Achievement Scores: What Do They Mean?

Table of Content

High achievement scores usually indicate a mastery of grade-level material, and the readiness for advanced instruction. Low achievement scores can indicate the need for remediation or repeating a course grade. Before there used to be only four subject areas namely: English (30 percent) Mathematics (30 percent )Science, (30 percent) and Haskell-Hagiographer, Santayana at Sabina (10 percent) that are included in the test. Recently, Filipino was added and multiple choice type of options were used by shading the small circle beside it, checked by computers. Lightly shaded answers or erasures are taken as wrong.

The Communication Arts components of English and Filipino now include composition writing which shall be administered to sample schools only (Washings). Assessing student learning is something that every teacher has to do, usually quite frequently. Written tests, book reports, research papers, homework exercises, oral presentations, question-and-answer sessions, science projects, and art work of various sorts are just some of the ways in which teachers measure student learning, with written tests accounting for about 45 percent of a typical student’s course grade (Green & Stager, 1986, 1987).

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It is no surprise, then, that the typical teacher can spend between one-third and one- half of her class time engaging in one or another type of measurement activity Stinging, 1994). Yet, despite the amount of time teachers spend assessing student learning, it is a task that most of them dislike and that few do well. One reason is that many teachers have little or no in-depth knowledge of assessment principles (Rooks, 1988; Hills,1991; Stinging, Griswold & Weakened, 1989).

Another reason is that the role of an assessor is seen as being in assessment use more appropriate assessment practices that do teachers with less training (Green & Stager, 1986,1987), a basic goal of this chapter is to help them understand how such knowledge can be used to reinforce, rather than work against, their role as cheers. Broadly conceived, classroom assessment involves two major types of activities: collecting information about how much knowledge and skill students have learned (measurement) and making judgment and evaluation aspects of classroom assessment can be accomplishment in a number of ways.

To determine how much learning has occurred, teachers can, for example, have students take examinations, respond to oral questions, do homework exercises. Write exercises, write papers, solve problems, and make oral presentations. Teachers can then evaluate the scores from those activities by comparing hem either to one or to an absolute standard % correct). Assessment is a process by which information is obtained relative to some known objective or goal. Assessment is a broad term that includes testing. A test is a special form of assessment. Sets are assessments made under contrived circumstances especially so that they may be administrated. In other words, all tests are assessments, but not all assessments are tests. We test at the end of a lesson or unit (Morrison, 1996). Assessment in education aims to develop participant’s knowledge and understanding of key aspects of assessment, evaluation and agreement for educational purposes as well as their critical judgment in identifying and analyzing problems in assessment provision, policy and practice (Washings).

Measurement is the assignment of numbers to certain attributes of objects, events or people according to a rule-governed system. Evaluation involves using a rule-governed system to make judgments about the value or worth of a set of measures (Line and Ground, 1995). What does it mean, for example, to say that crudest answered eighty out of one hundred earth science questions correctly? Depending on the rules that are used, it could mean that the student as learned that body of knowledge exceeding well and is ready to progress to the next gaps and requires additional instruction.

Testing, in education, is an attempt to measure a person’s knowledge, intelligence, or other characteristics in a systematic way. There are many types of tests. Teachers give tests to discover the learning abilities of their students. They also give tests to see how well students have learned a particular subject. Some tests help people choose a vocation, and other tests help to understand their own personality. Testing often has far-reaching effects, and so it receives much attention from educators and social scientists.

Criticism has been directed both at the limitations of tests and at their influence (Washings). Some educators believe multiple-choice test penalize a student who expert knowledge of a subject. Such a student may see flaws in the answer generally accepted as correct. Other criticisms that standardized test discriminate against disadvantaged and minority groups. These students may be unfamiliar with words, terms, and concepts used in the tests. To give these students an equal chance, educators have tried to prepare culture-fair or culture- free tests.

