. Vasco Balboa – “discovered” the Pacific Ocean across isthmus of Panama 2. Ferdinand Magellan – circumnavigates the globe (1st to do so) 3.

    Ponce de Leon – touches and names Florida looking for legendary “Fountain of Youth” 4. Hernando Cortes – enters Florida, travels up into present day Southeastern U. S. , dies and is “buried” in Mississippi River 5. Francisco Pizarro – conquers Incan Empire of Peru and begins shipping tons of gold/silver back to Spain. This huge influx of precious metals made European prices skyrocket (inflation). 6. Francisco Coronado – ventured into current Southwest U. S. looking for legendary El Dorado, city of gold. He found the Pueblo Indians. iii. Encomienda system established 1. Indians were “commended” or given to Spanish landlords 2.

    The idea of the encomienda was that Indians would work and be converted to Christianity, but it was basically just slavery on a sugar plantation guised as missionary work. IX. The Conquest of Mexico i. Hernando Cortez conquered the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan. ii. Cortez went from Cuba to present day Vera Cruz, then marched over mountains to the Aztec capital. iii. Montezuma, Aztec king, thought Cortez might be the god Quetzalcoatl who was due to reappear the very year. Montezuma welcomed Cortez into Tenochtitlan. iv. The Spanish lust for gold led Montezuma to attack on the noche triste, sad night.

    Cortez and men fought their way out, but it was smallpox that eventually beat the Indians. v. The Spanish then destroyed Tenochtitlan, building the Spanish capital (Mexico City) exactly on top of the Aztec city. vi. A new race of people emerged, mestizos, a mix of Spanish and Indian blood. X. The Spread of Spanish America i. Spanish society quickly spread through Peru and Mexico ii. A threat came from neighbors… 1. English – John Cabot (an Italian who sailed for England) touched the coast of the current day U. S. 2. Italy – Giovanni de Verrazano also touched on the North American seaboard. 3.

    France – Jacques Cartier went into mouth of St. Lawrence River (Canada). iii. To oppose this, Spain set up forts (presidios) all over the California coast. Also cities, like St. Augustine in Florida. iv. Don Juan de Onate followed Coronado’s old path into present day New Mexico. He conquered the Indians ruthlessly, maiming them by cutting off one foot of survivors just so they’d remember. v. Despite mission efforts, the Pueblo Indians revolted in Pope’s Rebellion. vi. Robert de LaSalle sailed down the Mississippi River for France claiming the whole region for their King Louis and naming the area “Louisiana” after his king.

    This started a slew of placenames for that area, from LaSalle, Illinois to “Louisville” and then on down to New Orleans (the American counter of Joan of Arc’s famous victory at Orleans). vii. “Black Legend” – The Black Legend was the notion that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery); though true, they also brought good things such as law systems, architecture, Christianity, language, civilization, so that the Black Legend is partly, but not entirely, accurate. VIII. 5 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. ulu. com/content/310851 Chapter 1 Vocabulary Marco Polo – Italian explorer who spent many years in China or near it. His return to Europe in 1295 sparked a European interest in finding a quicker route to Asia. Francisco Pizarro – New World conqueror or Spanish conquistador who crushed the Incan civilization in Peru, took their gold and silver, and enslaved the Incas in 1532. Ponce de Leon – Spanish explorer who sailed to the New World in 1513 and in 1521. He explored Florida, thinking it was an island, while looking for gold and the perhaps the fabled “fountain of youth. He failed in his search for the fountain of youth but established Florida as territory for the Spanish, before being killed by a Native American arrow. Hernando de Soto – A Spanish conquistador. He explored in 1540’s from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold. He discovered the Mississippi River, before being killed by Indians and buried in the river. Montezuma – Aztec chieftain who encountered Cortes and the Spanish and seeing that they rode horses, Montezuma assumed that the Spanish were gods.

    He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives, crushed them, and ruled them for three centuries. Christopher Columbus – An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the “New World,” even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the “New World. ” The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503.

    Treaty of Tordesillas – In 1494, Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the New World, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east. Mestizos – The mestizos were the mixed race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Indians in Mexico. Renaissance – After the Middle Ages there was a rebirth of culture in Europe where art and science were developed. It was during this time of enrichment that America was discovered.

    Canadian Shield – The geological shape of North America estimated at 10 million years ago. It held the northeast corner of North America in place and was the first part of North America theorized to come above sea level Mound Builders – The mound builders of the Ohio River Valley and the Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest did sustain some large settlements after the incorporation of corn planting into their way of life during the first millennium A. D. The Mississippian settlement at Cahokia, near present-day East St. Louis, Ill. , was perhaps home to 40,000 people in about A.

    D 1100. But mysteriously, around the year 1,300, both the Mound Builder and the Mississippian cultures had fallen to decline. Spanish Armada – “Invincible” group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588. The Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English “sea dogs” in the English Channel. This event marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance. “black legend” – The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease and left nothing of value.

    In truth, there was good along with the bad (architecture, religion, government, etc. ) Conquistadores – Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for its riches during the 1500s. In doing so, they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually, they intermarried with these tribes. Aztecs – The Aztecs were a powerful Native American empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them, especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521. Pueblo Indians – The Pueblo Indians lived in the Southwestern United States.

    They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe (dried mud). Joint stock companies – These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Examples were the London Company and Plymouth Company. They’re the forerunner of modern day corporations. Hiawatha – He was legendary leader who inspired the Iroquois, a powerful group of Native Americans in the northeaster woodlands of the U. S. Vasco Nunez Balboa – European discoverer of the Pacific Ocean in 1513.

    Ferdinand Magellan – In 1519, his crew began a voyage and eventually ended up becoming the first to circumnavigate the world, even though he died in the Philippines. The sole surviving ship returned to Europe in 1522. Francisco Coronado – From 1540 to 1542, he explored the pueblos of Arizona and New Mexico looking for the legendary city of gold El Dorado, penetrating as far east as Kansas. He also discovered the Grand Canyon and enormous herds of bison. Hernando de Soto – From 1539 to 1542, he explored Florida and crossed the Mississippi River. He brutally abused Indians and died of fever and battle wounds.

    Francisco Pizarro – In 1532, he crushed the Incas of Peru and obtained loads of bounty in gold and silver. Encomienda system — Plantation systems where Indians were essentially enslaved under the disguise of being converted to Christianity. Bartolome de Las Casas – A Spanish missionary who was appalled by the method of encomienda systems, calling it “a moral pestilence invented by Satan. ” Hernando Cortes – Annihilator of the Aztecs in 1519. 6 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851

    Malinche – A female Indian slave who became Cortes’ translator. John Cabot – AKA Giovanni Caboto, Italian who explored the northeastern coast of North America for England in 1497-98. Giovanni da Verranzo – Another Italian explorer, he was dispatched by the French king in 1524 to probe the eastern seaboard of what is today’s U. S. Don Juan de Onate – Leader of a Spanish group that ranged parts of Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in 1598. He brutally crushed the Pueblo Indians he met and proclaimed the province of New Mexico in 1609. He also founded its capital, Santa Fe.

    Robert de La Salle – Sent by the French, he went on an expedition through the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi in the 1680s. Chapter 2 The Planting of English America I. England’s Imperial Stirrings i. North America in 1600 was largely unclaimed, though the Spanish had much control in Central and South America. ii. Spain had only set up Santa Fe, while France had founded Quebec and Britain had founded Jamestown. iii. In the 1500s, Britain failed to effectively colonize due to internal conflicts. 1. King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s and launched the English Protestant Reformation. . After Elizabeth I became queen, Britain became basically Protestant, and a rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified. 3. In Ireland, the Catholics sought Spain’s help in revolting against England, but the English crushed the uprising with brutal atrocity, and developed an attitude of sneering contempt for natives. II. Elizabeth Energizes England i. After Francis Drake pirated Spanish ships for gold then circumnavigated the globe, Elizabeth I knighted him on his ship. Obviously, this reward angered the Spanish who sought revenge. ii. Meanwhile, English attempts at colonization in the New World failed embarrassingly.

    Notable of these failures was Sir Walter Raleigh and the Roanoke Island Colony, better known as “The Lost Colony. ” iii. Seeking to get their revenge, Spain attacked Britain but lost in the Spanish Armada’s defeat of 1588. This opened the door for Britain to cross the Atlantic. They swarmed to America and took over the lead in colonization and power. 1. Victory also fueled England to new heights due to… a. Strong government/popular monarch, more religious unity, a sense of nationalism b. Golden age of literature (Shakespeare) c. Beginning of British dominance at sea (which lasts until U.

    S. tops them, around 1900) iv. Britain and Spain finally signed a peace treaty in 1604. III. England on the Eve of the Empire i. In the 1500s, Britain’s population was mushrooming. ii. New policy of enclosure (fencing in land) for farming. This meant there was less or no land for the poor. iii. The woolen districts fell upon hard times economically. This meant the workers lost jobs. iv. Tradition of primogeniture = 1st born son inherits ALL father’s land. Therefore, younger sons of rich folk (who couldn’t inherit money) tried their luck with fortunes elsewhere, like America. v.

