Full name Ell McGregor-Coalman Address 12 Mulberry Road Chippendale Wiltshire SONS PIP student number 81051725 Unit / Title – Understanding development and supporting equality, diversity and inclusion Question 1 a. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 years From the very moment a baby is born, they are continually growing, developing and learning. All children follow a similar pattern of development, however, it can be at a different rate. A child’s milestones can be measured through various aspects of development, such as physical, cognitive, language, emotional and social skills.
Below is a guide to how milestones are measured, and the relevant age ranges: O – 6 months Physical Turn head towards noise or movement Smile at familiar faces and voices Lifts head briefly Put everything in their mouths Reaches up for an object Cognitive Gains comfort from sucking objects such as a dummy or a finger Learns through touch when feeding Watches mother whilst feeding Language Responds to sounds and music Responds to careers voice Imitates careers facial expressions Makes little ‘happy sounds such as cooing Different cries for feeding, nappy changing, hungry, etc Emotional and social
Responds to mothers face when feeding Becomes peaceful when held or cuddled Smiles when wanting play attention 6- 12 months Go from sitting with support to sitting alone Turn when their name is called Starts to crawl or shuffle Rolls over from tummy to their back Holds arms up to be picked up Enjoys repetition of songs and rhymes Learns to go around, under or over objects Enjoys books with big pictures Laughs when happy Shows feeling by laughing or crying Starts to babble Starts to use one word at a time such as no, yes or bye bye Plays games like Peek – a – boo Is affectionate with people they know
Can be wary of strangers 1 – 2 years Starts to walk Starts to feed themselves Holds crayon and is able to make marks on a piece of paper Shakes head to mean ‘no’ Crawls up the stairs Enjoys turning pages in a book Learns to match up objects by color or size Imitates your actions with a doll such as feeding or giving them a bottle Points to pictures or parts of the body they recognize Understands key words Starts to copy careers when they speak Can use 30 to 150 words Performs to please people Plays well with other children Can be distracted to avoid misbehaver Can become upset and anxious if separated from known person -3 years Kicks a ball Throws a ball Kneels down when playing Can use pencil crayons to make marks on a piece of paper Builds tall constructions with blocks Vivid imagination such as imaginary friends and pretend play Learns to count and understand numbers Can understand simple stories Uses words to make a sentence Can sing well known songs and rhymes Begins asking questions like ‘why? Can use 150 plus words Becomes more confident and independent Likely to have tantrums Unlikely to share with others Becomes jealous if attention shown elsewhere 3-5 years Walks on tip toes Walks up and down the stairs Jumps with feet together Can use a pencil to draw basic structures Can sort objects by size, color and shape Understands simple commands Begins to understand the difference between right and wrong Can understand and answer simple questions Can use 1000 – 1500 words Begins to recognize some written words Questions become more complex Can use current and past tense Can recite familiar stories you’ve read to them Is becoming independent and self motivated Plays with children and able to share Shows concern for others Understands rules but maybe still struggle with taking turns 5-7 years physical
Rides a bicycle Jumps and climbs confidently Copies shapes and letters Hops and skips Can understand different perspectives Understands that differences exist in every day life Can be cooperative and competitive Understands the concept of today, tomorrow and yesterday Can make up stories Understands the rules of conversation and is able to talk and listen Reads books well Can define objects by their use Helps others and takes responsibility Makes lots of short term friends Still needs help resolving problems Compares themselves against others expectations 7- 12 years Enjoys playing team games Can run, jump, hop, skip, climb and swing Understands certain behavior is not acceptable and why it is not Has a good sense of what is fair and just Speaks fluently and correctly Help still required with complex spellings Understands grammar and tenses Less dependent on adults Starts to form close relationships Can cope better in the wider world Strongly influenced by peer group 12- arrears Bodily changes are taking place Boys – deeper voice and body hair growth Girls – Pubic hair growth and womanly curves appearing Begin to question their beliefs, their standing in the community and with family
Have more freedom and independence Arguing, sarcasm and witticism skills improve Reasoning and decision skills improve Challenges solutions made by adults Anticipates consequences Uncertain and sensitive Self conscious and concerned with body image Strong desire for independence away from the family Shows interest in the opposite sex 16- 19 years Girls – Has reached almost full height and has the body of a woman Boys – Penis growth and muscle growth are almost complete Takes responsibility for finance, employment and relationships Connects world wide issues to their every day thinking Enjoys taking part in debates to voice their opinion Can think logically about most things Spends more time with friends than family Peer pressure a huge influence Self esteem can be effected by body changes Starts to think ahead and plan their future b. Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important The sequence of development details the development milestones. This shows the average age a child should be carrying out specific physical and mental abilities that mark the end of one development period and the beginning of another. Child development. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Child_developmentDevelopmental_milestones The rate of development details the speed at which a child reaches the development milestones. This involves a delay in an age-specific ability for important developmental milestones. Developmental delays should be diagnosed by comparison with characteristic variability of a milestone, not with respect to average age at achievement. Child development. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Child_defenestration’s_issues_and_methods It is important to realism the difference between sequence and rate of placement because all children are individuals and develop at different speeds.
The sequence of development is a guideline only and should not be used as an exact science. Many things can influence the speed of development such as environment, family situations, disability, medical conditions, etc. A child living in a high risk environment, is likely to develop slower than a child in a low risk environment. Their development can be delayed and this can mean they do not reach the relevant milestones at the recommended stage. C. Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practices There are many who have theories on child development, which refers to the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur between birth and adulthood.