Such test might consist of pictures, symbols, and Nonsense syllables that are equally unfamiliar to everyone taking the test. This type of test reduces the influence of cultural background on performance. Tests that use no words at all are called nonverbal tests. The general effect of testing on education has also caused concern. Standardized tests sometimes lag behind educational thought and practice. If tests do not measure the content of new syllabuses, they may fail to encourage educational progress. Many educators believe that there is at least some truth in criticisms of tests.

But they also know that testing is necessary in teaching. Tests can also tell a teacher what help a tuned needs most. No better way has been found to determine how much students have learned, what they seem able to learn, and how quickly they might learn it (Washings). Educational evaluation is the evaluation which are, at times, in conflict with one another. Educational institutions usually require evaluation data to demonstrate effectiveness to fenders and other stakeholders, and to provide a measure of performance for marketing purposes.

Educational evaluation is also a professional activity that individual educators need to undertake if they intend to continuously review and enhance the learning hey are endeavoring to facilitate. Evaluation is perhaps the most complex and least understood of the terms. Inherent in the idea of evaluation is “value. ” When we evaluate, what we are doing is engaging in Some process that is designed to provide information that will help us make a judgment about a given situation. Generally, any evaluation process requires information about the situation in question.

A situation is an umbrella term that takes into account such ideas as objectives, goals, standards, procedures, and so on. When we evaluate, we are saying that the process will yield information regarding the earthiness, appropriateness, goodness, validity, legality, etc. , of something for which a reliable measurement or assessment has been made. (Washings). The researcher is motivated to undertake this study because the information which may be needed by district supervisors and principals of the four central elementary schools as well as the Division officials is not readily available.

The researchers is a member of the teaching force of Milan Pilot Elementary School in the Municipality of Milan and he believes that the result of his study will be valuable information for me above-mentioned officials. Much more, he believes hat his findings could serve as baseline information for other studies that may be conducted. Statement of the Problem. This study was conducted to determine whether a correlation exists between the academic performances and the National Achievement Test(NAT) results of the grade six pupils of Milan Pilot Elementary School (MPEG) from school years 20010-2011, 2011-2012, and 2012-2013.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the academic performances in five subject areas of the grade six pupils of MPEG in the school years 20010-2011, 2011-2012, and 2012-2013.? 2. What are he National Achievement Test (NAT) results in five subject areas of the grade six pupils of MPEG for the years 20010-2011, 2011-2012, and 2012-20132 3. Is there a correlation between the academic performances and the NAT results in five subject areas of the grade six pupils of MPEG for school year 2010-2011? 4.

Is there a correlation between the academic performances and the NAT results in five subject areas of the grade six pupils of MPEG for school year 2011-2012? 5. Is there a correlation between the academic performances and the NAT results in five subject areas of the grade six pupils of MPEG for school year 2012-2013? Conceptual Framework This section presents the relationship between the variables in this study. In this study, the independent variables are the academic performances and the dependent variables are the NAT results. The diagram below shows the relationship between the variables Figure 1.

Schematic Diagram showing the relationship between the Independent variables and Dependent variables. Importance of the Study. The National Achievement Test (NAT) has been administered with the aim of acquiring factual information on the achievement level of the grade six to guide Curriculum planners, school administrators, especially teachers. The National Achievement Test (NAT) is a requirement for graduation of all grade six pupils (DECKS Order No. 30 3. 1995). The purpose of this study is determine the performance of the pupils and to provide information to the school administrators and teachers regarding pupils’ achievements.

Carrying out a research of this sort can bring countless blessings to the school’s stakeholders, the immediate beneficiary, for it will ascertain the strengths and weaknesses of the National Achievement Test examinees and so they can map out remediation and solutions to overcome their weakness and find ways and means to sustain heir strengths. The result of this research will have an immense contribution to school administrators, district supervisors, schools division superintendent and curriculum developers using the test results as the basis in developing and designing future curriculum.

Findings of the study will provide baseline data for education planners in the formulation of plans and policies. Apparently, the results may yield information that will serve as roadman in planning for future school operations. Finally the results of this study will enable the school administrators, teachers, pupils, parents and community people to understand heir roles and responsibilities in effecting quality education and to improve the present conditions of their respective schools.