    By the 1600s, the joint-stock company was perfected (investors put money into the company with hopes for a good return), being a forerunner of today’s corporations. IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling i. In 1606, the Virginia Company received a charter from King James I to make a settlement in the New World. 7 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 Such joint-stock companies usually did not exist long, as stockholders invested hopes to form the company, turn a profit, and then quickly sell for profit a few years later. i. The charter of the Virginia Company guaranteed settlers the same rights as Englishmen in Britain. iii. On May 24, 1607, about 100 English settlers disembarked from their ship and founded Jamestown. 1. Forty colonists had perished during the voyage. 2. Problems emerged including (a) the swampy site of Jamestown meant poor drinking water and mosquitoes causing malaria and yellow fever. (b) men wasted time looking for gold rather than doing useful tasks (digging wells, building shelter, planting crops), (c) there were zero women on the initial ship. . It didn’t help that a supply ship shipwrecked in the Bahamas in 1609 either. iv. Luckily, in 1608, a Captain John Smith took over control and whipped the colonists into shape. 1. At one point, he was kidnapped by local Indians and forced into a mock execution by the chief Powhatan and had been “saved” by Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas. 2. The act was meant to show that Powhatan wanted peaceful relations with the colonists. 3. John Smith’s main contribution was that he gave order and discipline, highlighted by his “no work, no food” policy. v.

    Colonists had to eat cats, dogs, rats, even other people. One fellow wrote of eating “powdered wife. ” vi. Finally, in 1610, a relief party headed by Lord De La Warr arrived to alleviate the suffering. vii. By 1625, out of an original overall total of 8,000 would-be settlers, only 1,200 had survived. V. Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake i. At first, Powhatan possibly considered the new colonists potential allies and tried to be friendly with them, but as time passed and colonists raided Indian food supplies, relations deteriorated and eventually, war occurred. ii.

    The First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614 with a peace settlement sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to colonist John Rolfe. Rolfe & Pocahontas nurtured a favorable flavor of sweet tobacco. iii. Eight years later, in 1622, the Indians struck again with a series of attacks that left 347 settlers, including John Rolfe, dead. iv. The Second Anglo-Powhatan War began in 1644, ended in 1646, and effectively banished the Chesapeake Indians from their ancestral lands. v. After the settlers began to grow their own food, the Indians were useless, and were therefore banished.

    VI. The Indians’ New World i. The arrival of Europeans set a series of vast changes into motion for the Native Americans. 1. Horses were brought by the Spaniards to transform Indian lifestyles—especially the Sioux who’d become expert at buffalo hunting while horseback. 2. Disease was the largest change to come to the New World. a. Indians were biological pathogens to fight white diseases. b. Tribes were shattered; for example, the Catawba nation emerged in the Carolina piedmont as remnants of broken tribes from all along the east coast. 3.

    Native Americans lusted for firearms, obtained them, and violence increased against whites and other Indians. ii. All told, European arrival rocked the institutions of Indian life and sent their lives reeling. VII. Virginia: Child of Tobacco i. Jamestown’s gold is found ? tobacco 1. Rolfe’s sweet tobacco was sought as a cash crop by Europe. Jamestown had found its gold. 2. Tobacco created a greed for land, since it heavily depleted the soil and ruined the land. ii. Representative self-government was born in Virginia, when in 1619, settlers created the House of Burgesses, a committee to work out local issues.

    This set America on a self-rule pathway. iii. The first African Americans to arrive in America also came in 1619. It’s unclear if they were slaves or indentured servants. VIII. Maryland: Catholic Haven i. Religious Diversity 1. Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, Maryland was the second plantation colony and the fourth overall colony to be formed. 2. It was founded to be a place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge, a safe haven. 3. Lord Baltimore gave huge estates to his Catholic relatives, but the poorer people who settled there where mostly Protestant, creating friction. i. However, Maryland prospered with tobacco. 8 1. AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 iii. It had a lot of indentured servants. 1. Only in the later years of the 1600s (in Maryland and Virginia) did Black slavery begin to become popular. iv. Maryland’s statute, the Act of Toleration, guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians, but decreed the death penalty to Jews and atheists and others who didn’t believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ. IX. The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America i.

    As the British were colonizing Virginia, they were also settling into the West Indies (Spain’s declining power opened the door). ii. By mid-1600s, England had secured claim to several West Indies islands, including Jamaica in 1655. iii. They grew lots of sugar on brutal plantations there. iv. Thousands of African slaves were needed to operate sugar plantations. At first, Indians were intended to be used, but disease killed an estimated 90% of all Native Americans. So, Africans were brought in. v. To control so many slaves, “codes” were set up that defined the legal status of slaves and the rights of the masters.

    They were typically strict and exacted severe punishments for offenders. X. Colonizing the Carolinas i. In England, King Charles I had been beheaded. Oliver Cromwell had ruled for ten very strict years before tired Englishmen restored Charles II to the throne in “The Restoration. ” (After all the turmoil Civil War, they just went back to a king. ) ii. The bloody period had interrupted colonization. iii. Carolina was named after Charles II, and was formally created in 1670. iv. Carolina flourished by developing close economic ties with the West Indies, due to the port of Charleston. . Many original Carolina settlers had come from Barbados and brought in the strict “Slave Codes” for ruling slaves. vi. Interestingly, Indians as slaves in Carolina was protested, but to no avail. Slaves were sent to the West Indies to work, as well as New England. vii. Rice emerged as the principle crop in Carolina. 1. African slaves were hired to work on rice plantations, due to (a) their resistance to malaria and just as importantly, (b) their familiarity with rice. viii. Despite violence with Spanish and Indians, Carolina proved to be too strong to be wiped out. XI.

    The Emergence of North Carolina i. Many newcomers to Carolina were “squatters,” people who owned no land, usually down from Virginia. ii. North Carolinians developed a strong resistance to authority, due to geographic isolation from neighbors. iii. Two “flavors” of Carolinians developed: (a) aristocratic and wealthier down south around Charleston and rice & indigo plantations, and (b) strong-willed and independent-minded up north on small tobacco farms iv. In 1712, North and South Carolina were officially separated. v. In 1711, when Tuscarora Indians attacked North Carolina, the

    Carolinians responded by crushing the opposition, selling hundreds to slavery and leaving the rest to wander north, eventually becoming the Sixth Nation of the Iroquois. XII. Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony i. Georgia was intended to be a buffer between the British colonies and the hostile Spanish settlements in Florida (Spanish, Indians, runaway slaves) and the enemy French in Louisiana. ii. It was founded last, in 1733, by a high-minded group of philanthropists, mainly James Oglethorpe. iii. Named after King George II, it was also meant to be a second chance site for wretched souls in debt. v. James Oglethorpe, the ablest of the founders and a dynamic soldier-statesman, repelled Spanish attacks. 1. He saved “the Charity Colony” by his energetic leadership and by using his own fortune to help with the colony. v. All Christians, except Catholics, enjoyed religious toleration, and many missionaries came to try to convert the Indians. 1. John Wesley was one of them, and he later returned to England and founded Methodism. vi. Georgia grew very slowly. XIII. The Plantation Colonies i. Slavery was found in all the plantation colonies. ii. The growth of cities was often stunted by forests. AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 XIV. iii. The establishment of schools and churches was difficult due to people being spread out. iv. In the South, the crops were tobacco and rice, and some indigo in the tidewater region of SC. v. All the plantation colonies permitted some religious toleration. vi. Confrontations with Native Americans were often. Makers of America: The Iroquois i. In what is now New York State, the Iroquois League or Confederation was once a great power. ii.

    They were made up of the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas. iii. They vied with neighboring Indians and later French, English, and Dutch for supremacy. iv. The longhouse was the building block of Iroquois society. 1. Only 25 feet wide, but over 200 feet long, longhouses were typically occupied by a few blood-related families (on the mother’s side). v. The Mohawks were middlemen with European traders. vi. The Senecas were fur suppliers. vii. The Five Nations of the Iroquois’ rivals, the neighboring Hurons, Eries, and Petuns, were vanquished. viii.

    Throughout the 1600s and 1700s, the Iroquois allied with the British and French (whichever was more beneficial). ix. When the American Revolution broke out, the question of with whom to side was split. Most sided with the British, but not all. x. Afterwards, the Iroquois were forced to reservations, which proved to be unbearable to these proud people. xi. An Iroquois named Handsome Lake arose to warn his tribe’s people to mend their ways. xii. His teachings live today in the form of the longhouse religion. Chapter 2 Vocabulary Lord De la Warr – An Englishman who came to America in 1610.

    He brought the Indians in the Jamestown area a declaration of war from the Virginia Company. This began the four year Anglo-Powhatan War. He brought in brutal “Irish tactics” to use in battle. Pocahontas – A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas’ brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations. Powhatan – Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas.

    At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith’s fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan’s death. John Rolfe – Rolfe was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England.

    Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tobacco industry in North America. Rolfe died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony. Lord Baltimore – 1694 – He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics. Sir Walter Raleigh – An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as “The Lost Colony. Oliver Cromwell – Englishman, led the army to overthrow King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell ruled England in an almost dictatorial style until his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies. James Oglethorpe – founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman, philanthropist. Started Georgia (a) as a buffer to Spanish Florida and (b) as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat. John Smith – John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608.

    Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told them, “people who do not work, do not eat. ” His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing. nation-state – A unified country under a ruler which share common goals and pride in a nation. The rise of the nation-state began after England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada. This event sparked nationalistic goals in exploration which were not thought possible with the commanding influence of the Spanish who may have crushed their chances of building new colonies.

    Slavery – the process of buying people (generally Africans) who come under the complete authority of their owners for life, and intended to be worked heavily; became prominent in colonial times around the mid to late 1600’s (but also to a lesser degree, 10 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 concerning natives during the early 1500’s) because of the labor intensive nature of the crops being grown, and the desire for a profit; mainly used on southern plantations, but also a little bit in the north.