There are theories in many and varied subjects, and shown below are a few of the theorists on child development: He was a Swiss theorist who posited that children learn actively through the play process. He suggested that the adult’s role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials for the child to interact and construct. Pigged. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Child_developmentally He used 4 stages to show the relevant development. These were: Sensor motor – up to the age of 2, the child learns about himself and the environment through motor and reflex actions. Thought derives from sensation and movement. Operational – from the age of starting to talk to the age of 7, the child applies his knowledge of language to use symbols to represent objects.
Concrete – from age 5 to early adolescence, the child is able to think abstractly and to make rational judgments. Formal operations – by adolescence, the child no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments. Pigged. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Child_developmentally Viscosity He was a theorist who worked during the first decades of the former Soviet Union. He posited that children learn through hands-on experience, as Pigged suggested. However, unlike Pigged, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the zone of proximal development) could help children learn new tasks. Viscosity. Http://en. Wisped. Rig/wick/Child_developmentVygotsky Interiors She believed that education was built upon the idea that children develop and think differently from adults; that they are not merely “adults in small bodies”. Dry. Interiors advocated children’s rights, children working to develop themselves into adults, and that these developments would lead to world peace. Interiors. Http://schoolchildren. Net/2010/11 [intellectual-development -theory-Maria-interiors- 1870-1952 More recent ideas are shown in the FEES and the National curriculum. These have been designed to take into account learning’s from the theorists. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYES) is based around four themes A Unique Child. Positive Relationships. Enabling Environments. Learning and Development. Each theme is linked to an important Principle
A Unique Child – Every child is a competent learner from birth who can be resilient, capable, confident and self-assured Positive Relationships – Children learn to be strong and independent from a base of loving and secure relationships with parents and/or a key person Enabling Environments – The environment plays a key role in supporting and extending children’s development and learning Learning and Development – Children develop and learn in different ways and at different rates and all areas of Learning and Development are equally The Department for Education – The National Strategies. Http://inconsiderateness. Tankards. Docs. Gob. UK/node/83936 The National Curriculum is a framework used by all maintained schools to ensure that teaching and learning is balanced and consistent.
It sets out: the subjects taught the knowledge, skills and understanding required in each subject standards or attainment targets in each subject – teachers can use these to measure your child’s progress and plan the next steps in their learning how your child’s progress is assessed and reported Schools are then free to plan their teaching around the framework, to meet the needs of the children. The teachings from theorists, along with current practices how that there are 3 main theories from which children develop. It shows that theorists learning and current practices have been combined and both are deemed as relevant and accurate. They are: Biological – a child develops to a preset pattern and everything is learnt at set stages and ages.
A child gets its traits, intelligence and personality from it’s parents Learning – a child develops from contact with others. A child learns to mimic reactions and learns through their experiences Psychoanalytic – a child learns through both biological and learning methods. A child learns through preset ideas and also learning from the environment The EYES and curriculum framework effect current practices by treating each child as unique. Each child is treated as an individual and not judged by their age and even though they develop at a different rate, they are taught equally. Children learn through their environment and relationships, they play and develop side by side, but all at different rates.
Schools all have targets and each child is monitored and progress recorded to show their development. Understanding the National Curriculum. Http://www. Direct. Gob. UK/en/Parents /Schoolslearninganddevelopment/ExamsTestsAndTheCurriculum/G_4016665 d. Explain how the different types of intervention can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern. Lack of appropriate stimulation in the early years may result in language delay and together with inappropriate child-rearing practices, especially if characterized by neglect or inconsistency, may lead to emotional or behavioral disorders.
Appropriate parenting styles are fundamental to caring for children’s mental health. Http://www. Do. Gob. UK/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications ‘PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/Probable/DO_4868821 There are many early intervention services that can be used if there are worries over development. Each area of intervention would be able to introduce a plan of action to promote a positive outcome. These include: Audiologist – If a child has hearing difficulties, they would be seen within the Audiologist department. They would be able to access if the problem was due to something like ear wax, which could easily be treated or if they was an actual problem with the hearing organ itself.
Various test would be carried out to access the severity of the problem, and what course of action is needed to remedy it. This may be the removal of wax, an operation or hearing aids. The speech and language team may also be involved due to a possible delay in speech due to a hearing loss If a child cannot hear, their speech does not develop. Once hearing has been re-instated, the language can improve and social and emotional development will improve Education programmed – They cover issues such as bullying, neglect and child safety. A child will be given contact details of people they can contact at times of trouble. This will provide them with a safe haven so they know they are being listen to.
This will help the child’s self esteem and build inference. Occupation therapy – Helps children with physical difficulties due to medical conditions The child becomes more independent through physiotherapy and special equipment Speech and language – If a child has communication difficulties such as a cleft lip, hearing problems, delayed speech, autism or difficulty talking, a speech therapist can help. Children will learn to communicate better and improve their self esteem. They may be able to use alternative communication such as sign language. Nutritional services – If a child is under weight, over weight or malnourished, the nutritional services would be involved.
They would be able to assess whether the condition was due to a medical condition, food allergy or through lack of care. The child would be assessed and a remedy provided, such as an eating plan or specialist care. A child may have low self esteem and body worries which could be helped by an eating plan or diet. This would boost their self esteem and improve their appearance Intervention of any type will promote a positive outcome for the child involved. If a child is not developing properly due to a medical condition, bullying, neglect, or any other situation, they will feel that they are not keeping up with their peers. They may feel that they are not as clever and lack self esteem and confidence.