They need to be aware of the different problems that arise in their learning milieu and be able to propose solutions for high academic performances and for the SUccess of the school operation. It is hoped therefore, that the information that will be gathered in this study will be of interest to the school and community in gaining better insights and that they will be able to sympathize, understand and give full cooperation and support to attain academic excellence. Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study covered all grade six pupils officially enrolled in Milan Pilot Elementary School. There were 2004 pupils school year 2010-2011, 198 pupils in school year 2011-2012 and 200 pupils in school year 2012-2013. Transferred-outs and drop-outs were excluded from the study. Definition of Terms. The following terms are defined for clearer and better understanding of the study. 1 . Milan Pilot Elementary School (MPEG). The biggest elementary school in Milan School District which is the subject of this study. 2. National Achievement Test (NAT).

The successor of NEAT which is used to measure the mastery level read six pupils of MPEG. 3. Academic Performance. In this study, it refers to the mean percentage scores of grade six pupils in five subject areas, English, Filipino, Science, Mathematics and HIKES. 4. Grade Six Pupils. The term refers to the pupils of the MPEG enrolled in school years 20010-2011, 2011-2012, and 2012-2013. They are the participants of this study. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents the literature that are related to this study.

Cameral (1996) revealed that the primary concern of teachers and school authorities is to attain quality education. Both teachers and school officials must provide adequate and substantial instructional materials to the learners in order to attain higher academic achievement. They are aware that the NEAT results show under par (p. 434). Under ” No Child Left Behind”, achievement tests have taken on an additional role of assessing proficiency of students. Proficiency is defined as “the amount of grade-appropriate knowledge and skills a student has acquired up to the point of testing. When writing achievement test items, writer usually begin with a list of content standards (either written by content specialists or based on state-created intent standards) which specify exactly what students are expected to learn in a given school year. The goal of item writers is to create test items that measure the most important skills and knowledge attained in a given grade-level. The number and type of test items written is determined by the representatives of the items included on the final test (Wisped,n. D. ).

According to Miguel(1994) , the DECKS will undertake national evaluation to assess the performance of the Philippine Educational System. The assessment to be done is intended to provide the basis of reform in which the government can evaluate its academic achievement (p. 27). The primary purpose of evaluating student learning is to assign grades. However, well-designed and well-executed evaluation can also incentive students and support self-regulated learning strategies. Research that properly used evaluation strategies can encourage students to keep up with the material and enhance academic engagement and achievement in college.

Therefore, evaluation of students learning is a very important component in course design and requires a lot of careful thought in planning (Wisped, n. D. ). The first thing for planning an evaluation of student learning is to articulate earning outcomes that instructions expect students to achieve Upon completion of their course. Having explicit learning objectives, and using to guide evaluation, helps instructors and students focus their efforts and enables to use their teaching-learning time more efficiently(Wisped, n. D. ).

Dollop (1998) enunciated that: The NEAT was introduced with the primary objective to assess how much the grade six pupils both public and private schools learned in four subject areas of Science, Mathematics, English(Language and Reading) and Hagiographer, Santayana at Sabina (HIKES). The linkage between learning objectives and valuation can be built using evaluation methods that many cognitive levels and topics defined by the learning objectives. Most evaluation methods can measure a wide spectrum of cognitive levels across various disciplines.

Some do better job in measuring high-level thinking skills, and some are more appropriate in one discipline that in other. Their pros and cons have to be weighed in the process of selection. Asana (1994) reasoned that “there are varied techniques of appraising pupils’ performances. ” He further stressed that “tests, regardless of their mode of delivery, are widely used because f their apparent advantages: wide sample of content, scoring efficiency and accuracy, and capability of a testing a large number of students….

Issues of guessing, cheating and over-testing recall-level thinking skill make test less desirable for that involve a lot of hands-on learning experience and focus heavily on student performance. (e. G. , art and music). ” A report disclosed in the internet stated that: Performance tasks, also known as authentic tests, assess a student’s demonstration of a skill or competence traditional test often failed to evaluate. By using this method, instructors require students to create a product, a reservation, or execute a performance. It can be time-consuming and labor- intensive.