    Enclosure – caused by the desire of land-owning lords to raise sheep instead of crops, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor, former farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500’s forcing many farmers out and into the cities, leading many of them to hire themselves as indentured servants for payment of passage into the New World, and therefore, supporting many of the needs of the labor-thirsty plantation owners of the New World House of Burgesses – The House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly in the New World.

    The London Company authorized the settlers to summon this assembly. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America ? the beginnings of self-rule in America. Royal Charter – A document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special privileges and establishes a general relationship of one of three types: (1) Royal- direct rule of colony by monarch, (2) Corporate- Colony is run by a joint-stock company, (3) Proprietary- colony is under rule of someone chosen by the monarch.

    Royal Charters guaranteed that colonists would have “rights as all Englishmen” “Slave Codes” – In 1661 a set of “codes” was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit. Yeoman – An owner and cultivator of a small farm. Proprietor – a person who was granted charters of ownership by the king: proprietary colonies were Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware: proprietors founded colonies from 1634 until 1681: a famous proprietor is William Penn Longhouse – The chief dwelling place of the Iroquois Indians; c. 500s-1600s; longhouses served as a meeting place as well as the homes for many of the Native Americans. They also provided unity between tribes of Iroquois Confederacy. Squatter – A person who settles on land without title or right, AKA a “homesteader. ” Early settlers in North Carolina became squatters when they put their small farms on the new land. They raised tobacco on the land that they claimed, and tobacco later became a major cash crop for North Carolina. Squatters then followed the frontier westward all the way to the Pacific.

    Primogeniture – A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father’s land. As a result the 2nd and 3rd sons, etc. , were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth. Indentured Servitude – Indentured servants were Englishmen who were outcasts of their country, would work in the Americas for a certain amount of time as servants, usually seven years before being free to go. “Starving Time” – The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the “starving time” to the colonists of Virginia.

    Only sixty members of the original four hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the New World. Act of Toleration – A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland. Protestants intruded on the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland. The act protected the Catholics from Protestant rage of sharing the land. Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World. Virginia Company – A joint-stock company, based in Virginia in 1607, founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies.

    Confirmed to all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights. 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607. Iroquois Confederacy – The Iroquois Confederacy was a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas. It was founded in the late 1500s. The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in log houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person’s background was determined by the woman’s family.

    Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders and fur suppliers. Other groups joined, they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage. During the American Revolution, the Confederacy mostly sided with the British. When the British were defeated, most of the Iroquois had to move to reservations in Canada. The morale of the people sank and they began dying out. In 1799, a leader named Handsome Lake, tried to revive the Iroquois and helped them to become proud and hard-working again.

    Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies I. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism i. 1517, Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. Luther had several explosive ideas including… 1. The Bible alone was the source of God’s word (not the Bible and the church or pope). 11 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 2. People are saved simply by faith in Christ alone (not by faith and good works). 3. His actions ignited the Protestant Reformation. ii.

    John Calvin preached Calvinism which stressed “predestination” (those going to Heaven or hell has already been determined by God). 1. Basic doctrines were stated in the 1536 document entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion. 2. Stated that all humans were weak and wicked. 3. Only the predestined could go to heaven, no matter what. 4. Calvinists were expected to seek “conversions,” signs that they were one of the predestined, and afterwards, lead “sanctified lives. ” 5. Calvinists are famous for working hard, dusk to dawn, to “prove” their worthiness. 6.

    The impact of Calvinism has been vividly stamped on the psyche of Americans, and been called the “Protestant Work Ethic” iii. In England, King Henry VIII was breaking his ties with the Holy Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. iv. Some people, called Puritans, were influenced to totally reform (“purify”) the Church of England. v. The Puritans 1. Believed that only “visible saints” should be admitted to church membership. 2. Separatists vowed to break away from the Church of England (AKA, the Anglican Church) because the “saints” would have to sit with the “damned. These folks became the Pilgrims. 3. King James I, father of the beheaded Charles I, harassed the Separatists out of England because he thought that if people could defy him as their spiritual leader, they might defy him as their political ruler. II. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth i. The Pilgrims or Separatists, came from Holland, where they had fled to after they had left England. 1. They were concerned that their children were getting to “Dutchified. ” 2. They wanted a place where they were free to worship their own religion and could live and die as good Pilgrims. i. After negotiating with the Virginia Company, the Separatists left Holland and sailed for 65 days at sea on the Mayflower until they arrived off the rocky coast of New England in 1620, a trip in which only one person died and one person was born. 1. Less than half of the pilgrims on the Mayflower were actually Separatists. 2. Contrary to myth, the Pilgrims undertook a few surveys before deciding to settle at Plymouth, an area far from Virginia. 3. The Pilgrims became squatters, people without legal right to land and without specific authority to establish government. ii. Captain Myles Standish (AKA, “Captain Shrimp”) proved to be a great Indian fighter and negotiator. iv. Before leaving the ship, the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, a set of rules by which to obey. 1. Though it wasn’t a constitution, it did set the standard for later constitutions. It also set the first step toward self-rule in the Northern colonies. v. In the winter of 1620-21, only 44 of the 102 survived. vi. 1621 brought bountiful harvests, though, and the first Thanksgiving was celebrated that year. vii.

    William Bradford, chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in the annual elections, was a great leader, and helped Plymouth to survive and trade fur, fish, and lumber. viii. In 1691, Plymouth finally merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. III. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth i. In 1629, some non-Separatist Puritans got a royal charter from England to settle in the New World. Secretly, they took the charter with them and later used it as a type of constitution. ii. It was a well-equipped group of which about 11,000 people came to Massachusetts. iii.

    John Winthrop was elected governor or deputy governor for 19 years, helping Massachusetts prosper in fur trading, fishing, and shipbuilding. IV. Building the Bay Colony i. Soon after the establishment of the colony, the franchise (right to vote) was extended to all “freemen,” adult males who belonged to the Puritan congregations (later called the Congregational Church), making people who could enjoy the franchise about two fifths of the male population. 1. Un-churched men and women weren’t allowed into matters of government. ii. The provincial government was not a democracy. 2 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 Governor Winthrop feared and distrusted the common people, calling democracy the “meanest and worst” of all forms of government. iii. Religious leaders wielded powerful influence over the admission to church membership. iv. John Cotton, a prominent clergy member, was educated at Cambridge and had immigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution for his criticism of the Church of England. v. However, congregations could hire and fire their ministers at will. vi.

    Still, there were laws to limit Earthly pleasures, such as a fine of twenty shillings for couples caught kissing in public. vii. The Puritan concept of Hell was very serious, frightening, and very real. 1. Michael Wigglesworth’s “Day of Doom,” written in 1662, sold one copy for every twenty people. V. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth i. Tensions arose in Massachusetts. ii. Quakers were fined, flogged, and/or banished. iii. Anne Hutchinson was a very intelligent, strong-willed, talkative woman who claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man.

    A notion known as “antinomianism”. 1. Brought to trial in 1638, Anne boasted that her beliefs were directly from God. 2. She was banished from the colony and eventually made her way to Rhode Island. 3. She died in New York after an attack by Indians. iv. Roger Williams was a radical idealist hounded his fellow clergymen to make a clean and complete break with the Church of England. 1. He went on to deny that civil government could and should govern religious behavior. 2. He was banished in 1635, and led the way for the Rhode Island colony. VI. The Rhode Island “Sewer” i.

    People who went to Rhode Island weren’t necessarily similar; they were just unwanted everywhere else. ii. They were against special privilege. iii. “Little Rhody” was later known as “the traditional home of the otherwise minded. ” iv. It finally secured a charter in 1644. VII. New England Spreads Out i. In 1635, Hartford, Connecticut was founded. ii. Reverend Thomas Hooker led an energetic group of Puritans west into Connecticut. iii. In 1639, settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted in open meeting a trailblazing document called the Fundamental Orders. 1.

    It was basically a modern constitution. iv. In 1638, New Haven was founded and eventually merged into Connecticut. v. In 1623, Maine was absorbed by Massachusetts and remained so for nearly a century and a half. vi. In 1641, the granite-ribbed New Hampshire was absorbed into Massachusetts. 1. In 1679, the king separated the two and made New Hampshire a royal colony. VIII. Puritans Versus Indians a. Violence i. Before the Puritans had arrived in 1620, an epidemic had swept through the Indians, killing over three quarters of them. ii. At first, Indians tried to befriend the Whites. 1.

    Squanto, a Wampanoag, helped keep relative peace. iii. In 1637, though, after mounting tensions exploded, English settlers and the powerful Pequot tribe fought in the Pequot War, in which the English set fire to a Pequot village on Connecticut’s Mystic River, annihilating the Indians and bringing about forty years of tentative peace. 1. In an attempt to save face, the Puritans did try to convert some of the Indians, though with less zeal than that of the Spanish and French. iv. In 1675, Metacom (called King Philip by the English) united neighboring Indians in a last-ditched attack that failed. 1.

    The King Philip’s War slowed the colonial western march, but Metacom was beheaded and quartered and his head was stuck on a sharp pike for all to see, his wife and son sold to slavery. IX. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence i. In 1643, four colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation. 1. It was almost all Puritan. 2. It was weak, but still a notable milestone toward American unity. 13 1. AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 ii. The colonies were basically allowed to be semiautonomous commonwealths. ii. After Charles II was restored to the British throne, he hoped to control his colonies more firmly, but was shocked to find how much his orders were ignored by Massachusetts. 1. As punishment, a sea-to-sea charter was given to rival Connecticut (1662), and a charter was given to Rhode Island (1663). 2. Finally, in 1684, Massachusetts’ charter was revoked. X. Andros Promotes the First American Revolution i. In 1686, the Dominion of New England was created to bolster the colonial defense against Indians and tying the colonies closer to Britain by enforcing the hated Navigation Acts. 1.

