The International Organization for Standardization was founded on 23 February 1947; the organization focuses on promoting worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. In the United States, the concern over food safety began in the late asses but did not come into force until 1906 with the formation of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Over time, preventive approaches were increasingly adapted for food safety, culminating until 1 995 with the U. S. Publication of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACK) requirements and their subsequent evolution into ISO 22000.
To fully understand ISO 22000 and the principles that it is based on, we first take a look at the standard that serves s its building block, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACK). Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACK) serves as the main platform for international legislation and good manufacturing practices in all sectors of the food industry. HACK also forms a key component of many certified compliance standards and is recognized as a main element of international trade in food products.
HACK is a risk management tool recognized internationally for use in the proactive management of food safety issues. A HACK system helps to focus on the hazards that affect food safety through hazard identification and to establish critical control limits at critical points during the production process. “HACK was developed in the late asses by a team of food scientists and engineers from The Pillsbury Company, the Mantic Research Laboratories, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration” (Sugar, 2009).
The team developed a system designed to build quality into the product to ensure food safety for the manned space program. Initially, HACK consisted of three principles: Identification and assessment of hazards associated with food from farm to fork; Determination of the critical control points to control any identified izard; and Establishment of a system to monitor the critical control points. (sugar, 2009) It is interesting to note that in the United States the use of HACK was driven by the marketplace rather than by regulations.
Customers like McDonald’s required all of their suppliers to implement HACK to ensure the safety of the food sold in their restaurants. Hence suppliers like Fomenter had to follow these standards while exporting to overseas markets. By 2000, there were many private and national food safety standards. Although the standards were similar, significant differences among them led to problems in third-party certifications. As a result, Danish Standards petitioned ISO to develop a standard that would define the requirements for any businesses in the food chain.
Because HACK is an evolving system, ISO 22000 describes the state-of-the-art practices of HACK and food safety. ISO 22000 is designed for any organization in the food chain, including producers, suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and food service organizations. One of the differences between HACK and ISO 22000 is the ISO standard’s emphasis of the use of prerequisite programs (Props) (Ames, 2009). Props are generic controls used by any food business operation to maintain hygienic conditions in the processing environment. Props stipulate the preconditions necessary for producing safe food.
Asana milk scandal and botulism scare: These days food safety has become an important concern to consumers all over the world. This is due to a number of food safety crimes exposed by the media in a number of countries. China got more attention from the media because of the significance and the number of food safety scandals. After the Asana milk scandal that happened back in 2008, in order to gain publics trust and confidence the Chinese government has been forced to follow absolute quality controls in which hey look to adopt the international level food safety standards.
Major dairy trading partner with China like Fomenter will face a more stringent regulations and rules under the new standards and of course, harder penalties if engaged in unlawful operations. Hence, in order for Fomenter to operate lawfully in China in the upcoming future, the need to follow the proposed standards is unavoidable. 2. Market access One of the agreements at the international level that involves New Zealand regarding to market access, reduction of trade barriers with the aim to liberalize trade among the member nations is the SEAN, Australia and New Zealand Free
Trade Agreement. The SEAN, Australia and New Zealand Free Trade Agreement: “The SEAN, Australia and New Zealand Free Trade Agreement (ANZA) liberalizes and facilitates trade in goods, services and investment between New Zealand, Australia and the SEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) economies. It contains measures to improve business flows and promote cooperation in a broad range of economic areas of mutual interest” (ANZA, 2013). The agreement entered into force on 1 January 2010. The negotiations for the ANZA originated in the early asses when former Thai Deputy
Prime Minister suggested to develop linkages between the SEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFT) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations (CERT.) Trade Agreement” (Pepsi, 2009). The formal decision to launch the ANZA negotiations was taken by the leaders at the SEAN-Australia-New Zealand Commemorative Summit in November 2004. Leaders agree that the FAT would be a ‘single undertaking’, simultaneously spanning goods, services and investments, as well as other subjects covered in a modern PTA such as intellectual property.
Negotiations began in early 2005 with the initial goal of being concluded within woo years and full implementation within 10 years. The first negotiating round was held in Manila in March 2005. Fifteen more rounds were held before Trade Ministers’ substantive agreement was reached at the SEAN Economic Ministers’ Meeting in Singapore in September 2008. The Agreement was substantially finalized and signed at the SEAN Summit in Huh Hind, Thailand on February 27, 2009. New Zealand has a long history of economic and trade cooperation with SEAN.
With about roughly more than 70% of New Sealant’s trade and investment occurring in the Asia-Pacific region, the potential contribution to broader congenial integration initiatives that flows from entering into a comprehensive FAT with SEAN is expected to be significant. New Zealand and each of the SEAN economies are members of the World Trade Organization (WTFO). Trade reform and liberation’s through negotiations at the WTFO remains New Sealant’s primary trade policy objective.
Entering into a comprehensive PTA with SEAN is expected to help maintain momentum and provide a “building block” towards New Sealant’s wider goal of multilateral trade liberation’s. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade: “the SEAN economies represent a market f more than 566 million people, accounting for more than US $1 ,400 billion in global trade” (The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2009, p. 14). They are an increasingly important destination for New Zealand goods, service suppliers and outward investment.
The elimination of tariffs and other barriers to trade under the SEAN FAT will open up further opportunities for New Zealand exporters throughout the SEAN markets. As a result of the SEAN member countries’ commitments under the FAT, tariffs will be eliminated on all key products of trade interest in major markets within twelve years. Significant commercial benefits will be provided to exporters through the elimination of tariffs on about 99% of New Sealant’s exports to priority markets.