However, with the help of modern technologies, performance- based evaluation are creatively used for both small and large size classes. For example, instead of asking each student to give a 10-minute presentation, the instructors can ask students to use audio-video capturing programs HTTPS://TTL. Storybook. Educe/baccalaureates/deed/evaluation’s/default’s). Macaroon (1994) commented that “educators analyze the present problems and issues besetting our educational system. ” Moreover, she added that “they just take measures to institute better education.

Education that can guide every individual learner, make him useful citizen so he can cope with the challenges in life” (p. 42). Wisped (n. D. ), a source of information from the internet divulged that many people think of evaluation as taking a snapshot of outcome at the end of a program to prove to a funded that it worked or failed. These same people don’t hold evaluation in much regard because they feel they are getting too little information too late in the day, especially if their program fell short of expectations or made no difference at all.

Evaluation can, and should, forever be used as an on going management and learning tool to improve an organization’s effectiveness. Further, it dined evaluation as a Periodic process of gathering data and then analyzing or ordering it in such a way that the resulting information can be used to determine whether your organization or program is effectively carrying out planned activities, and the extent to which it is achieving its stated objectives and anticipated results.

Moreover, it suggested that Managers can and should conduct internal evaluations to get information about their programs so that they can make sound decisions about the implementation f those programs. Internal evaluation should be conducted on an going basis and applied conscientiously by managers at every level of an organization in all program areas. In addition, all of the program’s participants ( manager, staff, and beneficiaries) should be involved in the evaluation process in appropriate ways.

This collaboration helps ensure that the evaluation is fully participatory and builds commitment on the part of all involved to use the results to make critical program improvements. However, the internet source admonished that Although most evaluations are done internally, conducted by and for program managers and staff, there is still a need for large-scale, external evaluations conducted periodically by individuals from outside the program or organization.

Most often these external evaluations are required for funding purposes or to answer questions about the program’s long-term impact by looking at changes in demographic indicators such as graduation rate poverty level. In addition, occasionally a manager may request an external evaluation to assess programmatic or operating problems that have been identified but that cannot be fully diagnosed or resolved through the findings of internal evaluation.

Finally, it recommended that Program in evaluation, if conducted on a regular basis, can greatly improve the management and effectiveness of the organization and its programs. To do so requires understanding the differences between monitoring and evaluation, making evaluation an integral part of regular program planning and implementation, and collecting different types of information needed by managers at different levels of organization (Wisped n. D. ). Types of Teaching Assessment There are three types of teaching assessment: 1 .

Formative assessment records development in progress, rather than employed development. It is an ongoing part of classroom activity, it is cumulative and provides information which informs teachers’ future planning. This forms part of ongoing teacher assessment in the class. 2. Summation assessment summarizes completed learning. This type of assessment usually takes place at the end of a period of teaching, such as at the end of the topic, the end of a year or the end of a key stage.

Summation assessment statements may be compiled using information from formative assessments in addition to formal tests taken at given points within pupil’s school careers. 3. Assessment or learning, an extension of formative assessment, is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are their in learning, where they need to go and how best to get there. It should be ongoing and part of effective learning and teaching. Assessment for learning uses assessment in the classroom to raise pupils’ achievement.

It is based on the principle that pupils will improve most if they understand the aim of their learning, where they are in relation to this aim and how they can achieve them. Http://www. Interacting. Org. UK/those/education yourteachingassessment. Asp). Accordingly, it is important that, having planned activities that will provide opportunities for learning, teachers are able to assess to what degree learning has actually occurred, before moving pupils on to the next stage in r understanding.