    The acts forbade American trade with countries other than Britain. 2. As a result, smuggling became common. 3. Head of the Dominion was Sir Edmund Andros. a. Establishing headquarters in Boston, he openly showed his association with the locally hated Church of England. b. His soldiers were vile-mouthed and despised by Americans. ii. Andros responded to opposition by curbing town meetings, restricting the courts and the press, and revoking all land titles. iii. He taxed the people without their consent. iv. At the same time, the people of England staged the Glorious Revolution, instating William and Mary to the crown. . Resultant, the Dominion of New England collapsed. 2. Massachusetts got a new charter in 1691, but this charter allowed all landowners to vote, as opposed to the previous law of voting belonging only to the church members. XI. Old Netherlanders at New Netherland i. In the 17th Century, the Netherlands revolted against Spain, and with the help of Britain, gained their independence. ii. The Dutch East India Company was established, with an army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190 ships (including 40 men-of-war). iii. The Dutch West India Company often raided rather than traded. iv.

    In 1609, Henry Hudson ventured into Delaware and New York Bay and claimed the area for the Netherlands. v. It was the Dutch West India Company that bought Manhattan Island for some worthless trinkets (22,000 acres of the most valuable land in the world today). vi. New Amsterdam was a company town, run by and for the Dutch company and in the interests of stockholders. vii. The Dutch gave patroonships (large areas of land) to promoters who agreed to settle at least 50 people on them. viii. New Amsterdam attracted people of all types and races. 1. One French Jesuit missionary counted 18 different languages being spoken on the street.

    XII. Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors i. Indian’s attacked the Dutch for their cruelties. ii. New England was hostile against Dutch growth. iii. The Swedes trespassed Dutch reserves from 1638 to 1655 by planting the anemic colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River. iv. Things got so bad that the Dutch erected a wall in New Amsterdam, for which Wall Street is named today. v. In 1655, the Dutch sent one-legged Peter Stuyvesant to besiege the main Swedish fort, and he won, ending Swedish colonial rule and leaving only Swedish log cabins and place names as evidence that the Swedes were ever in Delaware.

    XIII. Dutch Residues in New York i. In 1664, Charles II granted the area of modern-day New York to his brother, the Duke of York, and that year, British troops landed and defeated the Dutch, kicking them out, without much violence. ii. New Amsterdam was renamed New York. iii. The Dutch Legacy 1. The people of New York retained their autocratic spirit. 2. Dutch names of cities remained, like Harlem, Brooklyn, and Hell Gate. 3. Even their architecture left its mark on buildings. 4. The Dutch also gave us Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating, and golf.

    XIV. Penn’s Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania 14 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 i. The Quakers (characteristics) 1. They “quaked” under deep religious emotion. 2. They were offensive to religious and civil rule. 3. They addressed everyone with simple “thee”s and “thou”s and didn’t swear oaths because Jesus had said “Swear not at all,” this last part creating a problem, since you had to swear a test oath to prove that you weren’t Roman Catholic. 4.

    Though stubborn and unreasonable, they were simple, devoted, democratic people against war and violence. ii. William Penn, a well-born Englishman, embraced the Quaker faith. iii. In 1681, he managed to secure an immense grant of fertile land from the king. 1. It was called Pennsylvania, in honor of Penn, who, being the modest person that he was, had insisted that it be called Sylvania. 2. It was the best advertised of all the colonies. XV. Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors i. Thousands of squatters already lived in Pennsylvania. ii.

    Philadelphia was more carefully planned than most cities, with beautiful, wide streets. iii. Penn bought land from the Indians, like Chief Tammany, later patron saint of New York’s political Tammany Hall. iv. His treatment of the Indians was so gentle that Quakers could walk through Indian territory unarmed without fear of being hurt. v. However, as more and more non-Quakers came to Pennsylvania, they mistreated the Indians more and more. vi. Freedom of worship was available to everyone except for Jews and Catholics (only because of pressure from London), and the death penalty was only for murder and treason. ii. No restrictions were placed on immigration, and naturalization was made easy. viii. The Quakers also developed a dislike toward slavery. ix. Pennsylvania attracted a great variety of people from all races, class, and religion. x. By 1700, only Virginia was more populous and richer. xi. Penn, unfortunately, was not well-liked because of his friendliness towards James II, the deposed Catholic king, and he was jailed at times, and also suffered a paralytic stroke, dying full of sorrows. xii. New Jersey and Delaware prospered as well. XVI. The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies a.

    New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania i. All had fertile soil and broad expanse of land. ii. All except for Delaware exported lots of grain. iii. The Susquehanna River tapped the fur trade of the interior, and the rivers were gentle, with little cascading waterfalls. iv. The middle colonies were the middle way between New England and the southern plantation states. v. Landholdings were generally intermediate in size. vi. The middle colonies were more ethnically mixed than other colonies. vii. A considerable amount of economic and social democracy prevailed. iii. Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston, entered Philadelphia as a seventeen-year-old in 1720 with a loaf of bread under each arm and immediately found a congenial home in the urbane, open atmosphere of the city. ix. Americans began to realize that not only were they surviving, but that they were also thriving. XVII. Makers of America: The English i. In the 1600s, England was undergoing a massive population boom. ii. About 75% of English immigrants were indentured servants. iii. Most of them were young men from the “middling classes. ” iv.

    Some had fled during the cloth trade slump in the early 1600s while others had been forced off their land due to enclosure. v. Some 40% of indentured servants died before their seven years were over. vi. Late in the 17th century, as the supply of indentured servants slowly ran out, the southerners resolved to employ black slaves. vii. From 1629 to 1642, 11,000 Puritans swarmed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. viii. In contrast to the indentured servants, Puritans migrated in family groups, not alone. ix. Puritans brought the way of life from England with them to America. 1. i. e.

    Marblehead, Mass. had mostly fishermen because most of the immigrants had been fisherman in England. 2. i. e. Rowley, Mass. brought from Yorkshire, England their distinctive way of life. 15 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 3. 4. In Ipswich, Massachusetts, settled by East Anglican Puritans, the rulers had long terms and ruled with an iron hand. However, in Newbury, people rarely won reelection. Chapter 3 Vocabulary John Calvin – John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism.

    He writes about it in “Institutes of a Christian Religion” published in 1536. He believed God was all-knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell. Anne Hutchinson – A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts’ religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset (now Portsmouth, R.

    I. ) Roger Williams – He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration. Henry Hudson – Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America. William Bradford – A pilgrim that lived in the northern colony called Plymouth. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for “Of Plymouth Plantation. Peter Stuyvesant – A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as “Father Wooden Leg. ” Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands. Thomas Hooker – 1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Connecticut. William Penn – English Quaker; started the “Holy Experiment” of Pennsylvania; persecuted because he was a Quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; “first American advertising man”; freedom of worship there John Winthrop – John Winthrop immigrated to the Mass.

    Bay Colony in the 1630’s to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, “We shall be a city on a hill,” highlighting the special nature of Massachusetts. King Philip II – He was king of Spain during 1588. During this year he sent out his Spanish Armada against England. He lost the invasion of England. Philip II was also the leader against the Protestant Reformation. John Cotton – John Cotton, a Puritan who was a fiery early clergy educated at Cambridge University, emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution by the church of England.

    He defended the government’s duty to enforce religious rules. He preached and prayed up to six hours in a single day. Sir Edmond Andros – Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England’s Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England

    The “elect” – John Calvin and the predestined Puritan souls who had been destined for eternal bliss in Heaven since the beginning of time ; it was discussed by John Calvin in “Institutes of the Christian Religion” Patroonship – Patroonship was vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in the early 1600’s. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them. Predestination – Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.

    Freemen – a colonial period term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land. “visible saints” – A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to Heaven by God. A visible saint was a person who’d gone through some emotional religious revival or awakening, an experience that was noted by the community as being legit. This belief in the elect, or “visible saints,” figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600’s. ovenant – A binding agreement made by the Puritans whose doctrine said the whole purpose of the government was to enforce God’s laws. This applied to believers and non-believers. Protestant Reformation – The Protestant Revolution was a religious revolution, during the 16th century. It ended the supremacy of the Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Churches. Martin Luther and John Calvin were influential in the Protestant Revolution. Pilgrims – Separatists; worried by “Dutchification” of their children they left Holland on the Mayflower in 1620; they landed at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts.

    New England Confederation – New England Confederation was a union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent inter-colonial problems that affected all four colonies. 16 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 Calvinism – Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed.

    In the 1500’s John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart. Massachusetts Bay Colony – One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community.

    Dominion of New England – In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority — James II. Charters and self-rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne. Navigation Laws – In the 1660’s England restricted colonial trade, saying Americans couldn’t trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.

    The Puritans They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages brought thousands to America in 1630s into the Massachusetts Bay Colony. General Court – a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600’s Separatists – Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620’s who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower.

    These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were. Quakers – Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the Quakers. They believe in equality of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence. ) Settled in Pennsylvania. Were “nice” to the Indians, and were anti-slavery. Protestant Ethic – mid 1600’s; a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldly affairs.

