# P-values and Statistical Decisions

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In the tests of hypotheses, ensure that the p-values are identified in your statistical decision. (g) Please provide a number for every table, graph or figure used and make clear reference to the table/graph/figure in your discussion. (h) The word limit for this group assignment is 5,000 words (excluding SPAS output). (i) This assignment is due in week 8. Please submit your assignment in Word document via VIC Collaborate together with a completed assessment declaration form signed by all team members and your SPAS data set. (j) It is not compulsory to use database beyond Orbits database.

However, students may want to harvest data from other databases and used them in conjunction with those harvested from Orbits in the form of a merged data file, or use an entirely different database. In these situations, students should approach the instructor for approval before using their preferred database(s) for their group assignment. The instructor will discuss with the team to find out whether the variables and data format are suitable for statistical analyses in the group assignment. Table 1 – Variables from Orbits database for Assignment 1 Variables VI .

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Country ISO Code Remarks This variable will automatically appear in the spreadsheet when you select your 3 countries. Each country will have a different label. V. Operating Revenue Definition: Income derived from sources related (Turnover) to a company’s everyday business operations. V. Bad Index. Indict. Known as ‘company independence indicator’. It categorizes the degree of independence of a many. The indicator marks are as follows: A: No recorded shareholder with more than 25% direct or total ownership. B: No recorded shareholder with more than 50% direct or total ownership.

And one or more shareholders are recorded with more than 25% C: One recorded shareholder with more than 50% direct or total. Also given to a company when a source indicates that the company has an ultimate owner. D: One recorded shareholder with a direct ownership of over 50%. U: Unknown status of independence. V. Returns on earning (using Definition: Profit & loss before tax divided by Profit & Loss before tax) in % warehouses’ funds. It measures how much profit a company generates (or loss made) with the money shareholders have invested.

V. Solvency ratio in % Definition: Shareholders’ funds divided by total assets. It measures whether a company can stay solvent. V. Number of companies in a In this assignment, use this variable as a proxy corporate group. For the size of a corporation. You may wish to select a set of Please ensure your selected variables make different variables from other sense in context, otherwise your assignment may end up dealing with spurious relationships databases. Please discuss mongo your variables. Your preferred variables with your instructor.

Database Orbits Other database(s) Assignment tasks: The variables for this assignment are as follows: VI) Country ISO Code. Recode this variable into the following: 1 country 1 2 = Name of country 2 3 = Name of country 3 Note: Attach value labels to this variable. V)Operating Revenue (Turnover) in dollars value. V) Bad Index. Indict. = Name of This variable categorizes the degree of independence of a company. The indicator marks are as follows: A: No recorded shareholder with more than 25% direct or total ownership.

B: No corded shareholder with more than 50% direct or total ownership. And one or more shareholders are recorded with more than 25% direct or total ownership. C: One recorded shareholder with more than 50% direct or total. Also given to a company when a source indicates that the company has an ultimate owner. D: One recorded shareholder with a direct ownership of over 50%. U: Unknown status of independence. Note: This variable must be re-coded into a 4 categorical data (i. E. , C and D have to be re-coded into the same category).

V) Returns on earning (using Profit & Loss before tax) in % V) Solvency ratio in V) Number of companies in a corporate group. The value ‘0’ indicates the company is a standalone company – without branch, subsidiary or affiliated company. 1) Week 2 topic – Descriptive Statistics Present V to V for your selected industry using the following descriptive statistics* and compare them across countries: Topics Week 2: IA) Descriptive Statistics – presenting data in tables & charts Frequency, relative frequency, and cumulative frequency.

Histogram/column chart/pie chart (select 2 measures) Week 3: 1 B) Descriptive Statistics – numerical descriptive measures Central tendency (mean, median) Non-central tendency (80 percentile, 1st quartile) Variability (range, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and intrauterine range) *Note: Some of the data has to be transformed or re-coded before certain descriptive statistics could be used. On the other hand, there are data that cannot be computed for some descriptive statistics. ) Week 3 topic – Estimation AAA) Construct a confidence interval to estimate the population mean at 99% confidence interval for this industry in each country for V, V, V and V. Interpret each confidence interval in context and make a comparison across entries in your analysis. B) Construct a confidence interval to estimate the population proportion of companies with ‘No recorded shareholder with more than 50% direct or total ownership, and one or more shareholders are recorded with more than 25% direct or total ownership’ (refer to V) at 95% confidence interval for this industry in each country.

Recode V into different variable with: Others Interpret this confidence interval in context and make a comparison across 3) Week 4 – Hypothesis Tests Requirements for each hypothesis test: i) Formulate the null and alternative hypotheses. State your statistical decision using significant value (O) of 5% for each test. Iii) State your conclusion in context. AAA) Perform a one-sample test: Variable Hypothesis statement for test: V: ROE – returns Test whether the population’s average ROE for this industry is different from the on earning (using combined average ROE of the 3 countries.

Hint: Enter the total average ROE of the 3 countries into the test value field in profit & loss before tax) spas. B) Perform independent samples test: V: Operating Test whether the population mean of operating revenue (turnover) for this Revenue industry is different for each pair of countries. V: Bad Index. Focusing on only companies with known status of independence, test whether Indict. The population proportion of companies with no recorded shareholder with more than 25% direct or total ownership (A) is the same for each pair of countries.

Hint: Do not include companies with unknown status of independence in this test. Re-code this variable in the filtered sample into: Others = o V: Solvency Test whether the population mean of solvency ratio for this industry is the same ratio for each pair of countries. C) Perform paired samples test: This test requires you to focus on all companies in this industry located in a country (select one of the three countries) in two time periods. Identify a major event to determine whether this event makes a significant impact on V and V.

For example, you wish to determine whether the Global Financial Crisis (SGF) in 2007 has made a significant impact on V and V, you will need data from 2006 and 2008 for all companies in this country for and V. Hint: Please make sure there is no missing data for V and V in 2006 and 2008 for all companies in your sample. Hypothesis statement for test (based on SGF example): Test whether the population mean of operating revenue (turnover) in 2008 is less than 2006 for this industry in your selected country.

V: ROE – returns Test whether the population mean of ROE in 2008 is less than 2006 for this on earning (using industry in your selected country. 4) Week 5 – Non-parametric tests The following tests are non-parametric equivalent of independent samples and paired samples tests done earlier in 3(b) and 3(c). Compare each non-parametric test with its equivalent parametric test, and determine which is an appropriate test. AAA) Conduct Wilcox rank sum test for these variables: Test whether the population distribution of operating revenue (turnover) for this industry is different for each pair of countries.

Compare this test with independent samples test and determine which is an appropriate test (explain why). Hint: Do not include those companies with unknown status of independence in this test. Re-code into: Others = O Test whether the population distribution of solvency ratio for this industry is the same for each pair of countries. B) Conduct Wilcox signed rank test for these variables: Test whether the population distribution of operating revenue (turnover) in 008 is less than 2006 for this industry in the same country you selected in 3(c).