Achievement testing, according to a report, “plays an important role in the school program, and published achievement tests are widely used at both the elementary and secondary school levels. There are hundreds of published achievement tests available for use. In addition, in recent years, a number of states and districts have introduced their own testing and assessments to their specifications. Hence, it is important to understand the strengths and weakness of these tests” (http://WAP. Prenatal. Com/chat -miller- measurement). He report further clarified that ” a standardized achievement test has certain distinctive features, including a fixed set of test items designed to measure a clearly defined achievement domain, specific directions for administering and scoring the test, and norms based on representative groups of individuals like those for whom the test was designed. ” However, no two tests are exactly alike. Much of the criticisms, according to the report ” can e related to misuses of results. Too often standardized tests are expected to serve functions for which they were never intended or for which they are poorly suited. Accordingly, the reported added, “standardized achievement tests are frequently used in the form of survey test batteries. A battery consists of a series of individual test all standardized on the same national sample of students. ” Furthermore, the report noted that ‘While achievement test batteries traditionally were designed as survey tests, test publishers have taken steps to make the test results of achievement batteries more useful to classroom teachers. Some test batteries consist of an integrated series of survey tests and group-administered diagnostic tests covering areas of basic skills. The report intimated that ” in addition to achievement in specific areas. ” It therefore, advised that ” because of the increased number of children with disabilities in the regular classroom, teachers need to become familiar with some of the individual tests that are available for measuring achievement. These tests are administered to one student at a time and the questions are typically answered orally or by pointing, although some writing maybe required. ” (http://WAP. Prenatal. Com/ Standardized Achievement Test: Advantages The most common form of achievement tests are standardized ones.

They gauge students’ knowledge based in comparison with a large portion of the student population. The test can evaluate what knowledge a student has achieved and how far is still left to go. The standardized achievement test are known for their reliability with a few exceptions, such as essay portion. Standardized tests are primarily computer graded. This minimizes the chance of human error and regardless of where the test is being administered, ensuring that all areas of the country maintain the same learning requirements http://. Www.. Owe. Com/info-8537863-advantages-disadvantages-achievement test. HTML).

Standardized Achievement Test: Disadvantages On the downside, however, since standardized achievement tests are not created by the student’s primary teacher, the test may not accurately reflect the objectives the test-taker was learning, and therefore provide an inaccurate presumption of the test-taker’s intelligence. Additionally, the multiple choice format that these tests most often take forces the test-takers to choose an answer, limiting creativity in subjects such as English or reading, where there may fact be another option. Locally developed achievement examinations come with their own advantages and drawbacks.

The locally developed test would be much more accurate in determining if a student learned the specific curriculum of a given class, since some information may have been emphasized more than other information. Also, this form of achievement test lends itself to flexibility in formatting and does not limit itself to multiple choice. On the downside, a locally developed test is often more controversial since it is not universally accepted and there may be no standard for comparison. Also, a unique and locally developed est. requires time and money to develop, making it much more difficult to administer.

A locally developed test may also cause disagreement among faculty who emphasize different areas of learning, which again prevents the test from being completely accepted (http://. Www.. Owe. Com/info-8537863-advantages -disadvantages-achievement test. HTML). Chapter Ill Methodology This chapter presents the research method used, the subjects of the study, the procedures in collecting the data and the statistical tools used in analyzing and interpreting data. Research Method The descriptive correlation method was used in this study. This approach was employed to find out the relationship between the variables of the study.

Correlation, according to Pal, Apneas and Prod ( 2011) “is a measure of relationship between two or more paired variables or two or more sets of data” (p. 129). Subjects of the Study The subjects of this study were all the grade six pupils of Milan Pilot Elementary School (MPEG) who officially enrolled and took the National Achievement Test (NAT). There were 204 pupils in school year 2010-2011, 198 in school year 2011-2012, and pupils in school year 2012-2013. Procedures in Collecting Data nice the data were already available in the Principals Office, the researcher did not use any instrument for gathering the needed data.

To gather the data, the researcher first sought the permission of the Principal of the school(see Appendix A). After receiving the permission, the researcher secured from the files the data on the academic performances and the NAT results of the grade six pupils for school year 20010-2011, 2011-2012, and 2012-2013. Analyzing and Interpreting the Data In analyzing and interpreting data, the statistics used were the Mean and the Person’s Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient or the Person’s r. In this study, the population data were analyzed and interpreted.

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