    Sometimes called the “Protestant Work Ethic. ” Mayflower Compact – 1620- A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled. Step one in self-government in the Northern colonies. Fundamental Orders – In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states’ charters and constitutions. Chapter 4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century

    I. The Unhealthy Chesapeake i. Life in the American wilderness was harsh. ii. Diseases like malaria, dysentery, and typhoid killed many. iii. Few people lived to 40 or 50 years. iv. In the early days of colonies, women were so scarce that men fought over all of them. The Chesapeake region had fewer women and a 6:1 male to female ratio is a good guide. v. Few people knew any grandparents. vi. A third of all brides in one Maryland county were already pregnant before the wedding (scandalous). vii. Virginia, with 59,000 people, became the most populous colony. II. The Tobacco Economy i.

    The Chesapeake was very good for tobacco cultivation. ii. Chesapeake Bay exported 1. 5 million pounds of tobacco yearly in the 1630s, and by 1700, that number had risen to 40 million pounds a year. 1. More availability led to falling prices, and farmers still grew more. 2. The headright system encouraged growth of the Chesapeake. Under this system, if an aristocrat sponsored an indentured servant’s passage to America, the aristocrat earned the right to purchase 50 acres land, undoubtedly at a cheap price. This meant land was being gobbled by the rich, and running out for the poor. . Early on, most of the laborers were indentured servants. 17 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 Life for them was hard, but there was hope at the end of seven years for freedom. Conditions were brutal, and in the later years, owners unwilling to free their servants extended their contracts by years for small mistakes. III. Frustrated Freemen and Bacon’s Rebellion i. By the late 1600s, there were lots of free, poor, landless, single men frustrated by the lack of money, land, work, and women. ii.

    In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon led a few thousand of these men in a rebellion against the hostile conditions. 1. These people wanted land and were resentful of Virginia governor William Berkeley’s friendly policies toward the Indians. 2. Bacon’s men murderously attacked Indian settlements after Berkeley refused to retaliate for a series of savage Indian attacks on the frontier. iii. Then, in the middle of his rebellion, Bacon suddenly died of disease, and Berkeley went on to crush the uprising. 1. Still, Bacon’s legacy lived on, giving frustrated poor folks ideas to rebel, and so a bit of paranoia went on for some time afterwards.

    IV. Colonial Slavery i. In the 300 years following Columbus’ discovery of America, only about 400,000 of a total of 10 million African slaves were brought over to the United States. ii. By 1680, though, many landowners were afraid of possibly mutinous white servants, by the mid 1680s, for the first time, black slaves outnumbered white servants among the plantation colonies’ new arrivals. iii. After 1700, more and more slaves were imported, and in 1750, blacks accounted for nearly half of the Virginian population. 1. Most of the slaves were from West Africa, from places like Senegal and Angola. v. Some of the earliest black slaves gained their freedom and some became slaveholders themselves. v. Eventually, to clear up issues on slave ownership, the slave codes made it so that slaves and their children would remain slaves to their masters for life (chattels), unless they were voluntarily freed. 1. Some laws made teaching slaves to read a crime, and not even conversion to Christianity might qualify a slave for freedom. V. Africans in America i. Slave life in the Deep South was very tough, as rice growing was much harder than tobacco growing. 1.

    Many blacks in America evolved their own languages, blending their native tongues with English. 2. Blacks also contributed to music with instruments like the banjo and bongo drum. ii. A few of the slaves became skilled artisans (i. e. carpenters, bricklayers and tanners), but most were relegated to sweaty work like clearing swamps and grubbing out trees. iii. Revolts did occur. 1. In 1712, a slave revolt in New York City cost the lives of a dozen whites and 21 Blacks were executed. 2. In 1739, South Carolina blacks along the Stono River revolted and tried to march to Spanish Florida, but failed. VI. Southern Society i.

    A social gap appeared and began to widen. 1. In Virginia, a clutch of extended clans (i. e. the Fitzhughs, the Lees, and the Washingtons) owned tracts and tracts of real estate and just about dominated the House of Burgesses. a. They came to be known as the First Families of Virginia (FFV). ii. In Virginia, there was often a problem with drunkenness. iii. The largest social group was the farmers. iv. Few cities sprouted in the South, so schools and churches were slow to develop. VII. The New England Family i. In New England, there was clean water and cool temperatures, so disease was not as predominant as in the South. i. The first New England Puritans had an average life expectancy of 70 years. iii. In contrast to the Chesapeake, the New Englanders tended to migrate as a family, instead of individually. 1. Women usually married in their early twenties and gave birth every two years until menopause. 2. A typical woman could expect to have ten babies and raise about eight of them. 18 a. b. AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 3. Death in childbirth was not uncommon. iv.

    In the South, women usually had more power, since the Southern men typically died young and women could inherit the money, but in New England, the opposite was true. 1. In New England, men didn’t have absolute power over their wives (as evidenced by the punishments of unruly husbands), but they did have much power over women. v. New England law was very severe and strict. 1. For example, adulterous women had to wear the letter “A” on their bosoms if they were caught (as with The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne). VIII. Life in the New England Towns i. Life in New England was organized. 1.

    New towns were legally chartered by colonial authorities. 2. A town usually had a meetinghouse surrounded by houses and a village green. 3. Towns of more than 50 families had to provide primary education. 4. Towns of more than 100 had to provide secondary education. ii. In 1636, Massachusetts Puritans established Harvard College to train men to become ministers. 1. (Note: in 1693, Virginia established their first college, William and Mary. ) iii. Puritans ran their own churches, and democracy in Congregational church government led logically to democracy in political government. IX. The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trials i.

    As Puritans began to worry about their children and whether or not they would be as loyal and faithful, and new type of sermon came about called “jeremiads. ” 1. In jeremiads, earnest preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety in hope to improve faith. ii. Paradoxically, troubled ministers announced a new formula for church membership in 1662, calling it the “Half-Way Covenant. ” 1. In the Half-Way Covenant, all people could come and participate in the church, even if they fell short of the “visible-saint” status and were somehow only half converted (with the exception of a few extremely hated groups). ii. In the early 1690s, a group of Salem girls claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women. 1. What followed was a hysterical witch-hunt that led to the executions of 20 people (19 of which were hanged, 1 pressed to death) and two dogs. 2. Back in Europe, larger scale witch-hunts were already occurring. 3. Witchcraft hysteria eventually ended in 1693. X. The New England Way of Life i. Due to the hard New England soil (or lack thereof), New Englanders became great traders. ii. New England was also less ethnically mixed than its neighbors. iii.

    The climate of New England encouraged diversified agriculture and industry. 1. Black slavery was attempted, but didn’t work. It was unnecessary since New England was made of small farms rather than plantations as down South. iv. Rivers were short and rapid. v. The Europeans in New England chastised the Indians for “wasting” the land, and felt a need to clear as much land for use as possible. vi. Fishing became a very popular industry. It is said New England was built on “God and cod. ” XI. The Early Settlers’ Days and Ways i. Early farmers usually rose at dawn and went to bed at dusk. ii.

    Few events were done during the night unless they were “worth the candle. ” iii. Life was humble but comfortable, at least in accordance to the surroundings. iv. The people who emigrated from Europe to America were most usually lower middle class citizens looking to have a better future in the New World. v. Because of the general sameness of class in America, laws against extravagances were sometimes passed, but as time passed, America grew. XII. Makers of America: From African to African-American i. Africans’ arrival into the New World brought new languages, music, and cuisines to America. 1.

    Africans worked in the rice fields of South Carolina due to (a) their knowledge of the crop and (b) their resistance to disease (as compared to Indians). ii. The first slaves were men; some eventually gained freedom. iii. By 1740, large groups of African slaves lived together on plantations, where female slaves were expected to perform backbreaking labor and spin, weave, and sew. iv. Most slaves became Christians, though many adopted elements from their native religions. 1. Many African dances led to modern dances (i. e. the Charleston). 19 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. om/content/310851 2. 3. Christian songs could also be code for the announcement of the arrival of a guide to freedom. Jazz is the most famous example of slave music entering mainstream culture. Chapter 4 Vocabulary William Berkeley – He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon’s rebellion in 1676 , which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense. Headright system – way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrant,s way; mainly a system in the southern colonies.

    Jeremiads – In the 1600’s, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers. To combat this decreasing piety, they preached a type of sermon called the jeremiad. The jeremiads focused on the teachings of Jeremiah, a Biblical prophet who warned of doom. Middle Passage – middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600’s; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey Bacon’s Rebellion – In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians.

    In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians. Leisler’s Rebellion – 1689-1691, an ill-fated bloody insurgency in New York City took place between landholders and merchants. Halfway Covenant – A Puritan church policy; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the “elect” members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations. Chapter 5 Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution I. Conquest by the Cradle i.

    By 1775, Great Britain ruled 32 colonies in North America. 1. Only 13 of them revolted (the ones in what’s today the U. S. ). 2. Canada and Jamaica were wealthier than the “original 13. ” 3. All of them were growing by leaps and bounds. ii. By 1775, the population numbered 2. 5 million people. iii. The average age was 16 years old (due mainly to having several children). iv. Most of the population (95%) was densely cooped up east of the Alleghenies, though by 1775, some had slowly trickled into Tennessee and Kentucky. v. About 90% of the people lived in rural areas and were therefore farmers.

    II. A Mingling of the Races i. Colonial America, though mostly English, had other races as well. 1. Germans accounted for about 6% of the population, or about 150,000 people by 1775. i. Most were Protestant (primarily Lutheran) and were called the “Pennsylvania Dutch” (a corruption of Deutsch which means German). ii. The Scots-Irish were about 7% of the population, with 175,000 people. 1. Over many decades, they had been transplanted to Northern Ireland, but they had not found a home there (the already existing Irish Catholics resented the intruders). 2.

    Many of the Scots-Irish reached America and became squatters, quarreling with both Indians and white landowners. 3. They seemed to try to move as far from Britain as possible, trickling down to Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. 4. In 1764, the Scots-Irish led the armed march of the Paxton Boys. The Paxtons led a march on Philadelphia to protest the Quaker’ peaceful treatment of the Indians. They later started the North Carolina Regulator movement in the hills and mountains of the colony, aimed against domination by eastern powers in the colony. 5. They were known to be very ot-headed and independent minded. 20 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 6. Many eventually became American revolutionists. iii. About 5% of the multicolored population consisted of other European groups, like French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and Scots-Highlanders. iv. Americans were of all races and mixed bloods, so it was no wonder that other races from other countries had a hard time classifying them. III. The Structure of the Colonial Society i.

    In contrast to contemporary Europe, America was a land of opportunity. 1. Anyone who was willing to work hard could possibly go from rags to riches, and poverty was scorned. 2. Class differences did emerge, as a small group of aristocrats (made up of the rich farmers, merchants, officials, clergymen) had much of the power. ii. Also, armed conflicts in the 1690s and 1700s enriched a number of merchants in the New England and middle colonies. iii. War also created many widows and orphans who eventually had to turn to charity. iv. In the South, a firm social pyramid emerged containing… 1.

    The immensely rich plantation owners (“planters”) had many slaves (though these were few). 2. “Yeoman” farmers, or small farmers. They owned their land and, maybe, a few slaves. 3. Landless whites who owned no land and either worked for a landowner or rented land to farm. 4. Indentured servants of America were the paupers and the criminals sent to the New World. Some of them were actually unfortunate victims of Britain’s unfair laws and did become respectable citizens. This group was dwindling though by the 1700s, thanks to Bacon’s Rebellion and the move away from indentured servant labor and toward slavery. . Black slaves were at the bottom of the social ladder with no rights or hopes up moving up or even gaining freedom. Slavery became a divisive issue because some colonies didn’t want slaves while others needed them, and therefore vetoed any bill banning the importation of slaves. IV. Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists i. The most honored profession in the colonial times was the clergy (priests), which in 1775, had less power than before during the height of the “Bible Commonwealth,” but still wielded a great amount of authority. ii.

    Physicians were not highly esteemed and many of them were bad as medical practices were archaic. 1. Bleeding was often a favorite, and deadly, solution to illnesses. 2. Plagues were a nightmare. a. Smallpox (afflicting 1 of 5 persons, including George Washington) was rampant, though a crude form of inoculation for it was introduced in 1721. b. Some of the clergy and doctors didn’t like the inoculation though, preferring not to tamper with the will of God. iii. At first, lawyers weren’t liked, being regarded as noisy scumbags. 1. Criminals often represented themselves in court. 2.

    By 1750, lawyers were recognized as useful, and many defended high-profile cases, were great orators and played important roles in the history of America. V. Workaday America i. Agriculture was the leading industry (by a huge margin), since farmers could seem to grow anything. 1. In Maryland and Virginia, tobacco was the staple crop, and by 1759, New York was exporting 80,000 barrels of flour a year. ii. Fishing could be rewarding, though not as much as farming, and it was pursued in all the American colonies especially in New England. iii. Trading was also a popular and prevalent industry, as commerce occurred all around the colonies. . The “triangular trade” was common: a ship, for example, would leave (1) New England with rum and go to the (2) Gold Coast of Africa and trade it for African slaves. Then, it would go to the (3) West Indies and exchange the slaves for molasses (for rum), which it’d sell to New England once it returned there. iv. Manufacturing was not as important, though many small enterprises existed. v. Strong-backed laborers and skilled craftspeople were scarce and highly prized. vi. Perhaps the single most important manufacturing activity was lumbering. 1.

    Britain sometimes marked the tallest trees for its navy’s masts, and colonists resented that, even though there were countless other good trees in the area and the marked tree was going toward a common defense (it was the principle of Britain-first that was detested). 21 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 vii. In 1733, Parliament passed the Molasses Act, which, if successful, would have struck a crippling blow to American international trade by hindering its trade with the French West Indies. . The result was disagreement, and colonists got around the act through smuggling. VI. Horsepower and Sailpower i. Roads in 1700s America were very bad, and not until the 19th century did they even connect large cites. 1. It took a young Benjamin Franklin 9 days to get from Boston to Philadelphia. ii. Roads were so bad that they were dangerous. 1. People who would venture these roads would often sign wills and pray with family members before embarking. 2. As a result, towns seemed to cluster around slow, navigable water sources, like gentle rivers, or by the ocean. ii. Taverns and bars sprang up to serve weary travelers and were great places of gossip and news. iv. An inter-colonial mail system was set up in the mid-1700s, but mailmen often passed time by reading private letters, since there was nothing else to do. VII. Dominant Denominations i. Two “established churches” (tax-supported) by 1775 were the Anglican and the Congregational. ii. A great majority of people didn’t worship in churches. iii. The Church of England (Anglican) was official in Georgia, both Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and a part of New York. . Anglican sermons were shorter, its descriptions of hell were less frightening, and amusements were less scorned. 2. For Anglicans, not having a resident bishop proved to be a problem for unordained young ministers. 3. So, William and Mary was founded in 1693 to train young clergy members. iv. The Congregational church had grown from the Puritan church, and it was established in all the New England colonies except for Rhode Island. 1. There was worry by the late 1600s that people weren’t devout enough. VIII. The Great Awakening i.

    Due to less religious fervor than before, and worry that so many people would not be saved, the stage was set for a revival, which occurred, and became the First Great Awakening. ii. Jonathan Edwards was a preacher with fiery preaching methods, emotionally moving many listeners to tears while talking of the eternal damnation that nonbelievers would face after death. 1. He began preaching in 1734, and his methods sparked debate among his peers. 2. Most famous sermon was “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” describing a man dangling a spider over a blazing fire, able to drop the spider in at any time – just as God could do to man. . His famous metaphor: “The road to hell is paved with the skulls of unbaptized children. ” iii. George Whitefield was even better than Edwards when he started four years later. 1. An orator of rare gifts, he even made Jonathan Edwards weep and persuaded always skeptical Ben Franklin to empty his pockets into the collection plate. 2. Imitators copied his emotional shaking sermons and his heaping of blame on sinners. iv. These new preachers were met with skepticism by the “old lights,” or the orthodox clergymen. v.

    However, the Great Awakening led to the founding of “new light” centers like Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth. vi. The Great Awakening was the first religious experience shared by all Americans as a group. IX. Schools and Colleges i. Education was most important in New England, where it was used to train young future clergymen. 1. In other parts of America, farm labor used up most of the time that would have been spent in school. However, there were fairly adequate primary and secondary schools in areas other than New England. The only problem was that only well-to-do children could afford to attend. i. In a gloomy and grim atmosphere, colonial schools put most of the emphasis on religion and on the classical languages, as well as doctrine and orthodoxy. 1. Discipline was quite severe, such as a child being cut by a limb from a birch tree. iii. Also, at least in New England, college education was regarded more important than the ABC’s. iv. Eventually, some change was made with emphasis of curriculum change from dead languages to live ones, and Ben Franklin helped by launching the school that would become the University of Pennsylvania. X. A Provincial Culture 22

    AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 i. Though there was little time for recreation (due to farm work, fear of Indians, etc…), the little free time that was there was used on religion, not art. ii. Painters were frowned upon as pursuing a worthless pastime. 1. John Trumbull of Connecticut was discouraged, as a youth, by his father. 2. Charles Willson Peale, best know for his portraits of George Washington, also ran a museum, stuffed birds, and practiced dentistry in addition to his art. 3.

    Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley had to go to England to complete their ambitious careers. iii. Architecture was largely imported from the Old World and modified to meet American needs. 1. The log cabin was borrowed from Sweden. 2. The classical, red-bricked Georgian style of architecture was introduced about 1720. iv. Colonial literature was also generally undistinguished. 1. However, a slave girl, Phillis Wheatley, who had never been formally educated, did go to Britain and publish a book of verse and subsequently wrote other polished poems that revealed the influence of Alexander Pope. . Ben Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac was very influential, containing many common sayings and phrases, and was more widely read in America and Europe than anything but for the Bible. a. Ben Franklin’s experiments with science, and his sheer power of observation, also helped advance science. XI. Pioneer Presses i. Few libraries were found in early America, and few Americans were rich enough to buy books. ii. On the eve of the revolution, many hand-operated presses cranked out leaflets, pamphlets, and journals signed with pseudonyms. iii.

    In one famous case, John Peter Zenger, a New York newspaper printer, was taken to court and charged with seditious libel (writing in a malicious manner against someone). 1. The judge urged the jury to consider that the mere fact of publishing was a crime, no matter whether the content was derogatory or not. 2. Zenger won after his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, excellently defended his case. 3. The importance—freedom of the press scored a huge early victory in this case. XII. The Great Game of Politics i. By 1775, eight of the colonies had royal governors who were appointed by the king. ii. Three had governors chosen by proprietors. ii. Practically every colony utilized a two-house legislative body. 1. The upper house was appointed by royal officials or proprietors. 2. The lower house was elected by the people. iv. Self-taxation with representation came to be a cherished privilege that Americans came to value above most other rights. v. Most governors did a good job, but some were just plain corrupt. 1. I. e. , Lord Cornbury, first cousin of Queen Anne, was made governor of New York and New Jersey in 1702, but proved to be a drunkard, a spendthrift, a grafter, and embezzler, a religious bigot, a cross-dresser, and a vain fool. vi.

    The right to vote was not available to just anyone, just white male landowners only. 1. However, the ease of acquiring land to hard workers made voting a privilege easily attainable to many people in this group. XIII. Colonial Folkways i. Americans had many hardships, as many basic amenities that we have today were not available. 1. Churches weren’t heated at all. 2. Running water or plumbing in houses was nonexistent. 3. Garbage disposal was primitive at best. ii. Yet, amusement was permitted, and people often worked/partied during house-raisings, barnraisings, apple-parings, quilting bees, husking bees, and other merrymaking. ii. In the South, card playing, horse racing, cockfighting, and fox hunting were fun. iv. Lotteries were universally approved, even by the clergy because they helped raise money for churches and colleges. v. Stage plays were popular in the South, but not really in the North. vi. Holidays were celebrated everywhere in the colonies (New England didn’t like Christmas, though). vii. America in 1775 was like a quilt, each part different and individual in its own way, but all coming together to form one single, unified piece. XIV. Makers of America: The Scots-Irish 23

    AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 i. Life for the Scots was miserable in England, as many were extremely poor, and Britain still taxed them, squeezing the last cent out of them. ii. Migrating to Ulster, in Ireland, the Scots still felt unwelcome, and eventually came to America. iii. They constantly tried to further themselves away from Britain. 1. Most went to Pennsylvania, where tolerance was high. iv. The Scots-Irish were many of America’s pioneers, clearing the trails for others to follow. v.

    Otherwise independent, religion was the only thing that bonded these people (Presbyterian). vi. Their hatred of England made them great allies and supporters of the United States during the Revolutionary War. Chapter 5 Vocabulary Jonathan Edwards – Jonathan Edwards was an American theologian and Congregational clergyman whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is best known for his Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God sermon. Benjamin Franklin – He was born January 17, 1706 in Boston, Massachusetts. Franklin taught himself math, history, science, English, and five other languages.

    He owned a successful printing and publishing company in Philadelphia. He conducted studies of electricity, invented bifocal glasses, the lightning rod, and the stove. He was an important diplomat and statesman and eventually signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour – French settler of America in the 1770s, he posed the question, “What then, is this American? ” after seeing people in America like he had never seen before. An American had really become a mixture of many nationalities.

    George Whitefield – Whitefield came into the picture in 1738 during the 1st Great Awakening, which was a religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a passionate style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy. John Peter Zenger – Zenger was a newspaper printer in the eighteenth century.

    Using the power of the press, he protested the royal governor in 1734-35. He was put on trial for this “act of treason. ” The jury went against the royal governor and ruled Zenger innocent, since what he’d written was true. This set the standards for democracy and, most importantly, for the freedom of the press. Phillis Wheatley – Born around 1753, Wheatley was a slave girl who became a poet. At age eight, she was brought to Boston. Although she had no formal education, Wheatley was taken to England at age twenty and published a book of poetry. John S.

    Copley – Copley was a famous Revolution era painter. Copley had to travel to England to finish his study of the arts. Only in the Old World could Copley find subjects with the leisure time required to be painted, and the money needed to pay him for it. Although he was an American citizen, he was loyal to England during the Revolution. Paxton Boys – They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks (similar to Nathaniel Bacon of 1676). They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764.

    They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina. Regulator Movement – It was a movement during the 1760’s by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists. Great Awakening – The Great Awakening was a religious revival occurring in the 1730’s and 1740’s to motivate the souls of colonial America.

    Motivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together. Catawba Nation – A group of the remains of several different Indian tribes that joined together in the late 1700’s. The Catawba Nation was in the Southern Piedmont region of the Carolinas. Forced migration made the Indians join in this group. Old and New Lights – In the early 1700’s, old lights were simply orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary. New lights were the more modern-preaching members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening.

    These conflicting opinions changed certain denominations, helped popularize missionary work and assisted in founding many universities now known as Ivy League schools Triangular trade – The triangular trade was a small, profitable trading route started by people in (1) New England who would barter a product to get slaves in (2) Africa, and then sell them to the (3) West Indies in order to get molasses to make rum which would be shipped north to New England. This form of trading was used by New Englanders in conjunction with other countries in the 1750’s.

    Molasses Act – A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Along with the Navigation Acts, the Molasses Act was part of Britain’s policy of mercantilism. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade through bribery and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws helped lead to revolution. Scots-Irish – A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression.

    They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of 24 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors. Chapter 6 The Duel for North America I. France Finds a Foothold in Canada i. Like England and Holland, France was a latecomer in the race for colonies. . It was convulsed in the 1500s by foreign wars and domestic strife. b. In 1598, the Edict of Nantes was issued, allowing limited toleration to the French Huguenots. ii. When King Louis XIV became king, he took an interest in overseas colonies. a. In 1608, France established Quebec, overlooking the St. Lawrence River. iii. Samuel de Champlain, an intrepid soldier and explorer, became known as the “Father of New France. ” a. He entered into friendly relations with the neighboring Huron Indians and helped them defeated the Iroquois. b.

    The Iroquois, however, did hamper French efforts into the Ohio Valley later. iv. Unlike English colonists, French colonists didn’t immigrate to North America by hordes. The peasants were too poor, and the Huguenots weren’t allowed to leave. New France Fans Out i. New France’s (Canada) one valuable resource was the beaver. ii. Beaver hunters were known as the coureurs de bois (runners of the woods) and littered the land with place names, including Baton Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (high land), Des Moines (some monks) and Grand Teton (big breasts). iii.

    The French voyageurs also recruited Indians to hunt for beaver as well, but Indians were decimated by the white man’s diseases, and the beaver population was heavily extinguished. iv. French Catholic missionaries zealously tried to convert Indians. v. To thwart English settlers from pushing into the Ohio Valley, Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit (“city of straits”) in 1701. vi. Louisiana was founded, in 1682, by Robert de LaSalle, to halt Spanish expansion into the area near the Gulf of Mexico. a. Three years later, he tried to fulfill his dreams by returning, but instead landed in Spanish Texas and was murdered by his mutinous men in 1687. ii. The fertile Illinois country, where the French established forts and trading posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes, became the garden of France’s North American empire. The Clash of Empires i. King William’s War and Queen Anne’s War a. The English colonists fought the French coureurs de bois and their Indian allies. i. Neither side considered America important enough to waste real troops on. b. The French-inspired Indians ravaged Schenectady, New York, and Deerfield, Mass. c. The British did try to capture Quebec and Montreal, failed, but did temporarily have Port Royal. . The peace deal in Utrecht in 1713 gave Acadia (renamed Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to England, pinching the French settlements by the St. Lawrence. It also gave Britain limited trading rights with Spanish America. ii. The War of Jenkins’s Ear a. An English Captain named Jenkins had his ear cut off by a Spanish commander, who had essentially sneered at him to go home crying. b. This war was confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia. 25 II. III. AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851

    IV. V. VI. VII. This war soon merged with the War of Austrian Succession and came to be called King George’s War in America. d. France allied itself with Spain, but England’s troops captured the reputed impregnable fortress of Cape Breton Island (Fort Louisbourg). e. However, peace terms of this war gave strategically located Louisbourg, which the New Englanders had captured, back to France, outraging the colonists, who feared the fort. George Washington Inaugurates War with France i. The Ohio Valley became a battleground among the Spanish, British, and French. . It was lush, fertile, and very good land. ii. In 1754, the governor of Virginia sent 21 year-old George Washington to the Ohio country as a lieutenant colonel in command of about 150 Virginia minutemen. a. Encountering some Frenchmen in the forest about 40 miles from Fort Duquesne, the troops opened fire, killing the French leader. b. Later, the French returned and surrounded Washington’s hastily constructed Fort Necessity, fought “Indian style” (hiding and guerilla fighting), and after a 10-hour siege, made him surrender. . He was permitted to march his men away with the full honors of war. Global War and Colonial Disunity i. The fourth of these wars between empires started in America, unlike the first three. ii. The French and Indian War (AKA Seven Years’ War) began with Washington’s battle with the French. iii. It was England and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. iv. In Germany (Prussia), Fredrick the Great won his title of “Great” by repelling French, Austrian, and Russian armies, even though he was badly outnumbered. v.

    Many Americans sought for the American colonies to unite, for strength lay in numbers. vi. In 1754, 7 of the 13 colonies met for an inter-colonial congress held in Albany, New York, known simply as The Albany Congress. 1. A month before the congress, Ben Franklin had published his famous “Join or Die” cartoon featuring a snake in pieces, symbolizing the colonies. 2. Franklin helped unite the colonists in Albany, but the Albany plan failed because the states were reluctant to give up their sovereignty or power. Still, it was a first step toward unity. Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath i.

    In the beginning, the British sent haughty 60 year-old General Edward Braddock to lead a bunch of inexperienced soldiers with slow, heavy artillery. ii. In a battle with the French, the British were ambushed routed by French using “Indian-tactics. ” a. In this battle, Washington reportedly had two horses shot from under him and four bullets go through his coat, but never through him. iii. Afterwards, the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina felt the Indian wrath, as scalping occurred everywhere. iv. As the British tried to attack a bunch of strategic wilderness posts, defeat after defeat piled up.

    Pitt’s Palms of Victory i. In this hour of British trouble, William Pitt, the “Great Commoner,” took the lead. ii. In 1757, he became a foremost leader in the London government and later earned the title of “Organizer of Victory” iii. Changes Pitt made… 1. He soft-pedaled assaults on the French West Indies, assaults which sapped British strength, and concentrated on Quebec-Montreal (since they controlled the supply routes to New France). 2. He replaced old, cautious officers with younger, daring officers iv. In 1758, Louisbourg fell. This root of a fort began to wither the New France vine since supplies dwindled. . 32 year-old James Wolfe, dashing and attentive to detail, commanded an army that boldly scaled the cliff walls of a part protecting Quebec, met French troops near the Plains of Abraham, and in a battle in which he and French commander Marquis de Montcalm both died, the French were defeated and the city of Quebec surrendered. a. The 1759 Battle of Quebec ranks as one of the most significant engagements in British and American history, and when Montreal fell in 1760, that was the last time French flags would fly on American soil. vi. In the Peace Treaty at Paris in 1763… 26 . AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 VIII. IX. X. France was totally kicked out of North America. This meant the British got Canada and the land all the way to the Mississippi River. 2. The French were allowed to retain several small but valuable sugar islands in the West Indies and two never-to-be-fortified islets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence for fishing stations. vii. France’s final blow came when they gave Louisiana to Spain to compensate for Spain’s losses in the war. a.

    Great Britain took its place as the leading naval power in the world, and a great power in North America. Restless Colonists i. The colonists, having experienced war firsthand and come out victors, were very confident. a. However, the myth of British invincibility had been shattered. ii. Ominously, friction developed between the British officers and the colonial “boors. ” a. I. e. , the British refused to recognize any American officers above the rank of captain. b. However, the hardworking Americans believed that they were equals with the Redcoats, and trouble began to brew. ii. Brits were concerned about American secret trade with enemy traders during the war; in fact, in the last year of the war, the British forbade the export of all supplies from New England to the middle colonies. iv. Also, many American colonials refused to help fight the French until Pitt offered to reimburse them. v. During the French and Indian War, though, Americans from different parts of the colonies found, surprisingly to them, that they had a lot in common (language, tradition, ideals) and barriers of disunity began to melt. War’s Fateful Aftermath i.

    Now that the French had been beaten, the colonists could now roam freely, and were less dependent upon Great Britain. ii. The French consoled themselves with the thought that if they could lose such a great empire, maybe the British would one day lose theirs too. iii. Spain was eliminated from Florida, and the Indians could no longer play the European powers against each other, since it was only Great Britain in control now. iv. In 1763, Ottawa Chief Pontiac led a few French-allied tribes in a brief but bloody campaign through the Ohio Valley, but the whites quickly and cruelly retaliated after being caught off guard. . One commander ordered blankets infected with smallpox to be distributed. b. The violence convinced whites to station troops along the frontier. v. Now, land-hungry Americans could now settle west of the Appalachians, but in 1763, Parliament issued its Proclamation of 1763, prohibiting any settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians. a. Actually, this document was meant to work out the Indian problem by drawing the “out-of-bounds” line. But, colonists saw it as another form of oppression from a far away country. Americans asked, “Didn’t we just fight a war to win that land? ” b.

    In 1765, an estimated one thousand wagons rolled through the town of Salisbury, North Carolina, on their way “up west” in defiance of the Proclamation. vi. The British, proud and haughty, were in no way to accept this blatant disobedience by the lowly Americans, and the stage was set for the Revolutionary War. Makers of America: The French i. Louis XIV envisioned a French empire in North America, but defeats in 1713 and 1763 snuffed that out. ii. The first French to leave Canada were the Acadians. a. The British who had won that area had demanded that all residents either swear allegiance to Britain or leave. . In 1755, they were forcefully expelled from the region. iii. The Acadians fled far south to the French colony of Louisiana, where they settled among sleepy bayous, planted sugar cane and sweet potatoes, and practiced Roman Catholicism. a. They also spoke a French dialect that came to be called Cajun. b. Cajuns married the Spanish, French, and Germans. c . They were largely isolated in large families until the 1930s, when a bridgebuilding spree engineered by Governor Huey Long, broke the isolation of these bayou communities. iv.

    In 1763, a second group of French settlers in Quebec began to leave, heading toward New England because poor harvests led to lack of food in Quebec because… a. The people hoped to return to Canada someday. 27 1. AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. lulu. com/content/310851 b. They notably preserved their Roman Catholicism and their language. c. Yet today, almost all Cajuns and New England French-Canadians speak English. v. Today, Quebec is the only sign of French existence that once ruled. . French culture is strong there in the form of road signs, classrooms, courts, and markets, eloquently testifying to the continued vitality of French culture in North America. Chapter 6 Vocabulary Samuel de Champlain — French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his latter settlement of Quebec. William Pitt — British leader between 1757-1758.

    He was a leader in the London government earning himself the name, “Organizer of Victory” for his leadership in changing the direction and organization of the French & Indian War. Pittsburg was named after him. Robert de La Salle — French explorer who named Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi River to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the beautiful river valley, named Louisiana after his king, Louis XIV, in 1682. James Wolfe — British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, Wolfe was killed in the line of duty.

    This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War. Edward Braddock — British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians who fought “Indian Style of Warfare” (guerilla warfare hiding behind trees and rocks) At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded. Pontiac — Indian Chief who led a post-war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763. His actions led to the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade American settlements across the Appalachians and infuriated Americans who felt they’d just fought a war to win that land.

    Huguenots — French Protestants that lived from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and the principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group was royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted. Nevertheless, they continued to grow, were persecuted, then fled to the New World. French and Indian War – A war that generally saw the French and Indians team up against English and Americans. I took place on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley.

    The English defeated the French in 1763. Historical significance lay in the facts that (1) it established England as the number one world power, (2) France was totally kicked out of North America, (3) England/America gained the land all the way to the Mississippi River, and (4) subsequent events began to gradually change the attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse. Albany Congress — A conference in the United States colonies from June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French.

    Ben Franklin was the famous proponent of the idea with his “Join or Die” disjointed snake cartoon. Eventually, unity was NOT achieved though, as the colonies didn’t want to give up their independence and sovereignty to a national group. Proclamation of 1763 — An English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The colonists felt betrayed by the act thinking they’d just fought the war for the land then were not allowed to settle there.

    The Proclamation of 1763 caused the first major revolt against the British. Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution I. The Deep Roots of Revolution 1. In a broad sense, the American Revolution began when the first colonists set foot on America. 2. The war may have lasted for eight years, but a sense of independence had already begun to develop because London was over 3,000 miles away. a. Sailing across the Atlantic in a ship often took 6 to 8 weeks. b. Survivors felt physically and spiritually separated from Europe. 28 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at www. ulu. com/content/310851 II. Colonists in America, without influence from superiors, felt that they were fundamentally different from England, and more independent. d. Many began to think of themselves as Americans, and that they were on the cutting edge of the British empire. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances 1. Of the 13 original colonies, only Georgia was formally planted by the British government. The rest were started by companies, religious groups, land speculators, etc… 2. The British embraced a theory that justified their control of the colonies called mercantilism: a.

    A country’s economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. b. To amass gold and silver, a country had to export more than it imported (it had to obtain a favorable balance of trade). c. Countries with colonies were at an advantage, because the colonies could supply the mother country with raw materials, wealth, supplies, a market for selling manufactured goods etc… d. For America, that meant giving Britain all the ships, ships’ stores, sailors, and trade that they needed and wanted. e. Also, they had to grow tobacco and sugar for England that Brits would otherwise have to buy from other countries. . England’s policy of mercantilism severely handcuffed American trade. a. The Navigation Laws were the most infamous of the laws to enforce mercantilism. a. The first of these was enacted in 1650, and was aimed at rival Dutch shippers who were elbowing their way into the American shipping. b. The Navigation Laws restricted commerce from the colonies to England (and back) to only English ships, and none other. c. Other laws stated that European goods consigned to America had to land first in England, where custom duties could be collected. d. Also, some products, “enumerated goods,” could only be shipped to England. . Settlers were even restricted in what they could manufacture at home; they couldn’t make woolen cloth and beaver hats to export (though, they could make them for themselves). c. Americans had no currency, but they were constantly buying things from Britain, so that gold and silver was constantly draining out of America, forcing some to even trade and barter. Eventually, the colonists were forced to print paper money, which depreciated. c. d. Colonial laws could be voided by the Privy Council, though this privilege was used sparingly (469 times out of 8,563 laws).

    Still, colonists were infuriated by its use. III. The Merits and Menace of Mercantilism a. Merits of mercantilism: 1. The Navigation Laws were hated, but until 1763, they were not really enforced much, resulting in widespread smuggling. This lack of enforcement is called “salutary neglect. ” a. In fact, John Hancock amassed a fortune through smuggling. 2. Tobacco planters, though they couldn’t ship it to anywhere except Britain, still had a monopoly within the British market. 3. Americans had unusual opportunities for self-government. 4.

    Americans also had the mightiest army in the world in Britain, and didn’t have to pay for it. a. After independence, the U. S. had to pay for a tiny army and navy. 5. Basically, the Americans had it made: even repressive laws weren’t enforced much, and the average American benefited much more than the average Englishman. a. The mistakes that occurred didn’t occur out of malice, at least until the revolution. b. Also, France and Spain embraced mercantilism, and enforced it heavily. b. Menace of mercantilism: 1. After Britain began to enforce mercantilism in 1763, the fuse for the American Revolution was lit. . Disadvantages of mercantilism included: a. Americans couldn’t buy, sell, ship, or manufacture under their most favorable conditions. b. The South, which produced crops that weren’t grown in England, was preferred over the North. i. Virginia, which grew just tobacco, was at the mercy of the British buyers, who often paid very poorly and were responsible for putting many planters into debt. c. Many colonists felt that Britain was just milking her colonies for all they were worth. 29 AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in

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